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Omics score: 45
All-trans retinoic acid effect on the squamous cell carcinoma cell line ME180: time course
ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects, particularly in the context of cancer. However, the effects of ATRA on gene and microRNA expression in solid tumors have not been investigated. In this study, we performed gene expression and microRNA analysis of the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, ME180, following treatment with 10 micromolar all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results provide insight into the temporal regulation of genes and microRNAs by retinoids. Overall design: 16 samples (4 DMSO-Treated, 4-1 hour 10μM ATRA, 4-3 hours 10μM ATRA, 4-6 hours 10μM ATRA)
Project description:Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs), or specific inhibitors of the RA hydroxylase CYP26, such as R116010, can increase the intracellular availability of ATRA. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with acitretin (50 microM) or R116010 (1 or 10 microM) in combination with either 10 microM ATRA or 13cisRA induced a selective increase in intracellular levels of ATRA, while 13cisRA levels were unaffected. CRABP was induced in SH-SY5Y cells in response to RA. In contrast, acitretin had no significant effect on intracellular retinoid concentrations in those neuroblastoma cell lines that showed little or no induction of CRABP after RA treatment. Both ATRA and 13cisRA dramatically induced the expression of CYP26A1 in SH-SY5Y cells, and treatment with R116010, but not acitretin, potentiated the RA-induced expression of a reporter gene and CYP26A1. The response of neuroblastoma cells to R116010 was consistent with inhibition of CYP26, indicating that inhibition of RA metabolism may further optimise retinoid treatment in neuroblastoma.
Project description:Clinical reports suggest a potential link between excess retinoids and development of depression. Although it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) administration induces behavioral changes, further insight into how ATRA is involved is lacking. The hippocampus seems to be a major target of retinoids, and abnormal synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus is involved in depression. We examined two genes associated with synaptic function, discs large homolog 2 (DLG2), and synapse differentiation-inducing gene protein 1 (SynDIG1) in terms of hippocampal expression and correlation with behavior. Three different doses of ATRA were injected into young mice and 10 mg/kg ATRA was found to induce depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, DLG2 mRNA was significantly decreased by ATRA. mRNA levels were positively correlated with central area duration and distance in the open-field test. Increased SynDIG1 mRNA levels were observed. There was a negative correlation between SynDIG1 mRNA levels and mobility time in the forced swimming test. Retinoic acid receptor ? mRNA was significantly positively correlated with DLG2 and negatively correlated with SynDIG1. To summarize, ATRA administration induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior accompanied by a decreased expression of DLG2 and an increased expression of SynDIG1. Moreover, DLG2 was correlated with anxiety-like behavior and SynDIG1 was correlated with depression-like behavior. These results might constitute a novel target underlying ATRA-induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior.
Project description:Retinoids, vitamin A derivatives, are important regulators of the growth and differentiation of skin cells. Although retinoids are therapeutically used for several skin ailments, little is known about their effects on P2 receptors, known to be involved in various functions in the skin. DNA array analysis showed that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an agonist to RAR (retinoic acid receptor), enhanced the expression of mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor, a metabotropic P2 receptor that is known to be involved in the proliferation of the epidermis. The expression of other P2 receptors in NHEKs was not affected by ATRA. ATRA increased the mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor in a concentration-dependent fashion (1 nM to 1 muM). Am80, a synthesized agonist to RAR, showed a similar enhancement, whereas 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cisRA), an agonist to RXR (retinoid X receptor), enhanced P2Y2 gene expression to a lesser extent. Ca(2+) imaging analysis showed that ATRA also increased the function of P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. Retinoids are known to enhance the turnover of the epidermis by increasing both proliferation and terminal differentiation. The DNA microarray analysis also revealed that ATRA upregulates various genes involved in the differentiation of NHEKs. Our present results suggest that retinoids, at least in part, exert their proliferative effects by upregulating P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. This effect of retinoids may be closely related to their therapeutic effect against various ailments or aging events in skins such as over-keratinization, pigmentation and re-modeling.
Project description:The clearance of retinoic acid (RA) and its metabolites is believed to be regulated by the CYP26 enzymes, but the specific roles of CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1 in clearing active vitamin A metabolites have not been defined. The goal of this study was to establish the substrate specificity of CYP26C1, and determine whether CYP26C1 interacts with cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABPs). CYP26C1 was found to effectively metabolize all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA), 13-cis-retinoic acid, and 4-oxo-atRA with the highest intrinsic clearance toward 9-cis-RA. In comparison with CYP26A1 and CYP26B1, CYP26C1 resulted in a different metabolite profile for retinoids, suggesting differences in the active-site structure of CYP26C1 compared with other CYP26s. Homology modeling of CYP26C1 suggested that this is attributable to the distinct binding orientation of retinoids within the CYP26C1 active site. In comparison with other CYP26 family members, CYP26C1 was up to 10-fold more efficient in clearing 4-oxo-atRA (intrinsic clearance 153 μl/min/pmol) than CYP26A1 and CYP26B1, suggesting that CYP26C1 may be important in clearing this active retinoid. In support of this, CRABPs delivered 4-oxo-atRA and atRA for metabolism by CYP26C1. Despite the tight binding of 4-oxo-atRA and atRA with CRABPs, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant in biological matrix (Km) value of these substrates with CYP26C1 was not increased when the substrates were bound with CRABPs, in contrast to what is predicted by free drug hypothesis. Together these findings suggest that CYP26C1 is a 4-oxo-atRA hydroxylase and may be important in regulating the concentrations of this active retinoid in human tissues.
Project description:The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by chromosomal translocations that result in fusion proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor, alpha fusion protein (PML-RAR?). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment is the standard drug treatment for APL yielding cure rates > 80% by activating transcription and proteasomal degradation of retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RAR?). Whereas combination therapy with As2O3 has increased survival further, patients that experience relapse and are refractory to atRA and/or As2O3 is a clinically significant problem. BCL-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis and over-expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in APL including impairment of the ability of atRA to induce growth arrest and differentiation. Here we investigated the novel BH3 domain mimetic, JY-1-106, which antagonizes the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-xL) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) alone and in combination with retinoids including atRA, AM580 (RAR? agonist), and SR11253 (RAR? antagonist). JY-1-106 reduced cell viability in HL-60 cells alone and in combination with retinoids. The combination of JY-1-106 and SR11253 had the greatest impact on cell viability by stimulating apoptosis. These studies indicate that dual BCL-xL/MCL-1 inhibitors and retinoids could work cooperatively in leukemia treatment.
Project description:Background:Bone regenerative heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP2/7) enhances but all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits osteoclastogenesis. However, the effect of ATRA on physiological and/or BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis in still unclear. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of combined treatment of BMP2/7 and ATRA on osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Results:All-trans retinoic acid (1 µM)?±?BMP2/7 (5 or 50 ng/ml) was added in murine pre-osteoclasts cell line RAW264.7 or mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) cultures. Osteoclast marker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity were analyzed. BMP2/7 robustly enhanced osteoclast maker gene expression, osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity. Interestingly, ATRA completely inhibited osteoclast formation in presence or absence of BMP2/7. Pan-antagonist of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and antagonist of RAR?, ? or ? failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of ATRA on osteoclastogenesis. ATRA strongly inhibited Rank and Nfatc1 expression. Conclusions:All-trans retinoic acid inhibits BMP2/7-induced osteoclastogenesis, and resorption activity possibly via RANKL-RANK pathway. Our findings from previous and current study suggest that combination of ATRA and BMP2/7 could be a novel approach to treat hyperactive osteoclast-induced bone loss such as in inflammation-induced severe osteoporosis and bone loss caused by cancer metastasis to bone.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Individuals with IBDs have enhanced susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis. In colorectal cancer, the balance between the pro-mitogenic cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT(1)R) and the differentiation-promoting cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor (CysLT(2)R) is lost. Further, our previous data indicate that patients with high CysLT(1)R and low CysLT(2)R expression have a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined whether the balance between CysLT(1)R and CysLT(2)R could be restored by treatment with the cancer chemopreventive agent all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). METHODS: To determine the effect of ATRA on CysLT(2)R promoter activation, mRNA level, and protein level, we performed luciferase gene reporter assays, real-time polymerase chain reactions, and Western blots in colon cancer cell lines under various conditions. RESULTS: ATRA treatment induces CysLT(2)R mRNA and protein expression without affecting CysLT(1)R levels. Experiments using siRNA and mutant cell lines indicate that the up-regulation is retinoic acid receptor (RAR) dependent. Interestingly, ATRA also up-regulates mRNA expression of leukotriene C4 synthase, the enzyme responsible for the production of the ligand for CysLT(2)R. Importantly, ATRA-induced differentiation of colorectal cancer cells as shown by increased expression of MUC-2 and production of alkaline phosphatase, both of which could be reduced by a CysLT(2)R-specific inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies a novel mechanism of action for ATRA in colorectal cancer cell differentiation and demonstrates that retinoids can have anti-tumorigenic effects through their action on the cysteinyl leukotriene pathway.
Project description:Retinoids exert antitumor effects through the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). In the present study, we sought to identify the factors involved in the RARα-mediated transcriptional regulation of the tumor suppressor gene and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was used in the in vitro experiments. Cell invasiveness was measured using trans-well invasion assay. ATRA significantly increased TFPI2 expression through RARα in a human HCC cell line known as HuH7. TFPI2 was vital in the ATRA-mediated suppression of HuH7 cell invasion. The musculo-aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB) significantly enhanced the activation of the TFPI2 promoter via RARα while MAFF inhibited it. The knockdown of RARα or MAFB counteracted the ATRA-mediated suppression of HuH7 cell invasion while the knockdown of MAFF inhibited the invasion. TFPI2 expression in HCC tissues was significantly downregulated possibly due to the decreased expression of RARβ and MAFB. Patients with HCC expressing low MAFB and high MAFF levels showed the shortest disease-free survival time. These results suggest that MAFB and MAFF play critical roles in the antitumor effects of retinoids by regulating the expression of retinoid target genes such as TFPI2 and can be promising for developing therapies to combat HCC invasion.
Project description:Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a treatment success story. From a highly deadly disease it was turned into a highly curable disease by the introduction of differentiation-induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the 1990's. During the last quarter of century, ATRA and other retinoids were used for the treatment and prevention of other cancers and even other diseases. The results were less spectacular, but nevertheless important. Progress has been made toward understanding the mechanism of action of retinoids in different physiological and pathological contexts. For some diseases, specific genetic backgrounds were found to confer responsiveness to retinoid therapy. Therapies that include retinoids and other modalities are very diverse and used both for combined targeting of multiple pathways and for diminishing toxicity.
Project description:Many human cancer cells are sensitive to killing by the proapoptotic ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is under study for cancer treatment in clinical trials. The TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R1; also known as death receptor 4) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we show that retinoids sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating expression of TRAIL-R1. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) upregulated TRAIL-R1 expression in human cancer cells at the transcriptional level. The ability of ATRA to activate TRAIL-R1 expression was inhibited by retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonists or siRNAs, but augmented by several RAR agonists. In analyzing how ATRA induces RAR-dependent transcriptional upregulation of TRAIL-R1, we identified 2 putative retinoic acid response elements termed Pal-17 (a palindrome separated by 17 bases) and DR-11 (a direct repeat separated by 11 bases) in the 5'-flanking region of TRAIL-R1 gene. Deletion of DR-11, but not Pal-17, abrogated the ability of ATRA to stimulate TRAIL-R1 promoter activity. Consistent with this observation, RAR binding to DR-11, but not to Pal-17, was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in ATRA-treated cells, arguing that DR-11 was responsible for ATRA-mediated activation of the TRAIL-R1 gene. ATRA augmented TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and this activity was attenuated by a blockade to upregulation of TRAIL-R1 expression. Taken together, our findings establish that ATRA accentuates TRAIL-induced apoptosis, reveal a novel mechanism by which retinoids modulate apoptosis, and suggest a novel strategy to augment the anti-cancer activity of TRAIL.