Transciptome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1 delta-raoN at oxidative stress
ABSTRACT: Salmonella has various mechanisms of small RNA-mediated gene regulation. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a novel intergenic transcript RaoN is involved in oxidative stress response which functions as one of the powerful antimicrobials in macrophage innate immunity. We note that the ∆raoN mutant is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (5.0 mM). This finding provides insights into the function of RaoN as a regulator of oxidative stress response. Overall design: UK1 wild-type and ∆raoN strains were grown in LB medium at 37℃ to an OD600 of 0.6, and then subjected to oxidative stress (5.0 mM hydroperoxide) for 30 min. Total RNA was extracted from three biological replicates of wild-type and ∆raoN mutant.
Project description:Salmonella has various mechanisms of small RNA-mediated gene regulation. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a novel intergenic transcript RsiM is involved in oxidative stress response which functions as one of the powerful antimicrobials in macrophage innate immunity. We note that the ∆rsiM mutant is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (5.0mM). This finding provides insights into the function of RsiM as a regulator of oxidative stress response. UK1 wild-type and ∆rsiM strains were grown in LB medium at 37℃ to an OD600 of 0.6, and then subjected to oxidative stress (5.0 mM hydroperoxide) for 30 min. Total RNA was extracted from three biological replicates of wild-type and ∆rsiM mutant.
Project description:Inappropriate and disproportionate use of antibiotics is contributing immensely to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial species associated with food contamination. The use of natural products in combination can be a potent alternative hurdle strategy to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, we explored the pro-oxidant properties of essential oil linalool and vitamin C in combination with copper (LVC) in combating the foodborne pathogens Vibrio fluvialis and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi using a three-dimensional (3D) checkerboard microdilution assay. Antibacterial activity in terms of the MIC revealed that the triple combination exerted a synergistic effect compared to the effects of the individual constituents. The bactericidal effect of the triple combination was confirmed by a live/dead staining assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements with the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging strongly suggested that the increase in ROS production is the underlying mechanism of the enhanced antibacterial potency of the LVC combination (linalool [1.298 mM], vitamin C [8 mM], copper [16.3 μM]). In addition, the hypersensitivity of oxidative stress regulator mutants (oxyR, katG, ahpC, and sodA mutants) toward LVC corroborated the involvement of ROS in cell death. Live/dead staining and changes in cellular morphology revealed that oxidative stress did not transform the cells into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; rather, killing was associated with intracellular and extracellular oxidative burst. Furthermore, the LVC combination did not display toxicity to human cells, while it effectively reduced the pathogen levels in acidic fruit juices by 3 to 4 log CFU/ml without adversely altering the organoleptic properties. This study opens a new outlook for combinatorial antimicrobial therapy.IMPORTANCE There is a need to develop effective antibacterial therapies for mitigating bacterial pathogens in food systems. We used a 3D checkerboard assay to ascertain a safe synergistic combination of food-grade components: vitamin C, copper, and the essential oil linalool. Individually, these constituents have to be added in large amounts to exert their antibacterial effect, which leads to unwanted organoleptic properties. The triple combination could exceptionally inhibit foodborne Gram-negative pathogens like Vibrio fluvialis and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi at low concentrations (linalool, 1.298 mM; vitamin C, 8 mM; copper, 16.3 μM) and displayed potent microbial inhibition in acidic beverages. We found increased susceptibility in deletion mutants of oxidative stress regulators (oxyR, katG, ahpC, and sodA mutants) due to ROS generation by Fenton's chemistry. The results of this study show that it may be possible to use plant-based antimicrobials in synergistic combinations to control microbial contaminants.
Project description:A salmonella genomic island, designated SGI11, was found in 18 of 26 multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh. SGI11 was an IS1 composite transposon and carried 7 resistance genes that conferred resistance to 5 first-line antimicrobials. Eleven of the 18 SGI11-carrying S. Typhi isolates had developed resistance to high levels of ciprofloxacin.
Project description:Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium have evolved genetic systems, such as the soxR/S and marA regulons, to detoxify reactive oxygen species, like superoxide, which are formed as by-products of metabolism. Superoxide also serves as a microbicidal effector mechanism of the host's phagocytes. Here, we investigate whether regulatory genes other than soxR/S and marA are active in response to oxidative stress in Salmonella and may function as virulence determinants. We identified a bacterial gene, which was designated ramA (342 bp) and mapped at 13.1 min on the Salmonella chromosome, that, when overexpressed on a plasmid in E. coli or Salmonella, confers a pleiotropic phenotype characterized by increased resistance to the redox-cycling agent menadione and to multiple unrelated antibiotics. The ramA gene is present in Salmonella serovars but is absent in E. coli. The gene product displays 37 to 52% homology to the transcriptional activators soxR/S and marA and 80 to 100% identity to a multidrug resistance gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A. Although a ramA soxR/S double null mutant is highly susceptible to intracellular superoxide generated by menadione and displays decreased Mn-superoxide dismutase activity, intracellular survival of this mutant within macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells and in vivo replication in the spleens in Ityr mice are not affected. We concluded that despite its role in the protective response of the bacteria to oxidative stress in vitro, the newly identified ramA gene, together with soxR/S, does not play a role in initial replication of Salmonella in the organs of mice.
Project description:Acid adaptation enhances survival of foodborne pathogens under lethal acid conditions that prevail in several food-related ecosystems. In the present study, the role of undissociated acetic acid in inducing acid resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 both in laboratory media and in an acid food matrix was investigated. Several combinations of acetic acid (0, 15, 25, 35 and 45 mM) and pH values (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0) were screened for their ability to activate acid resistance mechanisms of pathogen exposed to pH 2.5 (screening assay). Increased survival was observed when increasing undissociated acetic acid within a range of sublethal concentrations (1.9-5.4 mM), but only at pH 5.5 and 6.0. No effect was observed at lower pH values, regardless of the undissociated acetic acid levels. Three combinations (15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5, 45mM/pH6.0) were selected and further used for adaptation prior to inoculation in commercial tarama (fish roe) salad, i.e., an acid spread (pH 4.35 ± 0.02), stored at 5°C. Surprisingly and contrary to the results of the screening assay, none of the acid adaptation treatments enhanced survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in the food matrix, as compared to non-adapted cells (control). Further examination of the food pH value, acidulant and storage (challenge) temperature on the responses of the pathogen adapted to 15mM/pH5.0, 35mM/pH5.5 and 45mM/pH6.0 was performed in culture media. Cells adapted to 35mM/pH5.5 were unable to induce acid resistance when exposed to pH 4.35 (tarama salad pH value) at 37°C and 5°C, whereas incubation under refrigeration (5°C) at pH 4.35 sensitized 45mM/pH6.0 adapted cells against the subsequent acid and cold stress. In conclusion, pre-exposure to undissociated acetic acid affected the adaptive responses of Salmonella Enteritidis Phage Type 4 in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner, with regard to conditions prevailing during acid challenge.
Project description:Despite the scientific and industrial importance of desiccation tolerance in Salmonella, knowledge regarding its genetic basis is still scarce. In the present study, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of dehydrated and water-suspended Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using microarrays. Dehydration induced expression of 90 genes and downregulated that of 7 genes. Ribosomal structural genes represented the most abundant functional group with a relatively higher transcription during dehydration. Other main induced functional groups included genes involved in amino acid metabolism, energy production, ion transport, transcription, and stress response. The highest induction was observed in the kdpFABC operon, encoding a potassium transport channel. Knockout mutations were generated in nine upregulated genes. Five mutants displayed lower tolerance to desiccation, implying the involvement of the corresponding genes in the adaptation of Salmonella to desiccation. These included genes encoding the isocitrate-lyase AceA, the lipid A biosynthesis palmitoleoyl-acyltransferase Ddg, the modular iron-sulfur cluster scaffolding protein NifU, the global regulator Fnr, and the alternative sigma factor RpoE. Notably, these proteins were previously implicated in the response of Salmonella to oxidative stress, heat shock, and cold shock. A strain with a mutation in the structural gene kdpA had a tolerance to dehydration comparable to that of the parent strain, implying that potassium transport through this system is dispensable for early adaptation to the dry environment. Nevertheless, this mutant was significantly impaired in long-term persistence during cold storage. Our findings indicate the involvement of a relatively small fraction of the Salmonella genome in transcriptional adjustment from water to dehydration, with a high prevalence of genes belonging to the protein biosynthesis machinery.
Project description:As a facultative intracellular pathogen, Salmonella Enteritidis must develop an effective oxidative stress response to survive exposure to reactive oxygen species within the host. To study this defense mechanism, we carried out a series of oxidative stress assays in parallel with a comparative transcriptome analyses using a next generation sequencing approach. It was shown that the expression of 45% of the genome was significantly altered upon exposure to H2O2. Quantitatively the most significant (?100 fold) gene expression alterations were observed among genes encoding the sulfur utilization factor of Fe-S cluster formation and iron homeostasis. Our data point out the multifaceted nature of the oxidative stress response. It includes not only numerous mechanisms of DNA and protein repair and redox homeostasis, but also the key genes associated with osmotic stress, multidrug efflux, stringent stress, decrease influx of small molecules, manganese and phosphate starvation stress responses. Importantly, this study revealed that oxidatively stressed S. Enteritidis cells simultaneously repressed key motility encoding genes and induced a wide range of adhesin- and salmonellae-essential virulence-encoding genes, that are critical for the biofilm formation and intracellular survival, respectively. This finding indicates a potential intrinsic link between oxidative stress and pathogenicity in non-typhoidal Salmonella that needs to be empirically evaluated.
Project description:MdsABC is a Salmonella-specific tripartite efflux pump that has been implicated in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; however, little is known about the virulence factors associated with this pump. We observed MdsABC expression-dependent alterations in the degree of resistance to extracellular oxidative stress and macrophage-mediated killing. Thin-layer chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that overexpression of MdsABC led to increased secretion of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-phosphatidylserine (PSPS), affecting the ability of the bacteria to invade and survive in host cells. Overexpression of MdsABC and external addition of PSPS similarly rendered the mdsABC deletion strain resistant to diamide. Diagonal gel analysis showed that PSPS treatment reduced the diamide-mediated formation of disulfide bonds, particularly in the membrane fraction of the bacteria. Salmonella infection of macrophages induced the upregulation of MdsABC expression and led to an increase of intracellular bacterial number and host cell death, similar to the effects of MdsABC overexpression and PSPS pretreatment on the mdsABC deletion strain. Our study shows that MdsABC mediates a previously uncharacterized pathway that involves PSPS as a key factor for the survival and virulence of S. Typhimurium in phagocytic cells.
Project description:The gut microbiota confers resistance to pathogens of the intestinal ecosystem, yet the dynamics of pathogen-microbiome interactions and the metabolites involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here, we use gnotobiotic mice infected with the virulent pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans in combination with metagenomics and discovery metabolomics to identify changes in the community and metabolome during infection. To isolate the role of the microbiota in response to pathogens, we compared mice monocolonized with the pathogen, uninfected mice "humanized" with a synthetic human microbiome, or infected humanized mice. In Salmonella-infected mice, by 3 days into infection, microbiome community structure and function changed substantially, with a rise in Enterobacteriaceae strains and a reduction in biosynthetic gene cluster potential. In contrast, Candida-infected mice had few microbiome changes. The LC-MS metabolomic fingerprint of the cecum differed between mice monocolonized with either pathogen and humanized infected mice. Specifically, we identified an increase in glutathione disulfide, glutathione cysteine disulfide, inosine 5'-monophosphate, and hydroxybutyrylcarnitine in mice infected with Salmonella in contrast to uninfected mice and mice monocolonized with Salmonella These metabolites potentially play a role in pathogen-induced oxidative stress. These results provide insight into how the microbiota community members interact with each other and with pathogens on a metabolic level.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized for playing a critical role in human health and disease, especially in conferring resistance to both virulent pathogens such as Salmonella, which infects 1.2 million people in the United States every year (E. Scallan, R. M. Hoekstra, F. J. Angulo, R. V. Tauxe, et al., Emerg Infect Dis 17:7-15, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1701.P11101), and opportunistic pathogens like Candida, which causes an estimated 46,000 cases of invasive candidiasis each year in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, 2013). Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, we investigate potential changes in gut microbial community structure and function during infection using metagenomics and metabolomics. We observe that changes in the community and in biosynthetic gene cluster potential occur within 3 days for the virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, but there are minimal changes with a poorly colonizing Candida albicans In addition, the metabolome shifts depending on infection status, including changes in glutathione metabolites in response to Salmonella infection, potentially in response to host oxidative stress.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport resistant to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and other antimicrobials causes septicemic salmonellosis in humans and animals and is increasingly isolated from humans, animals, foods, and environmental sources. Mechanisms whereby serovar Newport bacteria become resistant to ESCs and other classes of antimicrobials while inhabiting the intestinal tract are not well understood. The present study shows that 25.3% of serovar Newport strains isolated from the turkey poult intestinal tract after the animals were dosed with Escherichia coli harboring a large conjugative plasmid encoding the CMY-2 beta-lactamase and other drug resistance determinants acquired the plasmid and its associated drug resistance genes. The conjugative plasmid containing the cmy-2 gene was transferred not only from the donor E. coli to Salmonella serovar Newport but also to another E. coli serotype present in the intestinal tract. Laboratory studies showed that the plasmid could be readily transferred between serovar Newport and E. coli intestinal isolates. Administration of a single dose of ceftiofur, used to prevent septicemic colibacillosis, to 1-day-old turkeys did not result in the isolation of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli or Salmonella serovar Newport. There was a remarkable association between serotype, drug resistance, and plasmid profile among the E. coli strains isolated from the poults. This study shows that Salmonella serovar Newport can become resistant to ESCs and other antibiotics by acquiring a conjugative drug resistance plasmid from E. coli in the intestines.