Human airway epithelial responses to rhinovirus infection and cigarette smoke extract alone and in combination
ABSTRACT: This study was performed to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoke extract would alter the responses of primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to infection with purified human rhinovirus 16. The data show marked alterations in rhinovirus-induced expression profiles of a number of genes in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Overall design: Cultured epithelial cells from each of 4 donors were exposed to medium alone, rhinovirus 16 (RV16) alone, CSE alone, or RV16 in the presence of CSE. After a 24 h incubation gene expression was assessed.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array
Project description:This study was performed to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoke extract would alter the responses of primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to infection with purified human rhinovirus 16. The data show marked alterations in rhinovirus-induced expression profiles of a number of genes in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Cultured epithelial cells from each of 4 donors were exposed to medium alone, rhinovirus 16 (RV16) alone, CSE alone, or RV16 in the presence of CSE. After a 24 h incubation gene expression was assessed.
Project description:Human alveolar epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3 and 5 weeks at 1%, 5% and 10%, and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile. Human alveolar epithelial cells stimulated with three different concentractions of CSE (1%, 5% and 10%) and for 1, 3 and 5 weeks were used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:To investigate the biochemical and genetic alterations that occur in response to cigarette smoke exposure among airway epithelial cells from different sites in the lungs, we performed microarray-based analysis using small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) following 24 h of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). In microarray-based analysis, the small airway showed higher susceptibility to CS compared to the large airway, such as enhanced expression of inflammatory-related pathways including the TNF signaling pathway. Among the TNF-related genes, PTGS2, also known as COX-2, showed the greatest difference in expression levels, with higher CSE-induced increments of both mRNA and protein expression in SAEC compared to NHBE. Overall design: SAEC and NHBE were subjected to 2.5% CSE for 24h. Microarray-based analysis was used to identify gene and protein expression profiles that are altered by CSE exposure in both cell types.
Project description:Objective: Cigarette smoking ameliorates ulcerative colitis (UC) and aggravates Crohn’s disease (CD). Cigarette smoke suppresses inflammation-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells (DLD-1), which may explain its protective effect in UC. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed DLD-1 and Jurkat cells (T-lymphocytes) and related this to UC susceptibility genes with protective functions in the intestinal epithelium. Design: CSE-regulated genes in DLD-1 and Jurkat cells were identified by Illumina microarrays and compared to genes in UC susceptibility loci. Colon biopsies were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for cell-specific expression of HSPA6. CSE-induced gene expression was analyzed by Q-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Protein (HSPA6/Bcl-XL) interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Results: CSE changed the expression of 536 and 2,560 genes in DLD-1 and Jurkat cells, respectively. The “response to unfolded protein” was one of the most significantly affected gene sets with prominent induction (20.3-fold) of heat shock protein A6 (HSPA6). Six CSE-induced genes in DLD-1 cells were located in UC-susceptibility loci, including HSPA6 (rs1801274). HSPA6 is highly expressed in the human colonic epithelium. CSE caused a dose-dependent strong (>100-fold at 30% CSE for 6 hours), but transient induction of HSPA6 mRNA and protein in DLD-1 cells. HSPA6 co-immune precipitated with anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL, protein levels of which were increased while mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion: HSPA6 is a cigarette smoke-induced UC-susceptibility gene. The HSPA6 risk locus is associated with decreased HSPA6 expression. HSPA6 provides epithelial protection by stabilizing anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL, thereby contributing to the beneficial effect of cigarette smoking in UC. Overall design: 12 controls and 6 smoke in each cell line
Project description:Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that both active and involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke increases the risk of breast cancer. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke contributes to breast carcinogenesis. To investigate these mechanisms we have analyzed gene expression and methylation in MCF 10A mammary epithelial cells chronically exposed to aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE). CSE was prepared weekly and added to the cell cultures at a concentration equivalent to 0.001 cigarettes/ml for 21 weeks. Mock-treated samples were prepared in parallel.
Project description:Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that both active and involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke increases the risk of breast cancer. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke contributes to breast carcinogenesis. To investigate these mechanisms we have analyzed gene expression and methylation in MCF 10A mammary epithelial cells chronically exposed to aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE). CSE was prepared weekly and added to the cell cultures at a concentration equivalent to 0.001 cigarettes/ml. Two clones were isolated after 13 weeks of treatment and expanded in the same concentration of CSE for 8 additional weeks. Mock-treated samples were prepared in parallel.
Project description:To identify exosomal miRNAs that regulate smoking-induced lung myofibroblast differentiation, we conducted a miRNA microarray between smoking-induced HBEC-derived EVs and non-treated HBEC-derived EVs. Overall design: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was prepared for smoking exposure model in vitro. Forty milliliters of cigarette smoke was drawn into the syringe and slowly bubbled into sterile serum-free cell culture media in a 15-ml BD falcon tube. One cigarette was used for the preparation of 10 mL of solution. CSE solution was filtered (0.22 μm) to remove insoluble particles and was designated as a 100% CSE solution. We analyzed the role of CSE induced HBEC-derived EVs in the airway microenvironment. After HBECs were incubated in the non-FBS containing medium with or without a low-concentration CSE (1.0%) for 2 days, we collected conditioned medium (on day 4, 6) and isolated EVs by ultracentrifugation. After then, we collected exosomal RNA and analyzed exosomal microRNA microarray.
Project description:How retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells degenerate from oxidative stress in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is incompletely understood. The study's intent was to identify key cytoprotective pathways activated by oxidative stress, and to determine the extent of their protection. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the unfolded protein response (UPR) and mitochondria in the RPE of AMD samples. Maculas with early AMD had prominent IRE1α, but minimal mitochondrial TOM20 immunolabeling in mildly degenerated RPE. RPE cells treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE), by microarray analysis, had over-represented genes involved in the antioxidant and unfolded protein response, and mitochondrial location. CSE induced the UPR sensors IRE1α, p-PERK, and ATP6, which activated CHOP. CHOP knockdown compromised cell viability after CSE exposure. At the same CSE doses, mitochondria generated superoxide anion and produced less ATP. In mice given intravitreal CSE, the RPE had increased IRE1α and decreased ATP, which elicited RPE epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as suggested by altered ZO1 immunolabeling of RPE flatmounts. Our experiments indicate that RPE cells exposed to oxidative stress respond with a cytoprotective antioxidant and unfolded protein response, but develop mitochondrial impairment that contributed to epithelial mesenchymal transition. With similar responses in the RPE of early AMD samples, these results suggest that mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress while the ER elicits a protective response during early AMD. A total of 9 samples were analyzed: 3 control samples, 3 samples treated with 100ug/ml of Cigarette Smoke Condensate, and 3 samples treated with 250ug/ml of Cigarettes Smoke Condensate.
Project description:Oxidative stress as a result of cigarette smoking is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a chronic steroid-insensitive inflammatory disease of the airways. The activity of the transcriptional co-repressor Histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) is dramatically reduced in COPD and cells exposed to oxidative stress or cigarette smoke. Moreover, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a dietary polyphenol, at concentrations upto 1uM specifically restores cigarette smoke extract (CSE)- or oxidative stress- impaired HDAC2 activity. The aim of this study was to therefore identify any links through those gene sets that are affected by oxidative stress and subsequent treatment with curcumin in order to determine whether or not this could explain the impact of curcumin on restoration of oxidant impaired HDAC2 transcriptional co-repressor activity. Keywords: time course Overall design: Human PMA-differentiated U937 cells, unexposed or exposed to oxidative stress (100mM H2O2) were either left untreated or treated with curcumin (1 mM) for either 4 or 18 hr. Performed in triplicate