Differential expression of miRNA in control and CD3/CD28mAb-treated Jurkat cells
ABSTRACT: The cultured cell line Jurkat is frequently employed in studies of T cell function. Here we identified the microRNAs expressed in Jurkat cells in the presence and absence of CD3/CD28mAb treatment. Overall design: Analyzed the expression of microRNAs extracted from untreated Jurkat cells as a control and Jurkat cells treated with CD3/CD28mAb.
INSTRUMENT(S): Exiqon Human MicroRNA Array [208000V8.1]
Project description:The cultured cell line Jurkat is frequently employed in studies of T cell function. Here we identified the microRNAs expressed in Jurkat cells in the presence and absence of CD3/CD28mAb treatment. Analyzed the expression of microRNAs extracted from untreated Jurkat cells as a control and Jurkat cells treated with CD3/CD28mAb.
Project description:The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored molecule CD59 has been implicated in the modulation of T cell responses, but the underlying molecular mechanism of CD59 influencing T cell signaling remained unclear. Here we analyzed Jurkat T cells stimulated via anti-CD3?- or anti-CD59-coated surfaces, using time-resolved single-cell Ca(2+) imaging as a read-out for stimulation. This analysis revealed a heterogeneous Ca(2+) response of the cell population in a stimulus-dependent manner. Further analysis of T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 deficient or overexpressing cells showed that CD59-mediated signaling is strongly dependent on TCR/CD3 surface expression. In protein co-patterning and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments no direct physical interaction was observed between CD59 and CD3 at the plasma membrane upon anti-CD59 stimulation. However, siRNA-mediated protein knock-downs of downstream signaling molecules revealed that the Src family kinase Lck and the adaptor molecule linker of activated T cells (LAT) are essential for both signaling pathways. Furthermore, flow cytometry measurements showed that knock-down of Lck accelerates CD3 re-expression at the cell surface after anti-CD59 stimulation similar to what has been observed upon direct TCR/CD3 stimulation. Finally, physically linking Lck to CD3? completely abolished CD59-triggered Ca(2+) signaling, while signaling was still functional upon direct TCR/CD3 stimulation. Altogether, we demonstrate that Lck mediates signal transmission from CD59 to the TCR/CD3 pathway in Jurkat T cells, and propose that CD59 may act via Lck to modulate T cell responses.
Project description:Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, has been found to inhibit the early elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), related to the CD3 activation pathway in Jurkat T cells. This inhibition was dose-dependent, consistent with previously reported effects of PAO on tyrosine phosphatases, and reversed by dimercaptopropanol. By contrast, okadaic acid, an inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatases, had no effect on CD3-induced Ca2+ flux. PAO was compared with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which caused a similar, although less potent, inhibition as previously described. The two reagents produced additive inhibition of the CD3-induced [Ca2+]i rise, but did not affect thapsigargin- or ionomycin-driven Ca2+ flux in Jurkat cells. PAO and PMA prevented cells from complete depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and restored, at least partially, the ionomycin-sensitive pool, when added after anti-CD3 mAb. Moreover, the CD3-induced inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis, due to depletion of internal Ca2+ stores, is reversed by PAO and PMA. Anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblot analysis show that these effects cannot be accounted for by an inhibition of CD3-induced tyrosine phosphorylations. We propose that PAO and, to a lesser extent, PMA allow the refilling of internal compartments by Ca2+, which consequently abrogates a capacitative entry of external Ca2+.
Project description:The calcium release-activated channel (CRAC) opened in Jurkat cells activated either with CD3 monoclonal antibody or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase blocker, thapsigargin, is blocked by La3+ with an IC50 of 20 nM. Similarly, the entry of Mn2+, used as a surrogate for Ca2+, is also blocked by submicromolar La3+ concentrations. La3+ seems to play its role simply by plugging the CRAC because this ion does not penetrate the cells, as demonstrated by chelation experiments with EGTA. Blocking the Ca2+ influx in activated Jurkat cells results in a lack of expression of CD25, a chain of the interleukin-2 receptor and of CD69, a marker of T-cell activation. By contrast, the very early steps of the T-cell signalling pathway such as the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and the subsequent inhibition of phosphatidylserine synthesis are not affected by La3+.
Project description:Ligation of CD3/TCR on T-cells induces transient activation of lymphoid MAP-2 kinase (MAP-2K), a 43 kDa serine kinase which itself is a substrate of an unidentified tyrosine kinase (pp43). The reversibility of the MAP-2K response agrees with removal of tyrosine phosphates from pp43. Since both activity as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP-2K could be prolonged by Na3VO4, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, we studied the effect of the common CD45 isoform, which is a member of the CD45 phosphatase family, on MAP-2K activity in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate the ability of purified CD45 phosphatase to remove tyrosine phosphates from partially purified lymphoid MAP-2K. Utilizing the approach of heterologous receptor aggregation, we also showed that CD45 could inhibit the induction of MAP-2K activity in intact Jurkat cells during CD3 or CD3 + CD4 stimulation. We therefore suggest that this phosphatase may control the activity of lymphoid MAP-2K in vivo.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of about 19-25 nt that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally under various cellular conditions, including apoptosis. The miRNAs involved in modulation of apoptotic events in T cells are partially known. However, heterogeneity associated with cell lines makes it difficult to interpret gene expression signatures, especially in cancer-related cell lines. Treatment of the Jurkat T-cell leukemia cell line with the universal apoptotic drug, camptothecin, resulted in identification of two Jurkat subpopulations: one that is sensitive to camptothecin and another that is rather intrinsically resistant. We sorted apoptotic Jurkat cells from nonapoptotic ones prior to profiling miRNAs through deep sequencing. Our data showed that a total of 184 miRNAs were dysregulated. Interestingly, the apoptotic and nonapoptotic subpopulations exhibited distinct miRNA expression profiles. In particular, 6 miRNAs were inversely expressed in these two subpopulations. The pyrosequencing results were validated by real-time qPCR. Altogether, these results suggest that miRNAs modulate apoptotic events in T cells and that cellular heterogeneity requires careful interpretation of miRNA expression profiles obtained from drug-treated cell lines.
Project description:T lymphocytes are orchestrators of adaptive immunity. Naïve T cells may differentiate into the Th1, Th2, Th17 or iTreg phenotype, depending on environmental co-stimulatory signals. In order to identify the genes and pathways involved in differentiation of Jurkat T cells towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes we performed comprehensive transcriptome analyses of Jurkat T cells stimulated with various stimuli an pathway inhibitors Jurkat T cells were treated with CD3/CD28 and CD3/PMA and CD28/PMA. RNA was isolated after 1 and 8 hrs stumalation.
Project description:The tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 has been implicated as a critical intermediary between T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation and Erk activation on the basis of the ability of dominant negative ZAP-70 to inhibit TCR-stimulated Erk activation, and the reported inability of anti-CD3 antibodies to activate Erk in ZAP-70-negative Jurkat cells. However, Erk is activated in T cells receiving a partial agonist signal, despite failing to activate ZAP-70. This discrepancy led us to reanalyze the ZAP-70-negative Jurkat T-cell line P116 for its ability to support Erk activation in response to TCR/CD3 stimulation. Erk was activated by CD3 cross-linking in P116 cells. However, this response required a higher concentration of anti-CD3 antibody and was delayed and transient compared to that in Jurkat T cells. Activation of Raf-1 and MEK-1 was coincident with Erk activation. Remarkably, the time course of Ras activation was comparable in the two cell lines, despite proceeding in the absence of LAT tyrosine phosphorylation in the P116 cells. CD3 stimulation of P116 cells also induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLCgamma1) and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors blocked CD3-stimulated Erk activation in P116 cells, while parental Jurkat cells were refractory to PKC inhibition. The physiologic relevance of these signaling events is further supported by the finding of PLCgamma1 tyrosine phosphorylation, Erk activation, and CD69 upregulation in P116 cells on stimulation with superantigen and antigen-presenting cells. These results demonstrate the existence of two pathways leading to TCR-stimulated Erk activation in Jurkat T cells: a ZAP-70-independent pathway requiring PKC and a ZAP-70-dependent pathway that is PKC independent.
Project description:Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLS) comprise a diverse group of difficult to treat, very aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLS) with poor prognoses and dismal patient outlook. Despite the fact that PTCLs comprise the majority of T-cell malignancies, the standard of care is poorly established. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy has shown in B-cell malignancies to be an effective curative option and this extends promise into treating T-cell malignancies. Because PTCLS frequently develop from mature T-cells, CD3 is similarly strongly and uniformly expressed in many PTCL malignancies, with expression specific to the hematological compartment thus making it an attractive target for CAR design. We engineered a robust 3rd generation anti-CD3 CAR construct (CD3CAR) into an NK cell line (NK-92). We found that CD3CAR NK-92 cells specifically and potently lysed diverse CD3+ human PTCL primary samples as well as T-cell leukemia cells lines ex vivo. Furthermore, CD3CAR NK-92 cells effectively controlled and suppressed Jurkat tumor cell growth in vivo and significantly prolonged survival. In this study, we present the CAR directed targeting of a novel target - CD3 using CAR modified NK-92 cells with an emphasis on efficacy, specificity, and potential for new therapeutic approaches that could improve the current standard of care for PTCLs.
Project description:Treatment of T lymphocytes with mitogenic antibodies against the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex induces within seconds a rise in the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+. We recently reported that free myristic acid, but not its methyl ester, inhibits both the anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ influx across the cell membrane and the Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in Jurkat T cells. Here we show that myristic acid induced a rapid hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential and a decrease in intracellular pH in Jurkat cells. Lauric acid and palmitic acid caused minor hyperpolarization, whereas other saturated non-esterified fatty acids tested were without effect. Hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in Jurkat cells with valinomycin did not, however, inhibit the anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ signal, and the blocking effect on the Ca2+ signal in myristic acid-treated Jurkat cells was not reversed after normalization of the cell membrane potential by treatment with gramicidin. The inhibitory effect of myristic acid on the Ca2+ fluxes thus cannot be explained by changes in membrane potential. We also present evidence that the blocking effect of myristic acid on the receptor-operated Ca2+ flux is not due to the myristic acid-induced decrease in intracellular pH. Moreover, we demonstrate that myristic acid does not prevent the release of Ca2+ triggered by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate from intracellular pools in permeabilized cells. Our findings indicate that myristic acid blocks anti-CD3-induced Ca2+ traffic in Jurkat cells by interfering with the regulation of Ca2+ mobilization, apparently by blocking an early step in signal transduction from the T-cell-antigen receptor/CD3 complex.