Expression data from 5 day old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings
ABSTRACT: Upon induction of DNA damage Arabidopsis thaliana plants initiate a transcriptional response program governed by signalling cascades which are activated by the ATM and ATR kinases Overall design: To analyse if the ATM dependent gene GMI1 (At5G24280) is involved in the regulation of the transcriptionl response, we compared the gene expression profiles of wildtype and gmi1 deficient plants upon gamma-irradiation
Project description:Upon induction of DNA damage Arabidopsis thaliana plants initiate a transcriptional response program governed by signalling cascades which are activated by the ATM and ATR kinases To analyse if the ATM dependent gene GMI1 (At5G24280) is involved in the regulation of the transcriptionl response, we compared the gene expression profiles of wildtype and gmi1 deficient plants upon gamma-irradiation
Project description:Whole seedlings of wild type (4d) and atm mutants (4d) have been analyzed after a gamma ray irradiation of 0.75h, 1.5h, 3h & 5h (time course). Roots of wt (4d), atm (3d) and atr (4d) mutants have been analyzed after a 1h irradiation.<br><br> Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), encodes a large protein with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-like domain at the C terminus (reviewed by Rotman and Shiloh, 1998). PI3K-related proteins make up a large family of Ser-Thr protein kinases, numerous members of which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, responses to DNA damage, and the maintenance of genomic stability (Hoekstra, 1997). AtATM plays an essential role in meiosis and in the somatic response to DNA damage in plants, similar to the function of ATM in mammals and other eukaryotes.<br>Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) plays a central role in cell-cycle regulation, transmitting DNA damage signals to downstream effectors of cell-cycle progression.
Project description:Jaiswal2017 - Cell cycle arrest
This model is described in the article:
ATM/Wip1 activities at
chromatin control Plk1 re-activation to determine G2 checkpoint
Jaiswal H, Benada J, Müllers E,
Akopyan K, Burdova K, Koolmeister T, Helleday T, Medema RH,
Macurek L, Lindqvist A.
EMBO J. 2017 Jul; 36(14):
After DNA damage, the cell cycle is arrested to avoid
propagation of mutations. Arrest in G2 phase is initiated by
ATM-/ATR-dependent signaling that inhibits mitosis-promoting
kinases such as Plk1. At the same time, Plk1 can counteract
ATR-dependent signaling and is required for eventual resumption
of the cell cycle. However, what determines when Plk1 activity
can resume remains unclear. Here, we use FRET-based reporters
to show that a global spread of ATM activity on chromatin and
phosphorylation of ATM targets including KAP1 control Plk1
re-activation. These phosphorylations are rapidly counteracted
by the chromatin-bound phosphatase Wip1, allowing cell cycle
restart despite persistent ATM activity present at DNA lesions.
Combining experimental data and mathematical modeling, we
propose a model for how the minimal duration of cell cycle
arrest is controlled. Our model shows how cell cycle restart
can occur before completion of DNA repair and suggests a
mechanism for checkpoint adaptation in human cells.
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Project description:The cell division cycle is tightly controlled in normal cells. Cancer cells are characterized by deregulation in cell division cycle, which is associated with increased DNA replication and elevated cellular proliferation. Recently, genetic studies indicate that cyclin dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 are not essential for the mammalian cell cycle, instead, they are only required for the proliferation of specific cell types.Thus, targeting the activities of CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 may be a promising approach for cancer treatment. Rocaglamides (Roc) (= Flavaglines), derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Aglaia, are a group of naturally occurring herbal chemicals characterized by a cyclopenta[b]benzofurans skeleton. A number of Roc derivatives have been found to have potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth with IC50 concentrations at the nM rages. Roc-mediated inhibition of proliferation was first found to be associated with inhibition of protein synthesis in 1998. In this study, using the representative Roc-A compound we revealed a novel mechanistic function of Roc. We show that Roc-A induces rapid activation of ATM (ataxiatelangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related) kinases. Activated ATM and ATR in turn activate the downstream checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2. The latter then phosphorylate Cdc25A that leads to a phosphorylation-mediated degradation of Cdc25A. Usually, ATR and ATM are activated in response to DNA damage. However, in this study we show that Roc-A does not directly induce DNA breaks. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Roc-A activates ATM and ATR we performed a time-resolved microarray analysis to compare Roc-A-inducible genes in malignant vs. normal T lymphocytes. Based on the dynamic gene responses we found that Roc-A stimulates in Jurkat, but not in normal T lymphocytes, a set of genes responsive to DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair. This finding provides a hint of the molecular bases for Roc-induced activation of ATM and ATR. This finding also revealed a new scope for cancer treatment using Roc-A. The isolation time points for Roc A treated D6 T-cells were recorded at t=[1,2,3,4,6,8,10,14,20,28,36] hours after stimulation. Post-stimulation time points for Jurkat cells are t=[0.5,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,12,14,16,20,24,28,32,36]. Unstimulated control time points were taken at t=[0,4,10,16,24,36] hours for Jurkat cells at t=[0,6,14,24,36] hours.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by HR, suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. Strand-specific transcriptome analysis of biological replicates of WT cells (JKM139 strain) at T0, or 60 and 240 minutes after HO induction, and of xrn1∆, rrp6∆ and trf4∆ cells at T0.
Project description:Pilotexp_IMAC_TiO2_eluate_ATM_ATR_dep_phos_15min_postIR: Proteins were isolated from 4 different conditions of Arabidopsis thaliana plants: wild type untreated, wild type irradiated, atm/atr mutant untreated, atm/atr mutant irradiated The proteins were tryptically digested and labelled each with one channel ofthe iTRAQ4plex reagent. The samples were mixed and subjected to phosphopeptide enrichment by IMAC followed by TiO2. The enriched phosphopeptides were separated by SCX and each fraction was analysed by nano-reversed phase HPLC coupled online to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Each peptide was fragmented both by CID (MSA) and HCD, using the iontrap-MS analyser for CID and the Orbitrap detector for HCD scans. IMAC_TiO2_eluate_ATM_ATR_dep_phos_15min_postIR: Proteins were isolated from 4 different conditions of Arabidopsis thaliana plants: wild type untreated, wild type irradiated, atm/atr mutant untreated, atm/atr mutant irradiated The proteins were tryptically digested and labelled each with one channel ofthe iTRAQ4plex reagent. The samples were mixed and subjected to phosphopeptide enrichment by IMAC followed by TiO2. The enriched phosphopeptides were separated by SCX and each fraction was analysed by nano-reversed phase HPLC coupled online to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Each peptide was fragmented both by CID (MSA) and HCD, using the iontrap-MS analyser for CID and the Orbitrap detector for HCD scans. IMAC_TiO2_FT_ATM_ATR_dep_phos_15min_postIR: Proteins were isolated from 4 different conditions of Arabidopsis thaliana plants: wild type untreated, wild type irradiated, atm/atr mutant untreated, atm/atr mutant irradiated The proteins were tryptically digested and labelled each with one channel ofthe iTRAQ4plex reagent. The samples were mixed and subjected to phosphopeptide enrichment by IMAC followed by TiO2. The unphosphorylated peptides found in the flowthrough of the TiO2 column were separated by SCX and each fraction was analysed by nano-reversed phase HPLC coupled online to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos. Each peptide was fragmented both by CID and HCD, using the iontrap-MS analyser for CID and the Orbitrap detector for HCD scans. The iTRAQ ratio obtained for the unmodified peptides from this flowthrough sample was used to calculate protein ratios for the 4 different conditions.
Project description:Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the suppression of transcripts that promote cell cycle progression. Various DNA damaging agents induce different spectra of DNA damage as well as “collateral” damage to other cellular components and therefore are not expected to provoke identical responses by the cell. Here we study the effects of two different types of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, HZE (1 GeV Fe26+ high mass, high charge, and high energy relativistic particles) and gamma photons, on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Both types of IR induce small clusters of radicals that can result in the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs), but HZE also produces linear arrays of extremely clustered damage. We performed these experiments across a range of time points (1.5-24 h after irradiation) in both wild-type plants and in mutants defective in the DSB-sensing protein kinase ATM. The two types of IR exhibit a shared double strand break-repair-related damage response, although they differ slightly in the timing, degree, and ATM-dependence of the response. The ATM-dependent, DNA metabolism-related transcripts of the “DSB response” were also induced by other DNA damaging agents, but were not induced by conventional stresses. Both Gamma and HZE irradiation induced, at 24 h post-irradiation, ATM-dependent transcripts associated with a variety of conventional stresses; these were overrepresented for pathogen response, rather than DNA metabolism. In contrast, only HZE-irradiated plants, at 1.5 h after irradiation, exhibited an additional and very extensive transcriptional response, shared with plants experiencing “extended night.” This response was not apparent in gamma-irradiated plants. We treated 5-day-old WT and atm-1 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with 100 Gy of Gamma radiation (over a span of 15 minutes) or 30 Gy of HZE (over a span of approximately 12 minutes). Gamma irradiations were completed at 8:40 am, while HZE irradiations were conducted in two runs (due to space limitations) which were completed at 1:09 and 1:28pm respectively. Gamma treated seedlings were sampled at 10:10 am, 11:40 am, 2:55 pm, 8:40 pm, and 8:40 am. HZE treated seedlings were sampled at 2:39 pm, 4:09 pm, 7:24 pm, 1:09 am, and 1:09 pm. Un-irradiated WT and atm-1 control seedlings were sampled at 10:45 am on Day #1 and 9:15 am on Day #2. There are a total of 22 experimental or control conditions, with two replicates per condition, yielding 44 samples overall.
Project description:Chromatin, in addition to its purely structural functions, is considered a major regulatory system coordinating various genetic networks in eukaryotes. External and developmental signals can be transmitted through signaling cascades to chromatin remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF, which alter chromatin structure by moving, ejecting or restructuring nucleosomes. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are critical for proper plant development and growth. Especially, BRM, a catalytic subunit of the complex, was shown to directly regulate several genes with important functions in leaf development, flowering initiation, as well as gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling. In addition, SWI/SNF complexes were also shown to be involved in regulation of enhancer activity in animal cells and RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing in plants. In this study we performed transcript profiling of WT and brm-1 mutant using Agronomics microarrays for detecting changes in expression of both sense and antisense transcripts. Overall design: 3-week old Arabidopsis seedlings of WT and brm-1 null mutant were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix Agronomics microarrays.
Project description:Immune responses in plants are triggered in part by conserved microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules such as bacterial flagellin. Upon MAMP perception, plants rapidly turn on the induction of numerous defense-related genes. We have identified a novel type of plant innate immunity elicitor, protease IV from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles obtained with Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 GeneChips® of 10-day old Arabidopsis seedlings treated with 20 nM purified protease IV for 1 hour were compared to published bacterial flagellin- and oligogalacturonide-triggered responses. We used microarrays to characterize the global transcriptomic changes in Arabidopsis seedlings upon protease IV treatment. Overall design: Ten-day old Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with mock control or 20 nM purified protease IV from Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 1 hour for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions that require rapid detection and repair in order to avoid toxic genomic rearrangements. DSBs elicit the so called DNA Damage Response (DDR), largely relying on ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and DNA Protein Kinase (DNAPK), two members of the PI3K-like kinase family, whose respective functions during the sequential steps of the DDR remains controversial. Using the DIvA cell line, expressing the AsiSI restriction enzyme, we have investigated the role of ATM and DNAPK in several aspects of the DDR upon induction of multiple clean DSBs throughout the human genome. High resolution mapping revealed that they are activated and spread in cis on a confined region surrounding all DSBs, independently of the pathway used for repair. However, a thorough analysis of repair kinetics, H2AX domain establishment and H2AX foci structure and dynamics revealed non overlapping functions for the two kinases once recruited at DSBs. Our results suggest that ATM is not solely acting on chromatin marks but also on chromatin organisation in order to ensure repair accuracy and survival.