ABSTRACT: To understand physiological mechanisms of cold acclimation in pea, we performed a transcriptomique analysis in order to compare the response to LT treatment in two varieties, one being cold tolerant (Champagne) and the other cold sensitive (Terese). Overall design: For each genotype, course time d2, d5, d10 and d20 gene expression of each treatment (acclimated and non-acclimated) was compared with gene expression of d0 on slides.
Project description:Purpose: Thermotolerance is an acquired state of increased cytoprotection achieved following single or repeated exposures to heat stress, in part characterized by changes in the intracellular 72 kda heat shock protein (HSP72; HSPA1A). Females have demonstrated reduced exercise induced HSP72 in comparison to males. This study examined sex differences in heat shock protein 72 messenger ribonucleic acid (Hsp72 mRNA) transcription during heat acclimation (HA) to identify whether sex differences were a result of differential gene transcription. Methods: Ten participants (5M, 5F) performed 10, 90 min controlled hyperthermia [rectal temperature (Tre) ? 38.5°C] HA sessions over 12 d. Leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA was measured pre and post D1, D5, and D10, via Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR). Results: HA was evidenced by a reduction in resting Tre (-0.4 ± 0.5°C) and resting heart rate [(HR); -13 ± 7 beats.min-1] following HA (p ? 0.05). During HA no difference (p > 0.05) was observed in ?Tre between males (D1 = 1.5 ± 0.2°C; D5 = 1.6 ± 0.4°C; D10 = 1.8 ± 0.3°C) and females (D1 = 1.5 ± 0.5°C; D5 = 1.4 ± 0.2°C; D10 = 1.8 ± 0.3°C). This was also true of mean Tre demonstrating equality of thermal stimuli for mRNA transcription and HA. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in Hsp72 mRNA expression between HA sessions or between males (D1 = +1.8 ± 1.5-fold; D5 = +2.0 ± 1.0 fold; D10 = +1.1 ± 0.4-fold) and females (D1 = +2.6 ± 1.8-fold; D5 = +1.8 ± 1.4-fold; D10 = +0.9 ± 1.9-fold). Conclusions: This experiment demonstrates that there is no difference in Hsp72 mRNA increases during HA between sexes when controlled hyperthermia HA is utilised. Gender specific differences in exercise-induced HSP72 reported elsewhere likely result from post-transcriptional events.
Project description:This project is designed to find differentially expressed genes between regeneration and fibrosis in Acomys (regenerator) and Mus (non-regenerator) Overall design: A 4mm biopsy punch was made in the ears of 15 animals in each species (30 animals total). Tissue was collected at 5 times points, (D0,D5,D10,D15,D20) post injury from 3 mice of each species. 2 species * 5 time points * 3 animals per time point * triplicate runs per sample * paired-end reads = 180 raw data files
Project description:In montane Drosophila species, cold-induced plastic changes in energy metabolites are likely developed to cope with cold and starvation stress. Adult Drosophila immigrans reared at 15°C were acclimated at 0°C or 7°C for durations of up to 6?days (fed or unfed conditions). Such flies were tested for plastic changes in resistance to cold or starvation stress as well as for possible accumulation and utilization of four energy metabolites (body lipids, proline, trehalose and glycogen). Adults acclimated at 7°C revealed a greater increase in cold tolerance than flies acclimated at 0°C. Different durations of cold acclimation at 7°C led to increased level of body lipids only in fed flies which were utilized under starvation stress. However, such plastic responses were not observed in the flies acclimated at 0°C, which remained unfed due to chill-coma. These observations suggest a possible role of feeding to improve starvation resistance only in the flies acclimated at 7°C with food. Cold acclimated D. immigrans flies revealed improved cold resistance through a possible reshuffling of trehalose and glycogen; and starvation-induced proline which was utilized under cold stress durations. Finally, greater reduction in mean daily fecundity due to cold or starvation was observed in 0°C acclimated flies as compared to 7°C acclimated flies. Thus, cold acclimation conditions (0°C or 7°C) greatly impact resistance to cold and starvation in D. immigrans.
Project description:One way animals can counter the effects of climatic extremes is via physiological acclimation, but acclimating to one extreme might decrease performance under different conditions. Here, we use field releases of Drosophila melanogaster on two continents across a range of temperatures to test for costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation. Both types of cold acclimation had enormous benefits at low temperatures in the field; in the coldest releases only cold-acclimated flies were able to find a resource. However, this advantage came at a huge cost; flies that had not been cold-acclimated were up to 36 times more likely to find food than the cold-acclimated flies when temperatures were warm. Such costs and strong benefits were not evident in laboratory tests where we found no reduction in heat survival of the cold-acclimated flies. Field release studies, therefore, reveal costs of cold acclimation that standard laboratory assays do not detect. Thus, although physiological acclimation may dramatically improve fitness over a narrow set of thermal conditions, it may have the opposite effect once conditions extend outside this range, an increasingly likely scenario as temperature variability increases under global climate change.
Project description:Tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and phenylalanine (Phe, F) synthesis is shared by the pea aphid and its symbiont Buchnera aphidicola.These aromatic amino acids are essential for the pea aphid growth and development. To characterize the molecular mechanisms, at gene transcriptional level, underlying this symbiotic integrated network pea aphids (Acyrthosyphon pisum, clone LL01) were reared on (i) standard artificial diet (AP3) and (ii) on the same AP3 medium depleted of Tyr (Y) and Phe (F). From each of the two groups, aphids were collected at specific time points and dissected: 12 h (D0), 1 day (D1), 2 days (D2), 3 days (D3), 4 days (D4), 5 days (D5) and 7 days (D7). Total RNA, to be used in gene expression analysis by arrays, was extracted, under the two rearing conditions, from two tissues: gut [from 20 aphids per sample at all 7 time points] and bacteriocytes [from 25 aphids per sample at 4 time points: 3 days (D3), 4 days (D4), 5 days (D5) and 7 days (D7)]. At each time point we included three biological replicates.
Project description:The invasive fruit fly pest, Drosophila suzukii, is a chill susceptible species, yet it is capable of overwintering in rather cold climates, such as North America and North Europe, probably thanks to a high cold tolerance plasticity. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying cold tolerance acquisition in D. suzukii. In this study, we compared the effect of different forms of cold acclimation (at juvenile or at adult stage) on subsequent cold tolerance. Combining developmental and adult cold acclimation resulted in a particularly high expression of cold tolerance. As found in other species, we expected that cold-acclimated flies would accumulate cryoprotectants and would be able to maintain metabolic homeostasis following cold stress. We used quantitative target GC-MS profiling to explore metabolic changes in four different phenotypes: control, cold acclimated during development or at adult stage or during both phases. We also performed a time-series GC-MS analysis to monitor metabolic homeostasis status during stress and recovery. The different thermal treatments resulted in highly distinct metabolic phenotypes. Flies submitted to both developmental and adult acclimation were characterized by accumulation of cryoprotectants (carbohydrates and amino acids), although concentrations changes remained of low magnitude. After cold shock, non-acclimated chill-susceptible phenotype displayed a symptomatic loss of metabolic homeostasis, correlated with erratic changes in the amino acids pool. On the other hand, the most cold-tolerant phenotype was able to maintain metabolic homeostasis after cold stress. These results indicate that cold tolerance acquisition of D. suzukii depends on physiological strategies similar to other drosophilids: moderate changes in cryoprotective substances and metabolic robustness. In addition, the results add to the body of evidence supporting that mechanisms underlying the different forms of acclimation are distinct.
Project description:Frost is one of the main abiotic stresses limiting plant distribution and crop production. To cope with the stress, plants evolved adaptations known as cold acclimation or chilling tolerance to maximize frost tolerance. Cold acclimation is a progressive acquisition of freezing tolerance by plants subjected to low non-freezing temperatures which subsequently allows them to survive exposure to frost. Lentil is a cool season grain legume that is challenged by winter frost in some areas of its cultivation.To better understand the genetic base of frost tolerance differential gene expression in response to cold acclimation was investigated. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross Precoz x WA8649041 were first classified as cold tolerant or cold susceptible according to their response to temperatures between -3 to -15 °C. Then, RILs from both extremes of the response curve were cold acclimated and the leaf transcriptomes of two bulks each of eight frost tolerant and seven cold susceptible RILs were investigated by Deep Super-SAGE transcriptome profiling. Thus, four RNA bulks were analysed: the acclimated susceptible, the acclimated tolerant and the respective controls (non-acclimated susceptible and non-acclimated tolerant). Approximately 16.5 million 26 nucleotide long Super-SAGE tags were sequenced in the four sets (between ~3 and 5.4 millions). In total, 133,077 different unitags, each representing a particular transcript isoform, were identified in these four sets. Tags which showed a significantly different abundance in any of the bulks (fold change ?4.0 and a significant p-value <0.001) were selected and used to identify the corresponding lentil gene sequence. Three hundred of such lentil sequences were identified. Most of their known homologs coded for glycine-rich, cold and drought-regulated proteins, dormancy-associated proteins, proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and other membrane proteins. These were generally but not exclusively over-expressed in the acclimated tolerant lines.This set of candidate genes implicated in the response to frost in lentil represents an useful base for deeper and more detailed investigations into this important agronomic trait in future.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly regarded as a key role in regulating diverse biological processes in various tissues and species. Although the cold responsive lncRNAs have been reported in plants, no data is available on screening and functional prediction of lncRNAs in cold acclimation in fish so far. Here we compared the expression profile of lncRNAs in cold acclimated zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cells (ZF4) cultured at 18°C for 30 days with that of cells cultured at 28°C as control by high-throughput sequencing. Totally 8,363 novel lncRNAs were identified. Including known and novel lncRNAs, there are 347 lncRNAs up-regulated and 342 lncRNAs down-regulated in cold acclimated cells. Among the differentially expressed lncRNAs, 74 and 61 were detected only in control cells or cold-acclimated cells, respectively. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of adjacent genes to the differentially expressed lncRNAs showed that the enriched genes are involved in electron transport, cell adhesion, oxidation-reduction process, and so on. We also predicted the target genes of the differentially expressed lncRNAs by looking for interactions between lncRNAs and mRNAs, and constructed an interaction network. In summary, our genome-wide systematic identification and functional prediction of cold responsive lncRNAs in zebrafish cells suggests a crucial role of lincRNAs in cold acclimation in fish.
Project description:During low temperature exposure, Arabidopsis thaliana and many other plants from temperate climates increase in freezing tolerance in a process termed cold acclimation. However, the correct timing and rate of deacclimation, resulting in loss of freezing tolerance and initiation of growth is equally important for plant fitness and survival. While the molecular basis of cold acclimation has been investigated in detail, much less information is available about deacclimation. We have characterized the responses of 10 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana that vary widely in their freezing tolerance, to deacclimation conditions. Sugar, proline and transcript levels declined sharply over three days in all accessions after transfer of cold acclimated plants to ambient temperatures, while freezing tolerance only declined in tolerant accessions. Correlations between freezing tolerance and the expression levels of COR genes and the content of glucose, fructose and sucrose, as well as many correlations among transcript and solute levels, that were highly significant in cold acclimated plants, were lost during deacclimation. Other correlations persisted, indicating that after three days of deacclimation, plant metabolism had not completely reverted back to the non-acclimated state. These data provide the basis for further molecular and genetic studies to unravel the regulation of deacclimation.
Project description:Alterations of the lung microbiota (LM) are associated with clinical features in chronic lung diseases (CLDs) with growing evidence that an altered LM contributes to the pathogenesis of such disorders. The common use of antimicrobial drugs in the management of CLDs likely represents a confounding factor in the study of the LM. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of oral administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AC) on the LM in healthy dogs (n = 6) at short (immediately after stopping AC [D10]) and medium-term (16 days after stopping AC [D26]). Metagenetic analyses were performed on the V1-V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA after extraction of total bacterial DNA from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). AC did not induce significant changes in BALF cellular counts or in the bacterial load or microbial richness, evenness and ?-diversity, while the ?-diversity was clearly modified at D10 compared with D0 (before AC administration) and D26 (P < 0.01). The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased at D10 (P < 0.01) in comparison with D0 and D26 (P < 0.01). The relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased from D0 to D10 (P < 0.01) and increased from D10 to D26 (P < 0.01), but was still lower than at D0 (P < 0.01). The proportion of Actinobacteria increased at D26 compared with D0 and D10 (P < 0.01). Significant differences between timepoints at the level of family, genus or species were not found. In conclusion, in healthy dogs, oral administration of AC induces significant changes in LM at the phyla level and in the ?-diversity. Most changes normalize within 2 weeks after discontinuation of AC.