Comparison of the transcripts in control and Blimp-1-deficient keratinocytes
ABSTRACT: We performed microarray analysis to examine the differential gene expression profiles between Prdm1 (Blimp-1)-deleted and control keratinocytes. Keratinocytes isolated from Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER positive (CKO) mice were cultured in the presence of 4OHT to induce deletion of the Prdm1 allele in vitro. Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER positive (CKO) keratinocytes treated with the ethanol solvent control (EtOH) or Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER negative (control) keratinocytes treated with 4OHT or EtOH served as controls. Microarray analyses revealed that there were 93 genes up-regulated and 109 genes down-regulated by more than 2-fold in the CKO + 4OHT group in comparison with the CKO + EtOH, Ctrl + 4OHT or Ctrl + EtOH groups. Several corneocytes-related genes, including Rptn, Lce1f, Krt1 and Lce1d, are significantly down-regulated and several cytokines/chemokines, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl5 and Il24, are significantly up-regulated upon the deletion of Prdm1 in vitro. Overall design: We analyzed the transcription profiles in control and Blimp-1-deficient keratinocytes using the GeneChip® Mouse Expression Array 430A.
Project description:We performed microarray analysis to examine the differential gene expression profiles between Prdm1 (Blimp-1)-deleted and control keratinocytes. Keratinocytes isolated from Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER positive (CKO) mice were cultured in the presence of 4OHT to induce deletion of the Prdm1 allele in vitro. Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER positive (CKO) keratinocytes treated with the ethanol solvent control (EtOH) or Prdm1-floxed K5-CreER negative (control) keratinocytes treated with 4OHT or EtOH served as controls. Microarray analyses revealed that there were 93 genes up-regulated and 109 genes down-regulated by more than 2-fold in the CKO + 4OHT group in comparison with the CKO + EtOH, Ctrl + 4OHT or Ctrl + EtOH groups. Several corneocytes-related genes, including Rptn, Lce1f, Krt1 and Lce1d, are significantly down-regulated and several cytokines/chemokines, including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Cxcl5 and Il24, are significantly up-regulated upon the deletion of Prdm1 in vitro. We analyzed the transcription profiles in control and Blimp-1-deficient keratinocytes using the GeneChip® Mouse Expression Array 430A.
Project description:A single nucleotide polymorphism of PRDM1, the gene encoding Blimp-1, is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we demonstrate that Blimp-1 in CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) critically contributes to the regulation of macrophage homeostasis in the colon. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-exposed Blimp-1(cko) mice with a deletion of Blimp-1 in CD103(+) DCs and CD11c(hi) macrophages exhibited severe inflammatory symptoms, pronounced weight loss, high mortality, robust infiltration of neutrophils in epithelial regions of the colon, an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease in CD103(+) DCs in the colon compared with DSS exposed wild-type (WT) mice. Purified colonic macrophages from Blimp-1(cko) mice expressed increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase 8, 9 and 12 mRNA. WT macrophages cocultured with colonic DCs but not bone marrow-derived DCs from Blimp-1(cko) produced increased matrix metalloproteinases in an interleukin (IL)-1?- and IL-6-dependent manner. Treatment of Blimp-1(cko) mice with anti-IL-1? and anti-IL-6 abrogated the exaggerated clinical response. Overall, these data demonstrate that Blimp-1 expression in DCs can alter an innate inflammatory response by modulating the activation of myeloid cells. This is a novel mechanism of contribution of Blimp-1 for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, implicating another therapeutic target for the development of inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Aberrant population expansion of follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) occurs in patients with lupus. An unanswered question is whether an altered repertoire of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) is associated with such expansion. Here we found that the transcription factor Blimp-1 (encoded by Prdm1) repressed expression of the gene encoding cathepsin S (Ctss), a cysteine protease that cleaves invariant chains and produces antigenic peptides for loading onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. The increased CTSS expression in dendritic cells (DCs) from female mice with dendritic cell-specific conditional knockout of Prdm1 (CKO mice) altered the presentation of antigen to CD4+ T cells. Analysis of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) regions containing the ?-chain variable region (V?) demonstrated a more diverse repertoire of TFH cells from female CKO mice than of those from wild-type mice. In vivo treatment of CKO mice with a CTSS inhibitor abolished the lupus-related phenotype and reduced the diversity of the TFH cell TCR repertoire. Thus, Blimp-1 deficiency in DCs led to loss of appropriate regulation of Ctss expression in female mice and thereby modulated antigen presentation and the TFH cell repertoire to contribute to autoimmunity.
Project description:PRDM1/BLIMP-1, a master regulator of plasma-cell differentiation, is frequently inactivated in activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Little is known about its genetic aberrations and relevant clinical implications. A large series of patients with de novo DLBCL was effectively evaluated for PRDM1/BLIMP-1 deletion, mutation, and protein expression. BLIMP-1 expression was frequently associated with the ABC phenotype and plasmablastic morphologic subtype of DLBCL, yet 63% of the ABC-DLBCL patients were negative for BLIMP-1 protein expression. In these patients, loss of BLIMP-1 was associated with Myc overexpression and decreased expression of p53 pathway molecules. In addition, homozygous PRDM1 deletions and PRDM1 mutations within exons 1 and 2, which encode for domains crucial for transcriptional repression, were found to show a poor prognostic impact in patients with ABC-DLBCL but not in those with germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL). Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 expression correlated with a decreased plasma-cell differentiation signature and upregulation of genes involved in B-cell receptor signaling and tumor-cell proliferation. In conclusion, these results provide novel clinical and biological insight into the tumor-suppressive role of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 in ABC-DLBCL patients and suggest that loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 function contributes to the overall poor prognosis of ABC-DLBCL patients.
Project description:Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a B cell subset that plays a suppressive role in immune responses. The CD19+CD1dhiCD5+ Bregs that can execute regulatory functions via secreting IL-10 are defined as B10 cells. Bregs suppress autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, whereas they exacerbate infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Notably, the molecular mechanisms regulating the development and functions of Bregs are still largely unknown. Furthermore, the biological impact of Bregs in fungal infection has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we compared the gene expression profiles of IL-10-producing and -non-producing mouse splenic B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or anti-CD40 antibody. Blimp-1, a transcription factor known to be critical for plasma cell differentiation, was found to be enriched in the IL-10-producing B cells. The frequency of Blimp-1+ B10 cells was increased in LPS-treated mice and in isolated B10 cells that were stimulated with LPS. Surprisingly, B cell-specific Blimp-1 knockout (Cko) mice, generated by CD19 promoter driven Cre recombinase-dependent deletion of Prdm1 (gene encoding Blimp-1), showed higher frequencies of B10 cells both in the steady state and following injection with LPS, as compared with control littermates. However, B10 cells lacking Blimp-1 failed to efficiently suppress the proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells primed with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies. B10 cells can be stimulated for further differentiation into plasmablasts, and a subset of plasmablasts express IL-10. We found that B10 cells from Cko mice failed to generate both IL-10-non-producing and IL-10-producing plasmablasts. Mechanistically, we found that Blimp-1 can directly suppress Il-10, whereas, in the presence of activated STAT3, Blimp-1 works together with activated STAT3 to upregulate Il-10. Moreover, we also found that B10 cells improve the clearance of Candida albicans infection but worsen the infection mortality. Notably, a lack of Blimp-1 in B10 cells did not change these effects of adoptively transferred B10 cells on fungal infections. Together, our data show that Blimp-1 regulates the generation, differentiation, and IL-10 production of Bregs.
Project description:Antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells deficient in Blimp-1 (Prdm1) do not acquire maximal effector functions, evade terminal differentiation, and more rapidly acquire some hallmark properties of memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of wildtype and Prdm1-/- LCMV-specific effector CD8+ T cells to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this striking phenotype. DNA microarray analysis was performed of DbGP33-41 and DbNP396-404 tetramer-positive effector CD8+ T cells FACS-sorted at day 8 post-LCMV infection from four independent samples of either Blimp-1 conditional knockout mice (CKO; Blimp-1flox/flox x GranzymeB-cre+) or wildtype (WT) littermate controls.
Project description:UV radiation is the major risk factor for developing skin cancer, the most prevalent cancer worldwide. Several studies indicate that mTOR signaling is activated by UVB and may play an important role in skin tumorigenesis. mTOR exists in two functionally and compositionally distinct protein complexes: the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and the rapamycin-resistant mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). The purpose of these studies was to investigate the roles of the two mTOR complexes in UVB-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in the skin. We used rapamycin, a pharmacologic inhibitor of mTORC1, and an inducible mTOR-deficient (K5-CreER(T2);mTOR(fl/fl)) mouse model that allows epidermal-specific disruption of mTOR following topical treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT). Rapamycin blocked UVB-induced phosphorylation of S6K, the downstream target of mTORC1, and significantly reduced UVB-stimulated epidermal proliferation and cell-cycle progression, but had no effect on cell death. In contrast, mTOR deletion, which attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of both S6K and the mTORC2 target AKT(Ser473), significantly increased apoptosis both in vivo and in keratinocyte cultures, in addition to reducing hyperproliferation following UVB irradiation. The role of mTORC2 in UVB-induced prosurvival signaling was verified in Rictor(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts, which lack functional mTORC2 and were more sensitive to UVB-induced apoptosis than controls. These studies show that mTORC1 and mTORC2 play unique but complementary roles in controlling proliferation and apoptosis in the skin. Our findings underscore the importance of both mTOR complexes in mediating UVB-induced signaling in keratinocytes and provide new insight into the pathogenesis of skin cancer.
Project description:Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), which require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and plasma cell differentiation, which requires B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), are critical for the generation of class-switched and hypermutated (mature) Ab and autoantibody responses. We show that histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and butyrate dampened AICDA/Aicda (AID) and PRDM1/Prdm1 (Blimp-1) mRNAs by upregulating miR-155, miR-181b, and miR-361 to silence AICDA/Aicda, and miR-23b, miR-30a, and miR-125b to silence PRDM1/Prdm1, in human and mouse B cells. This led to downregulation of AID, Blimp-1, and X-box binding protein 1, thereby inhibiting CSR, SHM, and plasma cell differentiation without altering B cell viability or proliferation. The selectivity of histone deacetylase inhibitor-mediated silencing of AICDA/Aicda and PRDM1/Prdm1 was emphasized by unchanged expression of HoxC4 and Irf4 (important inducers/modulators of AICDA/Aicda), Rev1 and Ung (central elements for CSR/SHM), and Bcl6, Bach2, or Pax5 (repressors of PRDM1/Prdm1 expression), as well as unchanged expression of miR-19a/b, miR-20a, and miR-25, which are not known to regulate AICDA/Aicda or PRDM1/Prdm1. Through these B cell-intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms, valproic acid blunted class-switched and hypermutated T-dependent and T-independent Ab responses in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, it decreased class-switched and hypermutated autoantibodies, ameliorated disease, and extended survival in lupus MRL/Fas(lpr/lpr) mice. Our findings outline epigenetic mechanisms that modulate expression of an enzyme (AID) and transcription factors (Blimp-1 and X-box binding protein 1) that are critical to the B cell differentiation processes that underpin Ab and autoantibody responses. They also provide therapeutic proof-of-principle in autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity.
Project description:The cornified layer is a compacted lattice of lipid-embedded corneocytes that provides an organism's barrier to the external environment. Cornification is the final differentiative step for epidermal keratinocytes and involves dramatic cell condensation before death. Using conditional gene deletion in mice, we identified the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 (B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1) as an important regulator of keratinocyte transition from the granular to the cornified layer. More than 250 genes are misregulated in conditional knockout epidermis, including those encoding transcription factors, signal transduction components, proteinases, and enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. Steady-state mRNA and ChIP analyses of a subset of these genes provide evidence that nfat5, fos, prdm1, and dusp16 are novel direct targets of Blimp-1. Identifying nfat5 as a target of Blimp-1 repression indicates that cornification involves suppression of normal osmotic regulation in granular cells. Consistently, conditional knockout mice have delayed barrier formation as embryos, enlarged granular layer cells and corneocytes, and a morphologically abnormal cornified layer. These studies provide insight into cornification, identifying transcriptional regulatory circuitry and indicating the importance of blocking osmotic homeostasis.
Project description:Antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells deficient in Blimp-1 (Prdm1) do not acquire maximal effector functions, evade terminal differentiation, and more rapidly acquire some hallmark properties of memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of wildtype and Prdm1-/- LCMV-specific effector CD8+ T cells to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this striking phenotype. Overall design: DNA microarray analysis was performed of DbGP33-41 and DbNP396-404 tetramer-positive effector CD8+ T cells FACS-sorted at day 8 post-LCMV infection from four independent samples of either Blimp-1 conditional knockout mice (CKO; Blimp-1flox/flox x GranzymeB-cre+) or wildtype (WT) littermate controls.