ChIP-Seq experiments of KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 in YCC3/AGS/KATOIII cell lines
ABSTRACT: Three transcription factors KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 are recurrently amplified in multiple gastric cancer cohorts, representing one type of lineage-survival oncogenes in gastric cancer. ChIP-Seq analysis of these three factors in multiple cell lines revealed that significant number of genomic sites are co-occupied by KLF5 and GATA4 and/or GATA6. Integrative analysis of ChIP-Seq and gene expression identified several targets of the three transcription factors in both cell lines and primary tumors, including HNF4A. These results suggest that KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 interact and co-operate to regulate HNF4A and other genes to promote tumorigenesis in gastric cancer. Overall design: ChIP-Seq experiments of KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 were performed in three gastric cancer cell lines YCC3, AGS and KATOIII
Project description:Three transcription factors KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 are recurrently amplified in multiple gastric cancer cohorts, representing one type of lineage-survival oncogenes in gastric cancer. ChIP-Seq analysis of these three factors in multiple cell lines revealed that significant number of genomic sites are co-occupied by KLF5 and GATA4 and/or GATA6. Integrative analysis of ChIP-Seq and gene expression identified several targets of the three transcription factors in both cell lines and primary tumors, including HNF4A. These results suggest that KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 interact and co-operate to regulate HNF4A and other genes to promote tumorigenesis in gastric cancer. ChIP-Seq experiments of KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 were performed in three gastric cancer cell lines YCC3, AGS and KATOIII
Project description:Three transcription factors KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 are recurrently amplified in multiple gastric cancer cohorts, representing one type of lineage-survival oncogenes in gastric cancer. ChIP-Seq analysis of these three factors in multiple cell lines revealed that significant number of genomic sites are co-occupied by KLF5 and GATA4 and/or GATA6. Integrative analysis of ChIP-Seq and gene expression identified several targets of the three transcription factors in both cell lines and primary tumors, including HNF4A. These results suggest that KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 interact and co-operate to regulate HNF4A and other genes to promote tumorigenesis in gastric cancer. Gene expression profiling of KLF5, GATA4 and GATA6 knock down in YCC3/AGS/KATOIII cells
Project description:Lineage-restricted transcription factors (TFs) are frequently mutated or overexpressed in cancer and contribute toward malignant behaviors; however, the molecular bases of their oncogenic properties are largely unknown. As TF activities are difficult to inhibit directly with small molecules, the genes and pathways they regulate might represent more tractable targets for drug therapy. We studied GATA6, a TF gene that is frequently amplified or overexpressed in gastric, esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. GATA6-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines cluster in gene expression space, separate from non-overexpressing lines. This expression clustering signifies a shared pathogenic group of genes that GATA6 may regulate through direct cis-element binding. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify GATA6-bound genes and considered TF occupancy in relation to genes that respond to GATA6 depletion in cell lines and track with GATA6 mRNA (synexpression groups) in primary gastric cancers. Among other cellular functions, GATA6-occupied genes control apoptosis and govern the M-phase of the cell cycle. Depletion of GATA6 reduced the levels of the latter transcripts and arrested cells in G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. Synexpression in human tumor samples identified likely direct transcriptional targets substantially better than consideration only of transcripts that respond to GATA6 loss in cultured cells. Candidate target genes responded to the loss of GATA6 or its homolog GATA4 and even more to the depletion of both proteins. Many GATA6-dependent genes lacked nearby binding sites but several strongly dependent, synexpressed and GATA6-bound genes encode TFs such as MYC, HES1, RARB and CDX2. Thus, many downstream effects occur indirectly through other TFs and GATA6 activity in gastric cancer is partially redundant with GATA4. This integrative analysis of locus occupancy, gene dependency and synexpression provides a functional signature of GATA6-overexpressing gastric cancers, revealing both limits and new therapeutic directions for a challenging and frequently fatal disease.
Project description:GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function.
Project description:The family of zinc finger-containing GATA transcription factors plays critical roles in cell lineage specification during early embryonic development and organ formation. GATA4 and GATA6 were found to be frequently lost in ovarian cancer, and the loss is proposed to account for dedifferentiation of the cancer cells.We further investigated the expression of GATA4 and GATA6 in ovarian surface epithelial lesions and histological subtypes of ovarian carcinomas by immunostaining. GATA4 and GATA6 were found to be absent in high percentages (80 to 90%) of serous, clear cell, and endometrioid ovarian cancer examined. In contrast, both were found positive in 11 out of 12 cases of mucinous carcinomas, suggesting the expression of the GATA factors can distinguish mucinous cancer from other histological subtypes. GATA4 was frequently lost in preneoplastic lesions such as morphologically normal inclusion cysts and epithelial hyperplasia adjacent to malignant cells. The loss of GATA6 correlates closely with neoplastic morphological transformation of ovarian surface epithelia. In culture, GATA4 expression was progressively reduced upon passaging primary ovarian surface epithelial cells, which correlated with changes in histone modification of the GATA4 locus. A reduced GATA6 gene dosage as in GATA6 (+/-) mice led to an increased pre-neoplastic changes and inclusion cysts in the ovaries, suggesting the loss of GATA6 contributes to ovarian cancer development.This study suggests that the expression status of GATA4 and GATA6 may dictate distinct pathologic pathways leading to serous or mucinous ovarian carcinomas. The readily loss of GATA4 expression through changes in chromatin conformation suggests a potential non-phenotypic initiating event, leading to subsequent loss of GATA6, morphological transformation, and ultimate tumorigenesis.
Project description:Studies of adult mice lacking either GATA4 or GATA6 in the small intestine demonstrate roles for these factors in small intestinal biology. Deletion of Gata4 in the adult mouse intestine revealed an essential role for GATA4 in jejunal function. Deletion of Gata6 in the adult mouse ileum alters epithelial cell types and ileal enterocyte gene expression. The effect of deletion of Gata4 or Gata6 alone during embryonic small intestinal development, however, has not been examined. We recently demonstrated that loss of both factors in double conditional knockout embryos causes severe defects in jejunal development. Therefore, the goal of this study is to provide phenotypic analysis of the small intestine of single Gata4 and Gata6 conditional knockout embryos.Villin-Cre was used to delete Gata4 or Gata6 in the developing intestinal epithelium. Elimination of either GATA4 or GATA6 in the jejunum, where these factors are co-expressed, caused changes in enterocyte and enteroendocrine cell gene expression. Ectopic expression of markers of the ileal-specific bile acid metabolism pathway was induced in GATA4-deficient jejunum but not in GATA6-deficient jejunum. A subtle increase in goblet cells was also identified in jejunum of both mutants. In GATA6-deficient embryonic ileum, villus length was altered, and enterocyte gene expression was perturbed including ectopic expression of the colon marker Car1. Goblet cells were increased, and enteroendocrine cells were decreased.Overall, we show that aspects of the phenotypes observed in the small intestine of adult Gata4 and Gata6 conditional knockout mice emerge during development. The effect of eliminating GATA6 from the developing ileum was greater than that of eliminating either GATA4 or GATA6 from the developing jejunum likely reflecting functional redundancy between these factors in the jejunum. Although GATA4 and GATA6 functions overlap, our data also suggest unique functions for GATA4 and GATA6 within the developing intestine. GATA4 likely operates independently of GATA6 within the jejunum to regulate jejunal versus ileal enterocyte identity and consequently jejunal physiology. GATA6 likely regulates enteroendocrine cell differentiation cell autonomously whereas GATA4 affects this population indirectly.
Project description:Gata4 and Gata6 are closely related transcription factors that are essential for the development of a number of embryonic tissues. While they have nearly identical DNA-binding domains and similar patterns of expression, Gata4 and Gata6 null embryos have strikingly different embryonic lethal phenotypes. To determine whether the lack of redundancy is due to differences in protein function or Gata4 and Gata6 expression domains, we generated mice that contained the Gata6 cDNA in place of the Gata4 genomic locus. Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos survived through embryonic day (E)12.5 and successfully underwent ventral folding morphogenesis, demonstrating that Gata6 is able to replace Gata4 function in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, Gata6 is unable to replace Gata4 function in the septum transversum mesenchyme or the epicardium, leading to liver agenesis and lethal heart defects in Gata4(Gata6/Gata6) embryos. These studies suggest that Gata4 has evolved distinct functions in the development of these tissues that cannot be performed by Gata6, even when it is provided in the identical expression domain. Our work has important implications for the respective mechanisms of Gata function during development, as well as the functional evolution of these essential transcription factors.
Project description:GATA4 and GATA6 are central cardiac transcriptional regulators. The postnatal, stage-specific function of the cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 have not been evaluated. In part, this is because current Cre-loxP approaches to cardiac gene inactivation require time consuming and costly breeding of Cre-expressing and "floxed" mouse lines, often with limited control of the extent or timing of gene inactivation. We investigated the stage-specific functions of GATA4 and GATA6 in the postnatal heart by using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 to control the timing and extent of gene inactivation by Cre. Systemic delivery of recombinant, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) expressing Cre from the cardiac specific Tnnt2 promoter was well tolerated and selectively and efficiently recombined floxed target genes in cardiomyocytes. AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre efficiently inactivated Gata4 and Gata6. Neonatal Gata4/6 inactivation caused severe, rapidly lethal systolic heart failure. In contrast, Gata4/6 inactivation in adult heart caused only mild systolic dysfunction but severe diastolic dysfunction. Reducing the dose of AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre generated mosaics in which scattered cardiomyocytes lacked Gata4/6. This mosaic knockout revealed that Gata4/6 are required cell autonomously for physiological cardiomyocyte growth. Our results define novel roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in the neonatal and adult heart. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that evaluation of gene function hinges on controlling the timing and extent of gene inactivation. AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre is a powerful tool for controlling these parameters.
Project description:Aberrant Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling is crucial to the development of gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the role of STAT3 in the expression and methylation of its targets in gastric cancer patients. Results from RNA sequencing identified an inverse correlation between the expression of STAT3 and GATA6 in 23 pairs of gastric cancer patient samples. We discovered that the expression of GATA6 is epigenetically silenced through promoter methylation in gastric cancer cell lines. Interestingly, the inhibition of STAT3 using a novel STAT3 inhibitor restored the expression of GATA6 and its targets, trefoil factors 1 and 2 (TFF1/2). Moreover, disruption of STAT3 binding to GATA6 promoter by small hairpin RNA restored GATA6 expression in AGS cells. A clinically significant correlation was also observed between the expression of GATA6 and TFF1/2 among tissue samples from 60 gastric cancer patients. Finally, bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed GATA6 methylation in 65% (39/60) of the patients, and those with higher GATA6 methylation tended to have shorter overall survival. In conclusion, we demonstrated that aberrant JAK/STAT signaling suppresses TFF1/2 partially through the epigenetic silencing of GATA6. Therapeutic intervention of STAT3 in reversing the epigenetic status of GATA6 could benefit the treatment of gastric cancer and is worthy of further investigation.
Project description:The Hey basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors are downstream effectors of Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system. Mice lacking Hey2 develop cardiac hypertrophy, often associated with congenital heart defects, whereas combined Hey1/Hey2 deficiency leads to severe vascular defects and embryonic lethality around embryonic day E9.5. The molecular basis of these disorders is poorly understood, however, since target genes of Hey transcription factors in the affected tissues remain elusive. To identify genes regulated by Hey factors we have generated a conditional Hey1 knockout mouse. This strain was used to generate paired Hey2- and Hey1/2-deficient embryonic stem cell lines. Comparison of these cell lines by microarray analysis identified GATA4 and GATA6 as differentially expressed genes. Loss of Hey1/2 leads to elevated GATA4/6 and ANF mRNA levels in embryoid bodies, while forced expression of Hey factors strongly represses expression of the GATA4 and GATA6 promoter in various cell lines. In addition, the promoter activity of the GATA4/6 target gene ANF was inhibited by Hey1, Hey2, and HeyL. Protein interaction and mutation analyses suggest that repression is due to direct binding of Hey proteins to GATA4 and GATA6, blocking their transcriptional activity. In Hey2-deficient fetal hearts we observed elevated mRNA levels of ANF and CARP. Expression of ANF and Hey2 is normally restricted to the trabecular and compact myocardial layer, respectively. Intriguingly, loss of Hey2 leads to ectopic ANF expression in the compact layer, suggesting a direct role for Hey2 in limiting ANF expression in this cardiac compartment.