The Effects of Regular Post-Exercise Cold Water Immersion on Gene Expression in Muscle Following 10-weeks of Strength Training
ABSTRACT: In this study, the primary objective was to characterise the impact of regular post-exercise (20 strength training sessions across 10 weeks) cold-water immersion (CWI) on mRNA expression. Secondary to this, the effect of regular post-exercise CWI on strength gains and post-exercise soreness was investigated. We used microarrays to detail the global effects of CWI on gene expression in vastus lateralis muscle tissue. Overall design: Healthy, trained road cyclists (mean ± SD; age 30 ± 8 years; height 181.5 ± 7.8 cm; mass 79.6 ± 11.3 kg) were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly and equally divided into two groups, one that utilised CWI as a recovery strategy and another which received a sham placebo recovery drink.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133_Plus_2] Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array [CDF: Brainarray HGU133Plus2_Hs_ENTREZG_v20]
Project description:In this study, the primary objective was to characterise the impact of regular post-exercise (20 strength training sessions across 10 weeks) cold-water immersion (CWI) on DNA methhylation. Secondary to this, the effect of regular post-exercise CWI on strength gains and post-exercise soreness was investigated. We used microarrays to detail the global effects of CWI on DNA methylation in vastus lateralis muscle tissue. Overall design: Healthy, trained road cyclists (mean ± SD; age 30 ± 8 years; height 181.5 ± 7.8 cm; mass 79.6 ± 11.3 kg) were enrolled in the study. Participants were randomly and equally divided into two groups, one that utilised CWI as a recovery strategy and another which received a sham placebo recovery drink.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cold water immersion (CWI) is a technique commonly used in post-exercise recovery. However, the procedures involved in the technique may vary, particularly in terms of water temperature and immersion time, and the most effective approach remains unclear.<h4>Objectives</h4>The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of CWI in muscle soreness management compared with passive recovery. We also aimed to identify which water temperature and immersion time provides the best results.<h4>Methods</h4>The MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, PEDro [Physiotherapy Evidence Database], and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases were searched up to January 2015. Only randomized controlled trials that compared CWI to passive recovery were included in this review. Data were pooled in a meta-analysis and described as weighted mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).<h4>Results</h4>Nine studies were included for review and meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that CWI has a more positive effect than passive recovery in terms of immediate (MD = 0.290, 95% CI 0.037, 0.543; p = 0.025) and delayed effects (MD = 0.315, 95% CI 0.048, 0.581; p = 0.021). Water temperature of between 10 and 15 °C demonstrated the best results for immediate (MD = 0.273, 95% CI 0.107, 0.440; p = 0.001) and delayed effects (MD = 0.317, 95% CI 0.102, 0.532; p = 0.004). In terms of immersion time, immersion of between 10 and 15 min had the best results for immediate (MD = 0.227, 95% 0.139, 0.314; p < 0.001) and delayed effects (MD = 0.317, 95% 0.102, 0.532, p = 0.004).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The available evidence suggests that CWI can be slightly better than passive recovery in the management of muscle soreness. The results also demonstrated the presence of a dose-response relationship, indicating that CWI with a water temperature of between 11 and 15 °C and an immersion time of 11-15 min can provide the best results.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared to active recovery only on the resolution of inflammation and markers of muscle damage post-exercise. METHODS:Nine physically active men (n = 9; age 20?35 years) performed an intensive loading protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting on four occasions. After each trial, one of three recovery interventions (10 min duration) was used in a random order: cold-water immersion (CWI, 10 °C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT, alternately 10 °C and 38 °C). All of these methods were performed after an active recovery (10 min bicycle ergometer), and were compared to active recovery only (ACT). 5 min, 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after exercise bouts, immune response and recovery were assessed through leukocyte subsets, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations. RESULTS:Significant changes in all blood markers occurred at post-loading (p?<?0.05), but there were no significant differences observed in the recovery between methods. However, retrospective analysis revealed significant trial-order effects for myoglobin and neutrophils (p < 0.01). Only lymphocytes displayed satisfactory reliability in the exercise response, with intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.5. CONCLUSIONS:The recovery methods did not affect the resolution of inflammatory and immune responses after high-intensity sprinting and jumping exercise. It is notable that the biomarker responses were variable within individuals. Thus, the lack of differences between recovery methods may have been influenced by the reliability of exercise-induced biomarker responses.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple cold-water immersions (CWIs) on muscle function, markers of muscle damage, systemic inflammation and ECM degradation following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty physically active males were randomly assigned to either a control (n?=?15) or cold-water immersion (CWI) group (n?=?15). The CWI group performed one immersion (10?°C for 20?min) at post-exercise and every 24?h for the following 72?h, while the control group remained in a seated position during these corresponding periods. Muscle strength, vertical jump height, muscle thickness, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), systemic creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity were assessed at Pre, Post, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168?h following EIMD. No significant time?×?group interaction was obtained for muscle strength, vertical jump height recovery and MMP-2 activity (p?>?0.05). At 24?h, muscle thickness from the CWI group returned to baseline and was lower than the control (p?=?0.04). DOMS returned to baseline at 168?h for the CWI group (p?=?0.109) but not for the control (p?=?0.008). At 168?h, CK showed a time-group difference with a greater peak for the control group (p?=?0.016). In conclusion, multiple CWIs attenuated muscle damage, but not altered systemic inflammation and muscle function recovery.
Project description:This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone.
Project description:Cold water immersion (CWI) has become a highly used recovery method in sports sciences, which seeks to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes; however, tensiomyography (TMG) is a new method to analyze the muscle mechanical response as a recovery indicator after CWI protocols, this relative new tool of muscle function assessment, can lead to new information of understand fatigue recovery trough CWI. The objective of the study was to compare the effect of two CWI protocols, on neuromuscular function recovery. Thirty-nine healthy males (21.8 ± 2.8 years, 73.2 ± 8.2 kg, 176.6 ± 5.3 cm and body fat 13.5 ± 3.4%) were included in the study. Participants were grouped into a continuous immersion (12 min at 12 ± 0.4°C) group, intermittent immersion (2 min immersion at 12 ± 0.4°C + 1 min out of water 23 ± 0.5°C) group, and a control group (CG) (12 min sitting in a room at 23 ± 0.5°C). Afterward, the participants performed eight sets of 30 s counter movement jumps (CMJs) repetitions, with a 90 s standing recovery between sets. Muscle contraction time (Tc), delay time (Td), muscle radial displacement (Dm), muscle contraction velocity at 10% of DM (V10), and muscle contraction velocity at 90% of DM (V90) in rectus, biceps femoris, and CMJ were measured. Neither CWI protocol was effective in showing improved recovery at 24 and 48 h after training compared with the CG (p > 0.05), in any TMG indicator of recovery in either muscle biceps or rectus femoris, nor was the CMJ performance (F(6,111) = 0.43, p = 0.85, ?p2 = 0). Neither CWI protocol contributed to recovery of the neuromuscular function indicator.
Project description:We assessed the effects of post-exercise cold-water immersion (CWI) in modulating PGC-1? mRNA expression in response to exercise commenced with low muscle glycogen availability. In a randomized repeated-measures design, nine recreationally active males completed an acute two-legged high-intensity cycling protocol (8 × 5 min at 82.5% peak power output) followed by 10 min of two-legged post-exercise CWI (8°C) or control conditions (CON). During each trial, one limb commenced exercise with low (LOW: <300 mmol·kg-1 dw) or very low (VLOW: <150 mmol·kg-1 dw) pre-exercise glycogen concentration, achieved via completion of a one-legged glycogen depletion protocol undertaken the evening prior. Exercise increased (P < 0.05) PGC-1? mRNA at 3 h post-exercise. Very low muscle glycogen attenuated the increase in PGC-1? mRNA expression compared with the LOW limbs in both the control (CON VLOW ~3.6-fold vs. CON LOW ~5.6-fold: P = 0.023, ES 1.22 Large) and CWI conditions (CWI VLOW ~2.4-fold vs. CWI LOW ~8.0 fold: P = 0.019, ES 1.43 Large). Furthermore, PGC-1? mRNA expression in the CWI-LOW trial was not significantly different to the CON LOW limb (P = 0.281, ES 0.67 Moderate). Data demonstrate that the previously reported effects of post-exercise CWI on PGC-1? mRNA expression (as regulated systemically via ?-adrenergic mediated cell signaling) are offset in those conditions in which local stressors (i.e., high-intensity exercise and low muscle glycogen availability) have already sufficiently activated the AMPK-PGC-1? signaling axis. Additionally, data suggest that commencing exercise with very low muscle glycogen availability attenuates PGC-1? signaling.
Project description:Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of ice slushy ingestion (ICE) and cold water immersion (CWI) on thermoregulatory and sweat responses during constant (study 1) and self-paced (study 2) exercise. In study 1, 11 men cycled at 40-50% of peak aerobic power for 60 min (33.2 ± 0.3°C, 45.9 ± 0.5% relative humidity, RH). In study 2, 11 men cycled for 60 min at perceived exertion (RPE) equivalent to 15 (33.9 ± 0.2°C and 42.5 ± 3.9%RH). In both studies, each trial was preceded by 30 min of CWI (~22°C), ICE or no cooling (CON). Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), thermal sensation, and sweat responses were measured. In study 1, ICE decreased Tre-Tsk gradient versus CON (p = 0.005) during first 5 min of exercise, while CWI increased Tre-Tsk gradient versus CON and ICE for up to 20 min during the exercise (p<0.05). In study 2, thermal sensation was lower in CWI versus CON and ICE for up to 35-40 min during the exercise (p<0.05). ICE reduced thermal sensation versus CON during the first 20 min of exercise (p<0.05). In study 2, CWI improved mean power output (MPO) by ~8 W, compared with CON only (p = 0.024). In both studies, CWI (p<0.001) and ICE (p = 0.019) delayed sweating by 1-5 min but did not change the body temperature sweating threshold, compared with CON (both p>0.05). Increased Tre-Tsk gradient by CWI improved MPO while ICE reduced Tre but did not confer any ergogenic effect. Both precooling treatments attenuated the thermal efferent signals until a specific body temperature threshold was reached.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of different water immersion temperatures on handgrip performance and haemodynamic changes in the forearm flexors of males and females. Twenty-nine rock-climbers performed three repeated intermittent handgrip contractions to failure with 20 min recovery on three separate laboratory visits. For each visit, a randomly assigned recovery strategy was applied: cold water immersion (CWI) at 8 °C (CW8), 15 °C (CW15) or passive recovery (PAS). While handgrip performance significantly decreased in the subsequent trials for the PAS (p?<?0.05), there was a significant increase in time to failure for the second and third trial for CW15 and in the second trial for CW8; males having greater performance improvement (44%) after CW15 than females (26%). The results indicate that CW15 was a more tolerable and effective recovery strategy than CW8 and the same CWI protocol may lead to different recovery in males and females.