Characterization and comparative profiling of microRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp
ABSTRACT: We applied high throughput sequencing technology to identify microRNA genes in bighead carp and silver carp. We identified 167 conserved miRNAs in bighead carp and 166 in silver carp. By two computational stragegies, we obtained 39 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and 54 in silver carp, for which, no homologs were found in other species. Several miRNA* sequences were found in our dataset as well, some particular ones might have gene regulation function. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which partially reflected the fate of miRNA gene duplicates. Overall design: Total RNA of juvenile bighead carp and silver carp were sequenced on one Solexa lane, respectively.
Project description:We applied high throughput sequencing technology to identify microRNA genes in bighead carp and silver carp. We identified 167 conserved miRNAs in bighead carp and 166 in silver carp. By two computational stragegies, we obtained 39 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and 54 in silver carp, for which, no homologs were found in other species. Several miRNA* sequences were found in our dataset as well, some particular ones might have gene regulation function. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which partially reflected the fate of miRNA gene duplicates. Total RNA of juvenile bighead carp and silver carp were sequenced on one Solexa lane, respectively.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.
Project description:Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are closely related species in the subfamily Xenocypridinae within Cyprinidae, and they are also two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species in China. The ability to resist some diseases often differs significantly in silver carp and bighead carp during fishery production. However, the evolutionary divergence of the immune defense functions in these two species is still not understood at the molecular level. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Comparative analysis of spleen transcriptome detects differences in evolutionary adaptation of immune defense functions in bighead carp and silver carp" (Li et al., 2018). Please refer to this data article for interpretation of the data. Data provided in this submission comprise the Ka/Ks ratios of orthologs as well as adaptive evolution genes, expression levels of orthologs, and TPM value of genes expressed only in spleen of bighead carp or silver carp. These data provide a better understanding of the differences in evolutionary adaptation of immune defense functions in bighead carp and silver carp.
Project description:High-throughput sequencing was applied to analyze the effects of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa on the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Silver carps were exposed to two cyanobacteria species (toxic and non-toxic) for RNA-seq and miRNA-seq analysis. RNA-seq revealed that the liver tissue contained 105,379 unigenes. Of these genes, 143 were significantly differentiated, 82 were markedly up-regulated, and 61 were remarkably down-regulated. GO term enrichment analysis indicated that 35 of the 154 enriched GO terms were significantly enriched. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that 17 of the 118 enriched KEGG pathways were significantly enriched. A considerable number of disease/immune-associated GO terms and significantly enriched KEGG pathways were also observed. The sequence length determined by miRNA-seq was mainly distributed in 20-23?bp and composed of 882,620 unique small RNAs, and 53% of these RNAs were annotated to miRNAs. As confirmed, 272 known miRNAs were differentially expressed, 453 novel miRNAs were predicted, 112 miRNAs were well matched with 7,623 target genes, and 203 novel miRNAs were matched with 15,453 target genes. qPCR also indicated that Steap4, Cyp7a1, CABZ01088134.1, and PPP1R3G were significantly differentially expressed and might play major roles in the toxic, detoxifying, and antitoxic mechanisms of microcystin in fish.
Project description:Bighead, silver, and grass carps are invasive in the waterways of central North America, and grass carp reproduction in tributaries of the Great Lakes has now been documented. Questions about recruitment potential motivate a need for accurate models of egg and larval dispersal. Quantitative data on swimming behaviors and capabilities during early ontogeny are needed to improve these dispersal models. We measured ontogenetic changes in routine and maximum swimming speeds of bighead, grass, and silver carp larvae. Daily measurements of routine swimming speed were taken for two weeks post-hatch using a still camera and the LARVEL program, a custom image-analysis software. Larval swimming speed was calculated using larval locations in subsequent image frames and time between images. Using an endurance chamber, we determined the maximum swimming speed of larvae (post-gas bladder inflation) for four to eight weeks post-hatch. For all species, larval swimming speeds showed similar trends with respect to ontogeny: increases in maximum speed, and decreases in routine speed. Maximum speeds of bighead and grass carp larvae were similar and generally faster than silver carp larvae. Routine swimming speeds of all larvae were highest before gas bladder inflation, most likely because gas bladder inflation allowed the fish to maintain position without swimming. Downward vertical velocities of pre-gas bladder inflation fish were faster than upward velocities. Among the three species, grass carp larvae had the highest swimming speeds in the pre-gas bladder inflation period, and the lowest speeds in the post-gas bladder inflation period. Knowledge of swimming capability of these species, along with hydraulic characteristics of a river, enables further refinement of models of embryonic and larval drift.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. RESULTS: Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification.
Project description:Silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp (collectively bigheaded carp) are invasive fish that threaten aquatic ecosystems in the upper Midwest United States and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Controlling bigheaded carp is a priority of fisheries managers and one area of focus involves developing acoustic deterrents to prevent upstream migration. For an acoustic deterrent to be effective however, the hearing ability of bigheaded carp must be characterized. A previous study showed that bigheaded carp detected sound up to 3 kHz but this range is narrower than what has been reported for other ostariophysans. Therefore, silver and bighead carp frequency detection was evaluated in response to 100 Hz to 9 kHz using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). AEPs were recorded from 100 Hz to 5 kHz. The lowest thresholds were at 500 Hz for both species (silver carp threshold: 80.6 ± 3.29 dB re 1 ?Pa SPLrms, bighead carp threshold: 90.5 ± 5.75 dB re 1 ?Pa SPLrms; mean ± SD). These results provide fisheries managers with better insight on effective acoustic stimuli for deterrent systems, however, to fully determine bigheaded carp hearing abilities, these results need to be compared with behavioral assessments.
Project description:The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85,759 sequences were obtained. There were 23,044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38,200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes.
Project description:The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05).
Project description:Sex-specific markers are powerful tools for identifying sex-determination system in various animals. Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichehys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are two of the most important edible fish in Asia, which have a long juvenility period that can lasts for 4-5?years. In this study, we found one sex-specific marker by next-generation sequencing together with bioinformatics analysis in bighead carp. The male-specific markers were used to perform molecular sexing in the progenies of artificial gynogenetic diploids and found all progenies (n?=?160) were females. Meanwhile, around 1 : 1 sex ratio was observed in a total of 579 juvenile offspring from three other families. To further extend the male-specific region, we performed genome walking and got a male-specific sequence of 8,661?bp. Five pairs of primers were designed and could be used to efficiently distinguish males from females in bighead carp and silver carp. The development of these male-specific markers and results of their molecular sexing in different populations provide strong evidence for a sex determination system of female homogametry or male heterogametry (XX/XY) in bighead carp and silver carp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of effective sex-specific markers in these two large carp species.