MicroRNA-7 modulates Rb1 and c-Myc expression in myeloid leukemias harboring c-Kit mutations
ABSTRACT: The receptor tyrosine kinase, c-kit, plays a pivotal role in hematopoiesis and self-renewal. Aberrant activation of c-kit can be induced by genetic alterations and is thought to confer therapeutic resistance in leukemia. Significantly, the c-kit D816V mutation is a well-known indicator of poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias harboring t(8;21) chromosomal translocations; however, the mechanism by which this mutation promotes therapeutic resistance is still unclear. Our study identified that miR-7 directly targets Retinoblastoma-like Protein 1 (Rb1) and is regulated by the MEK pathway. In addition, we also found that c-Myc is upregulated by the D816V mutation, and is indirectly downregulated by miR-7. Overall design: Sample: (1)Ba/F3 (2)Ba/F3 c-kit V814 (3)MEK inhibitor treated Ba/F3 c-kit V814 ((1)vs(2)), ((2)vs(3)) To screen candidate microRNAs, an array was used to identify differences in microRNA expression between Ba/F3 cells and V814+Ba/F3 cells, as well as V814+Ba/F3 cells in the presence or absence of MEK inhibitor.
Project description:Systemic mastocytosis is a neoplastic disease of mast cells harboring the activating KIT mutation D816V. In most patients, mast cell infiltration in the bone marrow is accompanied by marked microenvironment alterations, including increased angiogenesis, osteosclerosis, and sometimes fibrosis. Little is known about the mast cell-derived molecules contributing to these bone marrow alterations. We show here that neoplastic mast cells in patients with systemic mastocytosis express oncostatin M (OSM), a profibrogenic and angiogenic modulator. To study the regulation of OSM expression, KIT D816V was inducibly expressed in Ba/F3 cells and was found to up-regulate OSM mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that OSM is a KIT D816V-dependent mediator. Correspondingly, KIT D816V(+) HMC-1.2 cells expressed significantly higher amounts of OSM than the KIT D816V(-) HMC-1.1 subclone. RNA interference-induced knockdown of STAT5, a key transcription factor in KIT D816V(+) mast cells, inhibited OSM expression in HMC-1 cells, whereas a constitutively activated STAT5 mutant induced OSM expression. Finally, OSM secreted from KIT D816V(+) mast cells stimulated growth of endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts, suggesting that mast cell-derived OSM may serve as a key modulator of the marrow microenvironment and thus contribute to the pathology of systemic mastocytosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in Kit receptor tyrosine kinase or the related platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). METHODS: This study investigated the activity of motesanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) 1, 2, and 3; PDGFR; and Kit, against primary activating Kit mutants and mutants associated with secondary resistance to imatinib. Single- and double-mutant isoforms of Kit were evaluated for their sensitivity to motesanib or imatinib in autophosphorylation assays and in Ba/F3 cell proliferation assays. RESULTS: Motesanib inhibited Kit autophosphorylation in CHO cell lines expressing primary activating mutations in exon 9 (AYins503-504, IC50 = 18 nM) and exon 11 (V560 D, IC50 = 5 nM; Delta552-559, IC50 = 1 nM). Motesanib also demonstrated activity against kinase domain mutations conferring imatinib resistance (V560D/V654A, IC50 = 77 nM; V560D/T670I, IC50 = 277 nM; Y823 D, IC50 = 64 nM) but failed to inhibit the imatinib-resistant D816V mutant (IC50 > 3000 nM). Motesanib suppressed the proliferation of Ba/F3 cells expressing Kit mutants with IC50 values in good agreement with those observed in the autophosphorylation assays. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data suggest that motesanib possesses inhibitory activity against primary Kit mutations and some imatinib-resistant secondary mutations.
Project description:Stem cell factor-dependent KIT activation is an essential process for mast cell homeostasis. The two major splice variants of KIT differ by the presence or absence of four amino acids (GNNK) at the juxta-membrane region of the extracellular domain. We hypothesized that the expression pattern of these variants differs in systemic mastocytosis and that transcripts containing the KIT D816V mutation segregate preferentially to one GNNK variant. A quantitative real-time PCR assay to assess GNNK(-) and GNNK(+) transcripts from bone marrow mononuclear cells was developed. The GNNK(-)/GNNK(+) copy number ratio showed a trend toward a positive correlation with the percentage of neoplastic mast cell involvement, and KIT D816V containing transcripts displayed a significantly elevated GNNK(-)/GNNK(+) copy number ratio. Relative expression of only the GNNK(-) variant correlated with increasing percentage of neoplastic mast cell involvement. A mast cell transfection system revealed that the GNNK(-) isoform of wild type KIT was associated with increased granule formation, histamine content, and growth. When accompanying the KIT D816V mutation, the GNNK(-) isoform enhanced cytokine-free metabolism and moderately reduced sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PKC412. These data suggest that neoplastic mast cells favor a GNNK(-) variant predominance, which in turn enhances the activating potential of the KIT D816V mutation and thus could influence therapeutic sensitivity in systemic mastocytosis.
Project description:Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a clonal bone marrow disorder, where therapeutical options are limited. Over 90% of the patients carry the D816V point mutation in the KIT receptor that renders this receptor constitutively active. We assessed the sensitivity of primary mast cells (MC) and mast cell lines HMC1.2 (D816V mutated), ROSA (KIT WT) and ROSA (KIT D816V) cells to histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. We found that of four HDACi, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) was the most effective in killing mutated MC. SAHA downregulated KIT, followed by major MC apoptosis. Primary SM patient MC cultured ex vivo were even more sensitive to SAHA than HMC1.2 cells, whereas primary MC from healthy subjects were less affected. There was a correlation between cell death and SM disease severity, where cell death was more pronounced in the case of aggressive SM, with almost 100% cell death among MC from the mast cell leukemia patient. Additionally, ROSA (KIT D816V) was more affected by HDACi than ROSA (KIT WT) cells. Using ChIP qPCR, we found that the level of active chromatin mark H3K18ac/H3 decreased significantly in the KIT region. This epigenetic silencing was seen only in the KIT region and not in control genes upstream and downstream of KIT, indicating that the downregulation of KIT is exerted by specific epigenetic silencing. In conclusion, KIT D816V mutation sensitized MC to HDACi mediated killing, and SAHA may be of value as specific treatment for SM, although the specific mechanism of action requires further investigation.
Project description:ROS1 rearrangement leads to constitutive ROS1 activation with potent transforming activity. In an ongoing phase I trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib shows remarkable initial responses in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 fusions; however, cancers eventually develop crizotinib resistance due to acquired mutations such as G2032R in ROS1. Thus, understanding the crizotinib-resistance mechanisms in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC and identification of therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance are required.The sensitivity of CD74-ROS1-transformed Ba/F3 cells to multiple ALK inhibitors was examined. Acquired ROS1 inhibitor-resistant mutations in CD74-ROS1 fusion were screened by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis with Ba/F3 cells. To overcome the resistance mutation, we performed high-throughput drug screening with small-molecular inhibitors and anticancer drugs used in clinical practice or being currently tested in clinical trials. The effect of the identified drug was assessed in the CD74-ROS1-mutant Ba/F3 cells and crizotinib-resistant patient-derived cancer cells (MGH047) harboring G2032R-mutated CD74-ROS1.We identified multiple novel crizotinib-resistance mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain, including the G2032R mutation. As the result of high-throughput drug screening, we found that the cMET/RET/VEGFR inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184) effectively inhibited the survival of CD74-ROS1 wild-type (WT) and resistant mutants harboring Ba/F3 and MGH047 cells. Furthermore, cabozantinib could overcome all the resistance by all newly identified secondary mutations.We developed a comprehensive model of acquired resistance to ROS1 inhibitors in NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement and identified cabozantinib as a therapeutic strategy to overcome the resistance.
Project description:The colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) and the stem cell factor receptor KIT, type III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), are important mediators of signal transduction. The normal functions of these receptors can be compromised by gain-of-function mutations associated with different physiopatological impacts. Whereas KIT D816V/H mutation is a well-characterized oncogenic event and principal cause of systemic mastocytosis, the homologous CSF-1R D802V has not been identified in human cancers. The KIT D816V oncogenic mutation triggers resistance to the RTK inhibitor Imatinib used as first line treatment against chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal tumors. CSF-1R is also sensitive to Imatinib and this sensitivity is altered by mutation D802V. Previous in silico characterization of the D816V mutation in KIT evidenced that the mutation caused a structure reorganization of the juxtamembrane region (JMR) and facilitated its departure from the kinase domain (KD). In this study, we showed that the equivalent CSF-1R D802V mutation does not promote such structural effects on the JMR despite of a reduction on some key H-bonds interactions controlling the JMR binding to the KD. In addition, this mutation disrupts the allosteric communication between two essential regulatory fragments of the receptors, the JMR and the A-loop. Nevertheless, the mutation-induced shift towards an active conformation observed in KIT D816V is not observed in CSF-1R D802V. The distinct impact of equivalent mutation in two homologous RTKs could be associated with the sequence difference between both receptors in the native form, particularly in the JMR region. A local mutation-induced perturbation on the A-loop structure observed in both receptors indicates the stabilization of an inactive non-inhibited form, which Imatinib cannot bind.
Project description:The KIT mutation D816V is associated with autonomous growth of mast cells (MC) and is detectable in most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), including cases with associated hematologic non-MC-lineage disease (AHNMD). Recently, KIT D816V was reported to be expressed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it was not clarified whether these patients have co-existing occult SM. We investigated neoplastic cells in 101 patients with AML for expression of KIT D816V. In 7/101 patients (6.9%), KIT D816V was detectable. After a thorough histologic, molecular, and biochemical analysis, all 7 cases were found to have an associated SM, leading to the final diagnosis SM-AML. Microdissected tryptase+ MC displayed KIT D816V in all patients tested, whereas CD34+ blasts exhibited KIT D816V in only 2/4 patients. In one AML patient, SM without KIT D816V was detected. In all other patients, no associated SM was found, and leukemic blasts were negative for KIT D816V. In summary, our data show that KIT D816V in AML is highly associated with co-existing SM (SM-AML). Moreover, our data show that AML blasts may lack this transforming target-mutant, which may be important when considering the use of KIT D816V-targeting drugs for treatment of patients with KIT D816V-positive AML.
Project description:A high allele burden of the KIT D816V mutation in peripheral blood or bone marrow aspirates indicates multi-lineage hematopoietic involvement and has been associated with an aggressive clinical course of systemic mastocytosis. Since mast cells are substantially underrepresented in these liquid specimens, their mutation burden likely underestimates the tumor burden of the disease. We used a novel previously validated digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for KIT D816V analysis to systematically analyze the mutation burden in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bone marrow tissue sections of 116 mastocytosis patients (91 with indolent and 25 with advanced systemic mastocytosis), and to evaluate for the first time the clinical value of the tissue mutation burden as a novel biomarker. The KIT D816V mutation burden in the tissue was significantly higher and correlated better with bone marrow mast cell infiltration (r=0.68 vs 0.48) and serum tryptase levels (r=0.68 vs 0.58) compared to that in liquid specimens. Furthermore, the KIT D816V tissue mutation burden was: (i) significantly higher in advanced than in indolent systemic mastocytosis (P=0.001); (ii) predicted survival of patients in multivariate analyses independently; and (iii) was significantly reduced after response to cytoreductive therapy. Finally, digital PCR was more sensitive in detecting KIT D816V in bone marrow sections of indolent systemic mastocytosis patients than melting curve analysis after peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping (97% vs 89%; P<0.05). In summary, digital PCR-based measurement of KIT D816V mutation burden in the tissue represents a novel biomarker with independent prognostic significance that can also be employed for monitoring disease progression and treatment response in systemic mastocytosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The analytically sensitive detection of KIT D816V in blood and bone marrow is important for diagnosing systemic mastocytosis (SM). Additionally, precise quantification of the KIT D816V variant allele fraction (VAF) is relevant clinically because it helps to predict multilineage involvement and prognosis in cases of advanced SM. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a promising new method for sensitive detection and accurate quantification of somatic mutations. METHODS:We performed a validation study of dPCR for KIT D816V on 302 peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from 156 patients with mastocytosis for comparison with melting curve analysis after peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping (clamp-PCR) and allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). RESULTS:dPCR showed a limit of detection of 0.01% VAF with a mean CV of 8.5% and identified the mutation in 90% of patients compared with 70% for clamp-PCR (P < 0.001). Moreover, dPCR for KIT D816V was highly concordant with qPCR without systematic deviation of results, and confirmed the clinical value of KIT D816V VAF measurements. Thus, patients with advanced SM showed a significantly higher KIT D816V VAF (median, 2.43%) compared with patients with indolent SM (median, 0.14%; P < 0.001). Moreover, dPCR confirmed the prognostic significance of a high KIT D816V VAF regarding survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:dPCR for KIT D816V provides a high degree of precision and sensitivity combined with the potential for interlaboratory standardization, which is crucial for the implementation of KIT D816V allele burden measurement. Thus, dPCR is suitable as a new method for KIT D816V testing in patients with mastocytosis.
Project description:HRAS is a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer. However, mutant HRAS as drug target has not been investigated so far. Here, we show that mutant HRAS hyperactivates the RAS and the mTOR pathway in various cancer cell lines including lung, bladder and esophageal cancer. HRAS mutation sensitized toward growth inhibition by the MEK inhibitors AZD6244, MEK162 and PD0325901. Further, we found that MEK inhibitors induce apoptosis in mutant HRAS cell lines but not in cell lines lacking RAS mutations. In addition, knockdown of HRAS by siRNA blocked cell growth in mutant HRAS cell lines. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway alone or in combination with MEK inhibitors did not alter signaling nor had an impact on viability. However, inhibition of mTOR or combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR reduced cell growth in a synergistic manner. Finally, Ba/F3 cells transformed with mutant HRAS isoforms Q61L, Q61R and G12V demonstrated equal sensitivity towards MEK and mTOR inhibition. Our results show that HRAS mutations in cancer activate the RAS and mTOR pathways which might serve as a therapeutic option for patients with HRAS mutant tumors.