Low-density lipoprotein receptor-5 contributes to whole body metabolism by regulating fatty acid metabolism in the osteoblast
ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling is critical for normal skeletal development as well as whole-body metabolic function. In this study, we described a previously unrecognized function for Wnt-Lrp5 signaling in the osteoblast that allows bone to acquire the resources necessary to fuel bone formation. Mice lacking the Lrp5 co-receptor specifically in osteoblasts and osteocytes exhibit the expected reductions in postnatal bone mass and also develop peripheral adiposity with corresponding reductions in energy expenditure. Conversely, mice expressing a high-bone mass mutant Lrp5 allele are leaner with reduced plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. In this context, Wnt-initiated signals downstream of Lrp5, but not Lrp6, regulate the expression of key enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. These results suggest that Wnt-Lrp5 signaling regulates basic cellular activities beyond those associated with fate-specification and differentiation in bone and that the skeleton influences global energy homeostasis via mechanisms independent of osteocalcin and glucose metabolism Overall design: Total RNA isolated from cultures of Lrp5-deficient osteoblasts differentiated for 7 days in vitro compared to control osteoblasts
Project description:Wnt signaling is critical for normal skeletal development as well as whole-body metabolic function. In this study, we described a previously unrecognized function for Wnt-Lrp5 signaling in the osteoblast that allows bone to acquire the resources necessary to fuel bone formation. Mice lacking the Lrp5 co-receptor specifically in osteoblasts and osteocytes exhibit the expected reductions in postnatal bone mass and also develop peripheral adiposity with corresponding reductions in energy expenditure. Conversely, mice expressing a high-bone mass mutant Lrp5 allele are leaner with reduced plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. In this context, Wnt-initiated signals downstream of Lrp5, but not Lrp6, regulate the expression of key enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. These results suggest that Wnt-Lrp5 signaling regulates basic cellular activities beyond those associated with fate-specification and differentiation in bone and that the skeleton influences global energy homeostasis via mechanisms independent of osteocalcin and glucose metabolism Total RNA isolated from cultures of Lrp5-deficient osteoblasts differentiated for 7 days in vitro compared to control osteoblasts
Project description:The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (Lrp)-5 functions as a Wnt coreceptor. Here we show that mice with a targeted disruption of Lrp5 develop a low bone mass phenotype. In vivo and in vitro analyses indicate that this phenotype becomes evident postnatally, and demonstrate that it is secondary to decreased osteoblast proliferation and function in a Cbfa1-independent manner. Lrp5 is expressed in osteoblasts and is required for optimal Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. In addition, Lrp5-deficient mice display persistent embryonic eye vascularization due to a failure of macrophage-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These results implicate Wnt proteins in the postnatal control of vascular regression and bone formation, two functions affected in many diseases. Moreover, these features recapitulate human osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, caused by LRP5 inactivation.
Project description:Osteocytes, former osteoblasts buried within bone, are thought to orchestrate skeletal adaptation to mechanical stimuli. However, it remains unknown whether hormones control skeletal homeostasis through actions on osteocytes. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone remodeling and may cause bone loss or bone gain depending on the balance between bone resorption and formation. Herein, we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active PTH receptor exclusively in osteocytes exhibit increased bone mass and bone remodeling, as well as reduced expression of the osteocyte-derived Wnt antagonist sclerostin, increased Wnt signaling, increased osteoclast and osteoblast number, and decreased osteoblast apoptosis. Deletion of the Wnt co-receptor LDL related receptor 5 (LRP5) attenuates the high bone mass phenotype but not the increase in bone remodeling induced by the transgene. These findings demonstrate that PTH receptor signaling in osteocytes increases bone mass and the rate of bone remodeling through LRP5-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively.
Project description:High-bone-mass (HBM)-causing missense mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (Lrp5) are associated with increased osteoanabolic action and protection from disuse- and ovariectomy-induced osteopenia. These mutations (e.g., A214V and G171V) confer resistance to endogenous secreted Lrp5/6 inhibitors, such as sclerostin (SOST) and Dickkopf homolog-1 (DKK1). Cells in the osteoblast lineage are responsive to canonical Wnt stimulation, but recent work has indicated that osteoclasts exhibit both indirect and direct responsiveness to canonical Wnt. Whether Lrp5-HBM receptors, expressed in osteoclasts, might alter osteoclast differentiation, activity, and consequent net bone balance in the skeleton, is not known. To address this, we bred mice harboring heterozygous Lrp5 HBM-causing conditional knock-in alleles to Ctsk-Cre transgenic mice and studied the phenotype using DXA, ?CT, histomorphometry, serum assays, and primary cell culture. Mice with HBM alleles induced in Ctsk-expressing cells (TG) exhibited higher bone mass and architectural properties compared to non-transgenic (NTG) counterparts. In vivo and in vitro measurements of osteoclast activity, population density, and differentiation yielded significant reductions in osteoclast-related parameters in female but not male TG mice. Droplet digital PCR performed on osteocyte enriched cortical bone tubes from TG and NTG mice revealed that ~8-17% of the osteocyte population (depending on sex) underwent recombination of the conditional Lrp5 allele in the presence of Ctsk-Cre. Further, bone formation parameters in the midshaft femur cortex show a small but significant increase in anabolic action on the endocortical but not periosteal surface. These findings suggest that Wnt/Lrp5 signaling in osteoclasts affects osteoclastogenesis and activity in female mice, but also that some of the changes in bone mass in TG mice might be due to Cre expression in the osteocyte population.
Project description:One of the well characterized cell biologic actions of lithium is the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and the consequent activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Because deficient Wnt signaling has been implicated in disorders of reduced bone mass, we tested whether lithium could improve bone mass in mice. We gavage-fed lithium chloride to 8-week-old mice from three different strains (Lrp5(-/-), SAMP6, and C57BL/6) and assessed the effect on bone metabolism after 4 weeks of therapy. Lrp5(-/-) mice lack the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and have markedly reduced bone mass. Lithium, which is predicted to act downstream of this receptor, restored bone metabolism and bone mass to near wild-type levels in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium significantly improved bone mass in these mice and in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. We found that lithium activated canonical Wnt signaling in cultured calvarial osteoblasts from Lrp5(-/-) mice ex vivo and that lithium-treated mice had increased expression of Wnt-responsive genes in their bone marrow cells in vivo. These data lead us to conclude that lithium enhances bone formation and improves bone mass in mice and that it may do so via activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. Lithium has been used safely and effectively for over half a century in the treatment of bipolar illness. Prospective studies in patients receiving lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans.
Project description:Osteoblasts are emerging regulators of myeloid malignancies since genetic alterations in them, such as constitutive activation of ?-catenin, instigate their appearance. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initially proposed to be a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, in fact favors bone formation by suppressing gut-serotonin synthesis. This function of Lrp5 occurring in the gut is independent of ?-catenin activation in osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether Lrp5 can act directly in osteoblast to influence other functions that require ?-catenin signaling, particularly, the deregulation of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of ?-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5(A214V)) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5 mutation, we show here that Lrp5 GOF mutations in both humans and mice do not activate ?-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. Consistent with a lack of ?-catenin activation in their osteoblasts, Lrp5(A214V) mice have normal trilinear hematopoiesis. In contrast to leukemic mice with constitutive activation of ?-catenin in osteoblasts (Ctnnb1(CAosb)), accumulation of early myeloid progenitors, a characteristic of AML, myeloid-blasts in blood, and segmented neutrophils or dysplastic megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, are not observed in Lrp5(A214V) mice. Likewise, peripheral blood count analysis in HBM patients showed normal hematopoiesis, normal percentage of myeloid cells, and lack of anemia. We conclude that Lrp5 GOF mutations do not activate ?-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. As a result, myeloid lineage differentiation is normal in HBM patients and mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza.
Project description:Wnt3a is a major regulator of bone metabolism however, very few of its target genes are known in bone. Wnt3a preferentially signals through transmembrane receptors Frizzled and co-receptors Lrp5/6 to activate the canonical signaling pathway. Previous studies have shown that the canonical Wnt co-receptors Lrp5 and Lrp6 also play an essential role in normal postnatal bone homeostasis, yet, very little is known about specific contributions by these co-receptors in Wnt3a-dependent signaling. We used high-throughput sequencing technology to identify target genes regulated by Wnt3a in osteoblasts and to elucidate the role of Lrp5 and Lrp6 in mediating Wnt3a signaling. Our study identified 782 genes regulated by Wnt3a in primary calvarial osteoblasts. Wnt3a up-regulated the expression of several key regulators of osteoblast proliferation/ early stages of differentiation while inhibiting genes expressed in later stages of osteoblastogenesis. We also found that Lrp6 is the key mediator of Wnt3a signaling in osteoblasts and Lrp5 played a less significant role in mediating Wnt3a signaling.
Project description:Loss- and gain-of-function mutations in the broadly expressed gene Lrp5 affect bone formation, causing osteoporosis and high bone mass, respectively. Although Lrp5 is viewed as a Wnt coreceptor, osteoblast-specific disruption of beta-Catenin does not affect bone formation. Instead, we show here that Lrp5 inhibits expression of Tph1, the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme for serotonin in enterochromaffin cells of the duodenum. Accordingly, decreasing serotonin blood levels normalizes bone formation and bone mass in Lrp5-deficient mice, and gut- but not osteoblast-specific Lrp5 inactivation decreases bone formation in a beta-Catenin-independent manner. Moreover, gut-specific activation of Lrp5, or inactivation of Tph1, increases bone mass and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Serotonin acts on osteoblasts through the Htr1b receptor and CREB to inhibit their proliferation. By identifying duodenum-derived serotonin as a hormone inhibiting bone formation in an Lrp5-dependent manner, this study broadens our understanding of bone remodeling and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass.
Project description:Cadherins are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that have a major role in morphogenesis and tissue formation. In bone, cadherins control osteoblast differentiation by mediating cell-cell adhesion and signals that promote phenotypic osteoblast gene expression. Furthermore, cadherins can interact with Wnt signalling to modulate osteoblastogenesis. One mechanism involves the interaction of N-cadherin with β-catenin at the cell membrane, resulting in β-catenin sequestration, reduction of the cytosolic β-catenin pool and inhibition of Wnt signalling. In addition to modulating the β-catenin pool, N-cadherin can regulate osteoblasts by interacting with the Wnt coreceptors LRP5 or LRP6. We showed that the functional interaction between N-cadherin and LRP5/6 in osteoblasts promotes β-catenin degradation and reduces canonical Wnt signalling. This crosstalk between N-cadherin and Wnt signalling has a negative impact on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and survival, independently of cell-cell adhesion, which results in decreased bone formation and delayed bone accrual in mice. The identification of this crosstalk between N-cadherin and Wnt signalling may have therapeutic implications, as a disruption of the N-cadherin-LRP5/6 interaction using a competitor peptide can increase Wnt/β-catenin signalling without affecting cell-cell adhesion, and this effect results in increased osteoblastogenesis and bone tissue formation in vivo. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the key crosstalks between cadherins and Wnt signalling that impact osteoblast function, bone formation and bone mass, and the possible therapeutic implications of such interactions for promoting osteoblastogenesis, bone formation and bone mass.
Project description:The Wnt signaling pathway is a robust regulator of skeletal homeostasis. Gain-of-function mutations promote high bone mass, whereas loss of Lrp5 or Lrp6 co-receptors decrease bone mass. Similarly, mutations in antagonists of Wnt signaling influence skeletal integrity, in an inverse relation to Lrp receptor mutations. Loss of the Wnt antagonist Sclerostin (Sost) produces the generalized skeletal hyperostotic condition of sclerosteosis, which is characterized by increased bone mass and density due to hyperactive osteoblast function. Here we demonstrate that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a paracrine factor with pleiotropic effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreases Sclerostin expression in osteoblastic UMR106.01 cells. Decreased Sost expression correlates with increased expression of Wnt/TCF target genes Axin2 and Tcf3. We also show that the suppressive effect of PGE(2) is mediated through a cyclic AMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, selective agonists for the PGE(2) receptor EP2 mimic the effect of PGE(2) upon Sost, and siRNA reduction in Ptger2 prevents PGE(2)-induced Sost repression. These results indicate a functional relationship between prostaglandins and the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in bone.