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29

Genome-wide survey reveals dynamic widespread tissue-specific changes in DNA methylation during development


ABSTRACT: To further our understanding of the role of DNA methylation in development, Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was used in conjunction with a NimbleGen promoter plus CpG island array to identify Tissue and Developmental Stage specific Differentially Methylated DNA Regions (T-DMRs and DS-DMRs) on a genome-wide basis. Four tissues (brain, heart, liver, and testis) from C57BL/6J mice were analyzed at three developmental stages (15 day embryo, E15; new born, NB; 12 week adult, AD). Almost 5,000 adult T-DMRs and 10,000 DS-DMRs were identified. Surprisingly, almost all DS-DMRs were tissue specific (i.e., methylated and ummenthylated in one or more non-overlapping tissues), indicating that the vast majority of unique sequence DNA methylation has tissue specificity. Also, many DS-DMRs were methylated at early development stages (E15 and NB) but unmethylated in adult, indicating “demethylation” has a prominent role in tissue differentiation. The pattern of DNA methylation in adult testis was dramatically different from somatic tissues in many aspects, mostly notably with a very strong bias of methylation in non-CpGi (CpG island) promoter regions (94%). Although the majority of T-DMRs and DS-DMRs tended to be in non-CpGi promoter regions, a relatively large number were also located in CpGi in promoter, intra-genic and inter-genic regions (>15% of all CpGi). Gene Ontology analysis of genes with methylation in non-CpGi promoters indicates enrichment of genes related to membrane proteins and G-protein coupled receptors. Our data also suggest regulatory roles of DNA methylation outside of promoter regions and in alternative promoter selection. Overall, our studies indicate that change in DNA methylation during development is a dynamic, widespread and tissue-specific process involving both DNA methylation and demethylation. Overall design: Comparison of DNA methylation across 3 developmental stages (15 day embryo, newborn, and adult) for four tissues (brain, heart, liver and testis)

INSTRUMENT(S): NimbleGen MM8 Mouse Promoter plus CpG Island 374K Tiling Array

ORGANISM(S): Mus musculus  

SUBMITTER: Ping Liang  

PROVIDER: GSE21415 | GEO |

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): PRJNA126359

REPOSITORIES: GEO

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