Generation of the organotypic kidney by integrating pluripotent stem cell-derived renal stroma
ABSTRACT: Organs consist of not only parenchyma but also stroma, the latter of which coordinates generation of organotypic structures. Despite recent advances in organoid technology, induction of organ-specific stroma and recapitulating the complex organ configurations from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has remained challenging. For the kidney, the stromal progenitor coordinates differentiation of the two parenchymal progenitors: nephron progenitor and ureteric bud. By identifying the origin and dorsoventral patterning of the renal stromal progenitor, we established its induction protocol from mouse PSCs. When the three types of progenitors were differentially induced from PSCs and assembled, the all PSC-derived organoids reproduced the complex kidney structures, with multiple types of stromal cells distributed around differentiating nephrons and branching ureteric buds. Thus, integration of PSC-derived stroma into the conventional organoids enables recapitulation of organotypic architecture. Overall design: Kidney mRNA profiles of embryonic day 9.5, E11.5, E15.5, E13.5, E17.5, postnatal day 0 mice and mouse ES cells-derived kidney organoids at single cell resolution.
Project description:Generation of kidney organoids from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is regarded as a potentially powerful way to study kidney development, disease, and regeneration. Direct differentiation of PSCs towards renal lineages is well studied; however, most of the studies relate to generation of nephron progenitor population from PSCs. Until now, differentiation of PSCs into ureteric bud (UB) progenitor cells has had limited success. Here, we describe a simple, efficient, and reproducible protocol to direct differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into UB progenitor cells. The mESC-derived UB cells were able to induce nephrogenesis when co-cultured with primary metanephric mesenchyme (pMM). In generated kidney organoids, the embryonic pMM developed nephron structures, and the mESC-derived UB cells formed numerous collecting ducts connected with the nephron tubules. Altogether, our study established an uncomplicated and reproducible platform to generate ureteric bud progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells.
Project description:In the past five years, pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived kidney organoids and adult stem or progenitor cell (ASC)-based kidney tubuloids have emerged as advanced in vitro models of kidney development, physiology, and disease. PSC-derived organoids mimic nephrogenesis. After differentiation towards the kidney precursor tissues ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme, their reciprocal interaction causes self-organization and patterning in vitro to generate nephron structures that resemble the fetal kidney. ASC tubuloids on the other hand recapitulate renewal and repair in the adult kidney tubule and give rise to long-term expandable and genetically stable cultures that consist of adult proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule, and collecting duct epithelium. Both organoid types hold great potential for: (1) studies of kidney physiology, (2) disease modeling, (3) high-throughput screening for drug efficacy and toxicity, and (4) regenerative medicine. Currently, organoids and tubuloids are successfully used to model hereditary, infectious, toxic, metabolic, and malignant kidney diseases and to screen for effective therapies. Furthermore, a tumor tubuloid biobank was established, which allows studies of pathogenic mutations and novel drug targets in a large group of patients. In this review, we discuss the nature of kidney organoids and tubuloids and their current and future applications in science and medicine.
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7349753 | BioStudies
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundance of stroma. Multiple molecular classification efforts have identified a mesenchymal tumor subtype that is consistently characterized by high-grade growth and poor clinical outcome. The relation between PDAC stroma and tumor subtypes is still unclear. Here, we aimed to identify how PDAC cells instruct the main cellular component of stroma, the pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). We found in primary tissue that high-grade PDAC has reduced collagen deposition compared to low-grade PDAC. Xenografts and organotypic co-cultures established from mesenchymal-like PDAC cells features reduced collagen and activated PSC content. Medium transfer experiments using a large set of PDAC cell lines revealed that mesenchymal-like PDAC cells consistently downregulate ACTA2 and COL1A1 expression in PSCs and reduce proliferation. We identified colony stimulating factor 1 as the mesenchymal PDAC-derived ligand that deactivates PSCs, and inhibition of its receptor CSF1R is able to counteract this effect. In conclusion, high-grade PDAC features stroma that is low in collagen and activated PSC content, and targeting CSF1R offers direct options to maintain a tumor-restricting microenvironment.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundance of stroma. Multiple molecular classification efforts have identified a mesenchymal tumor subtype that is consistently characterized by high-grade growth and poor clinical outcome. The relation between PDAC stroma and tumor subtypes is still unclear. Here, we aimed to identify how PDAC cells instruct the main cellular component of stroma, the pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). We found in primary tissue that high-grade PDAC had reduced collagen deposition compared to low-grade PDAC. Xenografts and organotypic co-cultures established from mesenchymal-like PDAC cells featured reduced collagen and activated PSC content. Medium transfer experiments using a large set of PDAC cell lines revealed that mesenchymal-like PDAC cells consistently downregulated ACTA2 and COL1A1 expression in PSCs and reduced proliferation. We identified colony-stimulating factor 1 as the mesenchymal PDAC-derived ligand that deactivates PSCs, and inhibition of its receptor CSF1R was able to counteract this effect. In conclusion, high-grade PDAC features stroma that is low in collagen and activated PSC content, and targeting CSF1R offers direct options to maintain a tumor-restricting microenvironment.
Project description:Present models suggest that the fate of the kidney epithelial progenitors is solely regulated by signals from the adjacent ureteric bud. The bud provides signals that regulate the survival, renewal and differentiation of these cells. Recent data suggest that Wnt9b, a ureteric-bud-derived factor, is sufficient for both progenitor cell renewal and differentiation. How the same molecule induces two seemingly contradictory processes is unknown. Here, we show that signals from the stromal fibroblasts cooperate with Wnt9b to promote differentiation of the progenitors. The atypical cadherin Fat4 encodes at least part of this stromal signal. Our data support a model whereby proper kidney size and function is regulated by balancing opposing signals from the ureteric bud and stroma to promote renewal and differentiation of the nephron progenitors.
Project description:The renal stroma is an embryonic cell population located in the cortex that provides a structural framework as well as a source of endothelial progenitors for the developing kidney. The exact role of the renal stroma in normal kidney development hasn't been clearly defined. However, previous studies have shown that the genetic deletion of Foxd1, a renal stroma specific gene, leads to severe kidney malformations confirming the importance of stroma in normal kidney development. This study further investigates the role of renal stroma by ablating Foxd1-derived stroma cells themselves and observing the response of the remaining cell populations. A Foxd1cre (renal stroma specific) mouse was crossed with a diphtheria toxin mouse (DTA) to specifically induce apoptosis in stromal cells. Histological examination of kidneys at embryonic day 13.5-18.5 showed a lack of stromal tissue, mispatterning of renal structures, and dysplastic and/or fused horseshoe kidneys. Immunofluorescence staining of nephron progenitors, vasculature, ureteric epithelium, differentiated nephron progenitors, and vascular supportive cells revealed that mutants had thickened nephron progenitor caps, cortical regions devoid of nephron progenitors, aberrant vessel patterning and thickening, ureteric branching defects and migration of differentiated nephron structures into the medulla. The similarities between the renal deformities caused by Foxd1 genetic knockout and Foxd1DTA mouse models reveal the importance of Foxd1 in mediating and maintaining the functional integrity of the renal stroma.
Project description:Background: The dense fibrotic stroma enveloping pancreatic tumors is a major cause of drug resistance. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) in the stroma can be activated to induce intra-tumor fibrosis and worsen patient survival; however, the molecular basics for the regulation of PSC activation remains unclear. Methods: The in vitro coculture system was used to study cancer cell-PSC interactions. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the stiffness of tumor tissues and coculture gels. Cytokine arrays, qPCR, and Western blotting were performed to identify the potential factors involved in PSC activation and to elucidate underlying pathways. Results: PSC activation characterized by ?-SMA expression was associated with increased pancreatic tumor stiffness and poor prognosis. Coculture with cancer cells induced PSC activation, which increased organotypic coculture gel stiffness and cancer cell invasion. Cancer cells-derived PAI-1 identified from coculture medium could activate PSCs, consistent with pancreatic cancer tissue microarray analysis showing a strong positive correlation between PAI-1 and ?-SMA expression. Suppression by knocking down PAI-1 in cancer cells demonstrated the requirement of PAI-1 for coculture-induced PSC activation and gel stiffness. PAI-1 could be upregulated by KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells through ERK. In PSCs, inhibition of LRP-1, ERK, and c-JUN neutralized the effect of PAI-1, suggesting the contribution of LRP-1/ERK/c-JUN signaling. Furthermore, activated PSCs might exacerbate malignant behavior of cancer cells via IL-8 because suppression of IL-8 signaling reduced pancreatic tumor growth and fibrosis in vivo. Conclusions: KRAS-mutant pancreatic cancer cells can activate PSCs through PAI-1/LRP-1 signaling to promote fibrosis and cancer progression.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a prominent desmoplastic/stromal reaction, which contributes to the poor clinical outcome of this disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the stroma development and tumor-stroma interactions is highly required. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are myofibroblast-like cells located in exocrine areas of the pancreas, which as a result of inflammation produced by PDAC migrate and accumulate in the tumor mass, secreting extracellular matrix components and producing the dense PDAC stroma. Currently, only a few orthotopic or ectopic animal tumor models, where PDAC cells are injected into the pancreas or subcutaneous tissue layer, or genetically engineered animals offer tumors that encompass some stromal component. Herein, we report generation of a simple 3D PDAC in vitro micro-tumor model without an addition of external extracellular matrix, which encompasses a rich, dense and active stromal compartment. We have achieved this in vitro model by incorporating PSCs into 3D PDAC cell culture using a modified hanging drop method. It is now known that PSCs are the principal source of fibrosis in the stroma and interact closely with cancer cells to create a tumor facilitatory environment that stimulates local and distant tumor growth. The 3D micro-stroma models are highly reproducible with excellent uniformity, which can be used for PDAC-stroma interaction analysis and high throughput automated drug-screening assays. Additionally, the increased expression of collagenous regions means that molecular based perfusion and cytostaticity of gemcitabine is decreased in our Pancreatic adenocarcinoma stroma spheroids (PDAC-SS) model when compared to spheroids grown without PSCs. We believe this model will allow an improved knowledge of PDAC biology and has the potential to provide an insight into pathways that may be therapeutically targeted to inhibit PSC activation, thereby inhibiting the development of fibrosis in PDAC and interrupting PSC-PDAC cell interactions so as to inhibit cancer progression.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterised by a dense desmoplastic stroma composed of stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). This barrier severely impairs drug delivery and penetration. Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in establishing this unique pathological obstacle, but also offer a potential target for anti-tumour therapy. Here, we construct a tumour microenvironment-responsive nanosystem, based on PEGylated polyethylenimine-coated gold nanoparticles, and utilise it to co-deliver all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, an inducer of PSC quiescence) and siRNA targeting heat shock protein 47 (HSP47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone) to re-educate PSCs. The nanosystem simultaneously induces PSC quiescence and inhibits ECM hyperplasia, thereby promoting drug delivery to pancreatic tumours and significantly enhancing the anti-tumour efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Our combination strategy to restore homoeostatic stromal function by targeting activated PSCs represents a promising approach to improving the efficacy of chemotherapy and other therapeutic modalities in a wide range of stroma-rich tumours.