POLRMT regulates the switch between replication-primer formation and gene expression of mammalian mtDNA
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it remains highly controversial if POLRMT also serves as the primase for initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA+ Lon protease in absence of POLRMT. Lastly, mitochondrial transcription elongation factor (TEFM) can compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role for this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present here the first in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a mechanism that provides a switch between RNA primer formation for mtDNA replication and mtDNA expression. Overall design: Isolated heart mitochondria from three control mice (L/L) and three Polrmt knockout mice (L/L, cre), aged 3-4 weeks, were sequenced and analyzed for differential expression.
Project description:Mitochondria are vital in providing cellular energy via their oxidative phosphorylation system, which requires the coordinated expression of genes encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA). Transcription of the circular mammalian mtDNA depends on a single mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT). Although the transcription initiation process is well understood, it remains highly controversial if POLRMT also serves as the primase for initiation of mtDNA replication. In the nucleus, the RNA polymerases needed for gene expression have no such role. Conditional knockout of Polrmt in heart results in severe mitochondrial dysfunction causing dilated cardiomyopathy in young mice. We further studied the molecular consequences of different expression levels of POLRMT and found that POLRMT is essential for primer synthesis to initiate mtDNA replication in vivo. Furthermore, transcription initiation for primer formation has priority over gene expression. Surprisingly, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) exists in an mtDNA-free pool in the Polrmt knockout mice. TFAM levels remain unchanged despite strong mtDNA depletion and TFAM is thus protected from degradation of the AAA+ Lon protease in absence of POLRMT. Lastly, mitochondrial transcription elongation factor (TEFM) can compensate for a partial depletion of POLRMT in heterozygous Polrmt knockout mice, indicating a direct regulatory role for this factor in transcription. In conclusion, we present here the first in vivo evidence that POLRMT has a key regulatory role in replication of mammalian mtDNA and is part of a mechanism that provides a switch between RNA primer formation for mtDNA replication and mtDNA expression. Isolated heart mitochondria from three control mice (L/L) and three Polrmt knockout mice (L/L, cre), aged 3-4 weeks, were sequenced and analyzed for differential expression.
Project description:Regulation of replication and expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for cellular energy conversion via oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial transcription elongation factor (TEFM) has been proposed to regulate the switch between transcription termination for replication primer formation and processive, near-genome length transcription for mtDNA gene expression. Here, we report that Tefm is essential for mouse embryogenesis and that levels of promoter-distal mitochondrial transcripts are drastically reduced in conditional Tefm-knockout hearts. In contrast, the promoter-proximal transcripts are much increased in Tefm knockouts, but they mostly terminate before the region where the switch from transcription to replication occurs, and consequently de novo mtDNA replication is profoundly reduced. Unexpectedly, deep sequencing of RNA from Tefm knockouts revealed accumulation of unprocessed transcripts in addition to defective transcription elongation. Furthermore, a proximity labelling (BioID) assay showed that TEFM interacts with multiple RNA processing factors. Our data demonstrate that TEFM acts as a general transcription elongation factor, necessary for both gene transcription and replication primer formation, and loss of TEFM affects RNA processing in mammalian mitochondria.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes essential components of the respiratory chain and loss of mtDNA leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mtDNA replication and a regulator of mitochondrial copy number in cells. Studies have shown that TFAM knockdown leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and respiratory chain deficiencies. Using gene expression analysis, we aimed to investigate the effects of mtDNA dysfunction in the CNS at the molecular level. We used microarray analysis to investigate gene expression in cases of mitochondrial dysfunction in the CNS. RNA was purified from the late third instar larval CNS from control larvae, or larvae over-expressing mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in post-mitotic neurons using the neuron specific driver nsyb-Gal4. Three replicates are included for each condition.
Project description:The goal of this analysis was to utilize microarray profiling to identify basal alterations in gene expression in response to TFAM depletion and mtDNA stress. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein, TFAM (transcription factor A,mitochondrial), regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance and segregation. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation, triggering calcium-dependent stress signalling and adaptive metabolic responses. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and ageing, remain poorly defined. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signalling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes. Mechanistically, we find that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS (also known as MB21D1) and promotes STING (also known as TMEM173)–IRF3-dependent signalling to elevate interferon-stimulated gene expression, potentiate type I interferon responses and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which enhances antiviral signalling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signaling and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully engage antiviral innate immunity. Murine embryonic fibroblasts were isolated from wild-type or Tfam+/- E13.5 littermate embryos. RNA from passage-matched wild-type and Tfam+/- MEF lines was extracted in duplicate and hybridized onto Affymetrix microarrays. Four arrays were performed in total with two technical replicates per genotype.
Project description:Replication of mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an essential process that requires high fidelity and control at multiple levels to ensure proper mitochondrial function. Mutations in the mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1 (MGME1) gene were recently reported in mitochondrial disease patients. Here, to study disease pathophysiology, we generated Mgme1 knockout mice and report that homozygous knockouts develop depletion and multiple deletions of mtDNA. The mtDNA replication stalling phenotypes vary dramatically in different tissues of Mgme1 knockout mice. Mice with MGME1 deficiency accumulate a long linear subgenomic mtDNA species, similar to the one found in mtDNA mutator mice, but do not develop progeria. This finding resolves a long-standing debate by showing that point mutations of mtDNA are the main cause of progeria in mtDNA mutator mice. We also propose a role for MGME1 in the regulation of replication and transcription termination at the end of the control region of mtDNA.
Project description:Autoantibodies against nucleic acids and excessive type I Interferon (IFN) are hallmarks of human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that SLE neutrophils, exposed to TLR7-agonist autoantibodies, release interferogenic DNA, which we now demonstrate to be of mitochondrial origin. We further show that healthy human neutrophils do not complete mitophagy upon induction of mitochondrial damage. Rather, they extrude mitochondrial components, including DNA (mtDNA), devoid of oxidized residues. When MtDNA undergoes oxidation, it is directly routed to lysosomes for degradation. This rerouting requires dissociation from the transcription factor TFAM, a dual high mobility group (HMG) protein involved in maintenance and compaction of the mitochondrial genome into nucleoids. Exposure of SLE neutrophils, or healthy IFNprimed neutrophils, to anti-RNP autoantibodies blocks TFAM phosphorylation, a necessary step for nucleoid dissociation. Consequently, oxidized nucleoids accumulate within mitochondria and are eventually extruded as potent interferogenic complexes. In support of the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, mitochondrial retention of oxidized nucleoids is a feature of SLE blood neutrophils, and autoantibodies against oxidized mtDNA are present in a fraction of patients. This pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in human SLE. 4 samples, no replicates, 2 controls. 2 samples are Neutrophils cultured with and without CCCP (control). 2 samples are Monocytes cultured with and without CCCP (control).
Project description:Impaired estrogen receptor α (ERα) action promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unknown. Considering that skeletal muscle is a primary tissue responsible for glucose disposal and oxidative metabolism, we established that reduced ERα expression in muscle is associated with glucose intolerance and adiposity in women and female mice. To test this relationship, we generated muscle-specific ERα knockout (MERKO) mice. Impaired glucose homeostasis and increased adiposity were paralleled by diminished muscle oxidative metabolism and bioactive lipid accumulation in MERKO mice. Aberrant mitochondrial morphology, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and impairment in basal and stress-induced mitochondrial fission dynamics, driven by imbalanced protein kinase A–regulator of calcineurin 1–calcineurin signaling through dynamin-related protein 1, tracked with reduced oxidative metabolism in MERKO muscle. Although muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was similar between the genotypes, ERα deficiency diminished mtDNA turnover by a balanced reduction in mtDNA replication and degradation. Our findings indicate the retention of dysfunctional mitochondria in MERKO muscle and implicate ERα in the preservation of mitochondrial health and insulin sensitivity as a defense against metabolic disease in women. Overall design: Quadriceps mRNA profiles of 20-week old wild type (WT) and muscle-specific ERα knockout (MERKO) mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:The developing erythroid cells require highly coordinated gene expression and metabolism. By comparing the proteomic and transcriptomic changes in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and lineage-committed erythroid progenitors (ProEs), and uncover pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis enhanced through post-transcriptional regulation. Two principal mitochondrial factors TFAM and PHB2 are tightly regulated at the protein level and indispensable for mitochondria and erythropoiesis. To determine the role of TFAM in mitochondrial function during erythroid development, we generated Tfam conditional knockout (KO) mice by an erythroid-specific EpoR-Cre allele. We isolated the CD71+Ter119+ embryonic day (E)13.5 fetal liver erythroid cells by FACS sorting, and performed RNA-seq transcriptional profiling analysis. Overall design: CD71+Ter119+ embryonic day (E)13.5 fetal liver erythroid cells were isolated by FACS sorting. Total RNA were extracted and processed for RNA-seq transcriptional profiling analysis.
Project description:Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related disorders, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The accumulation of mitochondria harboring mtDNA mutations in patients with these disorders suggests a failure of normal mitochondrial quality-control systems. The mtDNA-mutator mice acquire somatic mtDNA mutations via a targeted defect in the proofreading function of the mtDNA polymerase, PolgA, and develop macrocyticanemia similar to that of patients with MDS. We observed an unexpected defect in clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria at specific stages during erythroid maturation in hematopoietic cells from aged mtDNA-mutator mice. Mechanistically, aberrant activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling and phosphorylation of uncoordinated 51-like kinase (ULK) 1 in mtDNA-mutator mice resulted in proteasome mediated degradation of ULK1 and inhibition of autophagy in erythroid cells. To directly evaluate the consequence of inhibiting autophagy on mitochondrial function in erythroid cells harboring mtDNA mutations in vivo, we deleted Atg7 from erythroid progenitors of wildtype and mtDNA-mutator mice. Genetic disruption of autophagy did not cause anemia in wild-type mice but accelerated the decline in mitochondrial respiration and development of macrocytic anemia in mtDNA-mutator mice. These findings highlight a pathological feedback loop that explains how dysfunctional mitochondria can escape autophagy-mediated degradation and propagate in cells predisposed to somatic mtDNA mutations, leading to disease. We used microarrays to identify expression profiles and pathways that are differentially activated or suppressed in Ter119+ bone marrow cells isolated from phlebotomized wildtype or Polg mutant mice
Project description:Gene expression analysis of 2-month-old Ctrl and Tfam-SCKO mice. At this age mitochondrial function is disrupted in the Schwann cells of Tfam-SCKO mice ,but their nerves display only very limited pathology. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Much effort has been devoted to examining the role played by neuronal/axonal mitochondria, but how mitochondrial deficits in peripheral nerve glia (Schwann cells, SCs) contribute to peripheral nerve diseases remains unclear. Here, we investigate a mouse model of peripheral neuropathy secondary to SC mitochondrial dysfunction (Tfam-SCKOs). We show that disruption of SC mitochondria activates a maladaptive integrated stress response through actions of heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI), and causes a shift in lipid metabolism away from fatty acid synthesis toward oxidation. These alterations in SC lipid metabolism result in depletion of important myelin lipid components as well as in accumulation of acylcarnitines, an intermediate of fatty acid b-oxidation. Importantly, we show that acylcarnitines are released from SCs and induce axonal degeneration. A maladaptive integrated stress response as well as altered SC lipid metabolism are thus underlying pathological mechanisms in mitochondria-related peripheral neuropathies. Total RNA samples were prepared by isolating and pooling RNA from three different 2-month-old MPZ-Tfam KO and Ctrl mice. 2 replicates per genotype were used in this experiment and they were prepared entirely independently.