Whole Blood and Stimulated Whole Blood Transcriptomics in COPD.
ABSTRACT: We observed no transcripts in the whole blood that distinguishes COPD patients and control smokers. In contrast, T cell directed stimulation of whole blood, resulted in altered transcriptomic response and separated COPD patients from control smokers. Overall design: Performed microarrays on whole blood from 80 subjects. Control groups were smokers with out COPD. Compared COPD subjects to controls. Whole blood from COPD subjects were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and microarray perfomed. N=62 (stimulated) and N=64 (unstimulated
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array
Project description:We observed separation of COPD patients from control smokers by CD4+ T cell transcriptomics. In contrast to CD4+ T cells, there were no transcript differences in whole blood, CD8+ T cells or CD14+ monocytes. Overall design: We examined transcripts of CD4+ T cells (n=79), CD8+ T cells (n=75) and CD14+ T cells (n=75) isolated from the whole blood of subjects. The control group were smokers without COPD. We examined differences between COPD and controls.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test whether repeatable biomarkers collected from serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum of healthy smokers and smokers with COPD would have a prognostic value with respect to the decline in lung function over a 5 year period. METHODS: In 2006/2007 we had repeatedly collected serum, BAL and sputum of 23 healthy smokers and 24 smokers with COPD (GOLD II) and analysed a panel of more than 100 different parameters. In 2012 we reinvited these subjects to assess the change in lung function to enable the investigation of the potential prognostic value of the 2006/2007 markers and to determine the long-term repeatability of selected blood and serum markers. In this follow-up study we performed body-plethysmography, a blood gas analysis and collected blood and urine samples. The change in lung function was compared with 67 markers from BAL, sputum, serum and whole blood that were shown in the 2006/2007 assessment to be repeatable over a 6 week period. RESULTS: We were able to recruit 13 (54%) smokers with COPD and 11 (48%) former healthy smokers that participated in the 2006/2007 study. The decline in lung function was larger in COPD smokers; five of them changed to GOLD III, one to GOLD IV. Two healthy smokers changed to GOLD I. Blood cells, serum von Willebrand factor and alpha-1-antitrypsin showed a good repeatability over 5 years. In COPD smokers a weak correlation between 2006/2007 sputum markers of neutrophilic inflammation and the 5 year change in FEV1/FVC was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that inter-individual and group differences are maintained over a five year period. Despite the large panel of markers available for this analysis, a potential prognostic value appears to exist only for some sputum inflammatory markers. If these data can be confirmed in larger COPD cohorts, it would emphasize the value of sputum markers in clinical trials and support the assumption that an anti-inflammatory treatment can have long term benefits in COPD.
Project description:The heterogeneous clinical phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) challenge successful drug development. To identify COPD subgroups beyond clinical phenotypes, we interrogated blood immune cell profiles and ex-vivo responses of current and former smokers, with or without COPD, in the longitudinal COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene) cohort. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and monocytes were profiled by flow cytometry. Microarray analysis was performed on the RNA from the aforementioned isolated cells. T-cell directed whole blood ex-vivo stimulation was used to assess functional responses. Blood CD4+ T-cell transcript analysis distinguished patients with COPD from control smokers and also enriched for a subset of patients with COPD that had a history of exacerbations of the disease. Analogous analyses of CD8+ T cells and monocytes failed to discriminate patients with COPD from the control population. Patients with COPD had a diminished cytokine response, compared to control smokers, characterized by low levels of granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-?), interleukin one-alpha (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-?) secreted in response to T-cell directed ex-vivo stimulation. This cytokine response associated with baseline disease severity (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted), rapidly declining lung function, and emphysema. Our observations indicate that COPD phenotypes can be further differentiated based on blood CD4+ T-cell profiles and resultant immune responses, suggesting a role for these cells in COPD pathophysiology.
Project description:70 miRNAs and 2667 mRNAs were differentially expressed between lung tissue from subjects with COPD and smokers without COPD. miRNA and mRNA expression profiles enriched for biological pathways that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD including the transforming growth factor b, Wnt and focal adhesion pathways. miR-223 and miR-1274a were the most affected miRNAs in subjects with COPD compared with smokers without obstruction. miR-15b was increased in COPD samples compared with smokers without obstruction and localised to both areas of emphysema and fibrosis. miR-15b was differentially expressed within GOLD classes of COPD. Expression of SMAD7, which was validated as a target for miR-15b, was decreased in bronchial epithelial cells in COPD. Lung tissue from smokers with no evidence of obstructive lung disease and smokers with COPD was examined for miRNA and mRNA expression followed by validation. We then examined both miRNA and mRNA expression to enrich for relevant biological pathways
Project description:There is a need for biomarkers to better characterise individuals with COPD and to aid with the development of therapeutic interventions. A panel of putative blood biomarkers was assessed in a subgroup of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) cohort.Thirty-four blood biomarkers were assessed in 201 subjects with COPD, 37 ex-smoker controls with normal lung function and 37 healthy non-smokers selected from the ECLIPSE cohort. Biomarker repeatability was assessed using baseline and 3-month samples. Intergroup comparisons were made using analysis of variance, repeatability was assessed through Bland-Altman plots, and correlations between biomarkers and clinical characteristics were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients.Fifteen biomarkers were significantly different in individuals with COPD when compared to former or non-smoker controls. Some biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, were measurable in only a minority of subjects whilst others such as C-reactive protein showed wide variability over the 3-month replication period. Fibrinogen was the most repeatable biomarker and exhibited a weak correlation with 6-minute walk distance, exacerbation rate, BODE index and MRC dyspnoea score in COPD subjects. 33% (66/201) of the COPD subjects reported at least 1 exacerbation over the 3 month study with 18% (36/201) reporting the exacerbation within 30 days of the 3-month visit. CRP, fibrinogen interleukin-6 and surfactant protein-D were significantly elevated in those COPD subjects with exacerbations within 30 days of the 3-month visit compared with those individuals that did not exacerbate or whose exacerbations had resolved.Only a few of the biomarkers assessed may be useful in diagnosis or management of COPD where the diagnosis is based on airflow obstruction (GOLD). Further analysis of more promising biomarkers may reveal utility in subsets of patients. Fibrinogen in particular has emerged as a potentially useful biomarker from this cohort and requires further investigation.SCO104960, clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00292552.
Project description:One of the most common smoking-related diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), results from a dysregulated, multi-tissue inflammatory response to cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that systemic inflammatory signals in genome-wide blood gene expression can identify clinically important COPD-related disease subtypes, and we leveraged pre-existing gene interaction networks to guide unsupervised clustering of blood microarray expression data. Using network-informed non-negative matrix factorization, we analyzed genome-wide blood gene expression from 229 former smokers in the ECLIPSE Study, and we identified novel, clinically relevant molecular subtypes of COPD. These network-informed clusters were more stable and more strongly associated with measures of lung structure and function than clusters derived from a network-naïve approach, and they were associated with subtype-specific enrichment for inflammatory and protein catabolic pathways. These clusters were successfully reproduced in an independent sample of 135 smokers from the COPDGene Study.
Project description:Background: COPD is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and predicted to rank third by 2020. Statins are commonly used lipid lowering agents with documented benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and have also been shown to have pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Objective: Identify a gene signature associated with statin use in the blood of COPD patients, and identify molecular mechanisms and pathways underpinning this signature that could explain any potential benefits in COPD. Methods: Whole blood gene expression was measured on 168 statin users and 452 non-users from the ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) study. Gene expression was measured using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST microarray chips. Factor Analysis for Robust Microarray Summarization (FARMS) was used to process the expression data and to filter out non-informative probe sets. Differential gene expression analysis was undertaken using the Linear Models for Microarray data (Limma) package adjusting for propensity score and employing a surrogate variable analysis. Similarity of the expression signal with published gene expression profiles was performed in ProfileChaser. Results: 18 genes were differentially expressed between statin users and non-users at a false discovery rate of 10%. Top genes included LDLR, ABCA1, ABCG1, MYLIP, SC4MOL, and DHCR24. The 18 genes were significantly enriched in pathways and biological processes related to cholesterol homeostasis and metabolism, and were enriched for transcription factor binding sites for sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2). The resulting gene signature showed correlation with Huntington disease, Parkinson’s disease and acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusion: Statins gene signature was not enriched in any pathways related to respiratory diseases, beyond the drug’s effect on cholesterol homeostasis. Study subjects were a subset of those with COPD from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study (Vestbo et al.), funded by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK Study No. SCO104960, NCT00292552). ECLIPSE is a non-interventional, observational, multicentre, three-year study in people with COPD. Blood was collected in PAXGene tubes and frozen at -80oC. In this work we have looked at the effect of statins on gene expression in 620 subjects of whom 168 were statin users. ECLIPSE study was described in: Vestbo J, Anderson W, Coxson HO, et al.: Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE). Eur Respir J. 2008;31(4):869-73
Project description:BACKGROUND:Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is a class I histone deacetylase family member that plays a critical role in suppressing inflammatory gene expression in the airways, lung parenchyma, and alveolar macrophages in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the expression of HDAC2 in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65, and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in COPD patients, smokers, and non-smokers remains unclear. METHODS:PBMCs were obtained from COPD patients, healthy smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The HDAC2 and NF-?B p65 expression were quantified by Western Blot. HDAC activity was assessed by an HDAC fluorometric immunoprecipitation activity assay kit. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS:HDAC2 expression and HDAC activity were decreased in PBMCs in COPD patients compared with smokers and non-smokers. Increased NF-?B p65 expression, serum TNF-? and IL-8 levels were observed in COPD patients compared with nonsmokers. The FEV1%pred was positively correlated with HDAC2 expression and HDAC activity in COPD patients. Smokers had decreased HDAC activity, increased NF-?B p65 expression and serum TNF-? compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS:HDAC2 expression was decreased in PBMCs of COPD patients and was correlated with disease severity. The reduction of HDAC2 expression not only directly enhances the expression of inflammatory genes, but may account for the activation of NF-?B mediated inflammation. Decreased HDAC2 may serve as a potential biomarker of COPD and predict the decline of lung function.
Project description:Rationale: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with a complex pulmonary and systemic immune response. Objective: To characterize and relate the lung tissue and circulating blood network immune response in COPD. Methods: Lung tissue and circulating blood samples were simultaneously obtained from COPD patients (current smokers n=28 and former smokers n=16) and controls (current smokers n=9 and non-smokers n=12) undergoing thoracic surgery. We used flow cytometry to assess the immune cell composition, Affymetrix arrays to determine whole lung mRNA expression, and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to characterize and compare the pulmonary and systemic immune responses in patients and controls. Results: In lung tissue of current smokers with COPD (vs. non-smokers and former smokers with COPD) we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediated phenotype macrophages (Mphage) expressing both M1 and M2 markers, whereas that of M1 Mphage (pro-inflammatory) and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes were decreased. These changes were not mirrored in circulating blood but WGCNA identified three modules of co-expressed genes that related, respectively to: (1) the total proportion of lung Mphage (extracellular matrix and angiogenesis genes) ; (2) active smoking (T cell and apoptosis related genes); and, (3) severity of airflow limitation (cilium organization genes). Conclusions: In mild/moderate COPD, the main pulmonary immune cell alterations relate to current smoking, involve changes in the proportion of Mphage and T cells and are associated with changes in whole lung tissue transcriptome. These cellular pulmonary changes are not mirrored in the systemic circulation. Overall design: Fresh lung tissue was preserved in RNAlater® (Life Technologies, US). From 53 individuals, total RNA was isolated with PureLink RNA-MiniKit (Life Technologies, US), quantified by Nanodrop (Thermo Scientific, Germany). RNA samples with integrity numbers (RIN) ≥ 7 (Agilent technologies, Germany), where analyzed with the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U219 Array Plate at the IDIBAPS genomics platform. Microarray results were RMA normalized and probes in the lowest quartile of variability were removed. Remaining probes were then collapsed to gene Symbols and a weighted gene co-expression network (WGNCA) was built with soft thresholding power of 9, on a total of 53 individuals. The analysis produced 24 modules, each containing a set of unique genes. Module eigengenes were correlated with variables of interest (FEV1, Smoking status, Lung Monocytes, Lung T Lymphocytes, macrophages and BMI).
Project description:Background:The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist - liraglutide (LIR) - is an insulin secretagogue for the treatment of diabetes and has been proven to have therapeutic potential in the treatment of COPD. Evidence suggested that activating GLP-1R signaling might have immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects. COPD is characterized by dysregulation of immunity, oxidative stress, and excessive inflammation responses. The aim of this study was to investigate whether GLP-1R signaling had a regulatory role in COPD immunity. Patients and methods:Fifty-seven COPD patients in a stable condition and 51 age-, sex-, and smoking history-matched non-COPD subjects provided blood samples for isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). GLP-1R expression was measured, and its association with clinical parameters and plasma cytokines was analyzed. T cell function was assessed at baseline and after regulating GLP-1R expression. Results:GLP-1R expression decreased in circulating PBMCs of COPD patients, which was associated with decreased interferon (IFN)-? expression. Reduced IFN-? production stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and increased programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on T cells were observed in COPD patients compared with non-COPD subjects. Treatment with LIR could upregulate the GLP-1R expression, and this was observed to restore the antigen-stimulated IFN-? production and downregulate PD-1 expression in T cells. Conclusion:PBMCs of COPD patients showed defective GLP-1R signaling and functional T-lymphocyte abnormalities that could be rescued by LIR treatment.