Circulating miRNAs for gestational diabetes mellitus
ABSTRACT: We compared the plasma miRNA expression profiles between healthy and GDM women by microarray analysis.Our study offers new insights into circulating biomarkers of GDM and thus provides a valuable resource for future investigations. Overall design: Plasma from 4 pregnant women (2 from normal controls and 2 from GDM patients) were used for microarray analysis using the SurePrint human miRNA microarray
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-070156 Human_miRNA_V21.0_Microarray 046064 (Feature Number version)
Project description:Due to a poor availability of reliable biomarkers, detecting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early pregnancy remains a challenge. Novel biomarkers like Circular RNAs (circRNAs) may be a promising diagnostic tool. The aim of this study was (a) to identify circRNAs deregulated in GDM and (b) evaluate the potential of circRNAs in detecting GDM. The circRNAs expression profiling in 6 paired women (with and without GDM) was measured by microarray. The levels of five most relevant circRNAs were validated in 12 paired participants by qRT-PCR. To verify the reproducibility of qRT-PCR, significantly differential expressed circRNA levels were confirmed in 18 paired participants. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value. The areas under ROC curves of hsa_circRNA_102893 were 0.806 (95% CI 0.594-0.937) and 0.741 (0.568-0.872) in training set and test set, respectively. Circulating circRNAs reflect the presence of GDM. Hsa_circRNA_102893 may be a potential novel and stable noninvasive biomarker for detecting GDM in early pregnancy.
Project description:Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been proposed to be a potential predictive factor of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (GH/PE) because of its integrating metabolic and inflammatory responses. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to develop both GH/PE, than the normal population. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between plasma FABP4 in the second trimester of pregnancy and the risk of GH/PE in women with GDM.This was a nested case-control study conducted within a large on-going prospective cohort study conducted at Peking University First Hospital. A total of 1344 women, who were diagnosed with GDM, according to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, participated in the GDM One-Day Clinic at Peking University First Hospital from February 24, 2016 to February 9, 2017. Of the 748 GDM women who agreed to the blood sample collection, 637 were followed until their delivery. The cases included GDM patients who developed gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (GDM-GH/PE group, n = 41). Another 41 matched GDM women without major complications were selected as the control group (GDM group).The incidence of GH/PE was 6.44% and 3.30% for preeclampsia. The level of the second trimester plasma FABP4 in the GDM-GH/PE group was significantly higher than the GDM group (17.53±11.35 vs. 12.79±6.04 ng/ml, P = 0.020). The AUC ROC for the second trimester plasma FABP4 predicted GH/PE in the GDM patients alone was 0.647 (95%CI 0.529-0.766). Multivariate analysis showed that the elevated second trimester FABP4 level was independently associated with GH/PE in the GDM patients (OR 1.136 [95% CI 1.003-1.286], P = 0.045).Increased second trimester plasma FABP4 independently predicted GH/PE in GDM patients.
Project description:AIMS:Epigenetic regulators, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are implicated in type 2 diabetes, but evidence linking circulating miRNAs in pregnancy and risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) is sparse. Potential modifiers, including pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring sex, are unexamined. We hypothesized that circulating levels of early-mid-pregnancy (range 7-23weeks of gestation) candidate miRNAs are related to subsequent development of GDM. We also hypothesized that miRNA-GDM associations might vary by pre-pregnancy body-mass index (ppBMI) or offspring sex. METHODS:In a case-control analysis (36GDM cases/80 controls) from the Omega study, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy complications, we measured early-mid-pregnancy plasma levels of 10miRNAs chosen for potential roles in pregnancy course and complications (miR-126-3p, -155-5p, -21-3p, -146b-5p, -210-3p, -222-3p, -223-3p, -517-5p, -518a-3p, and 29a-3p) using qRT-PCR. Logistic regression models adjusted for gestational age at blood draw (GA) were fit to compare circulating miRNAs between cases and controls. We repeated analyses among overweight/obese (ppBMI?25kg/m2) or lean (ppBMI<25kg/m2) women, and women with male or female offspring separately. RESULTS:Mean age was 34.3years (cases) and 32.9years (controls). GA-adjusted miR-155-5p (?=0.260/p=0.028) and -21-3p (?=0.316/p=0.005) levels were positively associated with GDM. MiR-146b-5p (?=0.266/p=0.068) and miR-517-5p (?=0.196/p=0.074) were borderline. Associations of miR-21-3p and miR-210-3p with GDM were observed among overweight/obese but not lean women. Associations of six miRNAs (miR-155-5p, -21-3p, -146b-5p, -223-3p, -517-5p, and -29a-3p) with GDM were present only among women carrying male fetuses (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Circulating early-mid-pregnancy miRNAs are associated with GDM, particularly among women who are overweight/obese pre-pregnancy or pregnant with male offspring. This area has potential to clarify mechanisms underlying GDM pathogenesis and identify at-risk mothers earlier in pregnancy.
Project description:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately monitor the status of gestational diabetes. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs demonstrated to modulate gene expression, have been proven to be secreted by cells of origin and can be found in many biological fluids such as serum or plasma. Such feature renders microRNAs as optimal biomarkers and sensors of in situ tissue alterations. Furthermore, secretion of microRNAs via exosomes has been reported to contribute to tissue cross talk, thus potentially represents, if disrupted, a mechanistic cause of tissue/cell dysfunction in a specific disease. In this review, we summarized the recent findings on circulating microRNAs and gestational diabetes mellitus with particular focus on the potential use of microRNAs as putative biomarkers of disease as well as a potential cause of GDM complications and β cell dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one type of diabetes that presents during pregnancy and significantly increases the risk of a number of adverse consequences for the fetus and mother. The microRNAs (miRNA) have recently been demonstrated to abundantly and stably exist in serum and to be potentially disease-specific. However, no reported study investigates the associations between serum miRNA and GDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically used the TaqMan Low Density Array followed by individual quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to screen miRNAs in serum collected at 16-19 gestational weeks. The expression levels of three miRNAs (miR-132, miR-29a and miR-222) were significantly decreased in GDM women with respect to the controls in similar gestational weeks in our discovery evaluation and internal validation, and two miRNAs (miR-29a and miR-222) were also consistently validated in two-centric external validation sample sets. In addition, the knockdown of miR-29a could increase Insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1) expression level and subsequently the level of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxy Kinase2 (PCK2) in HepG2 cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum miRNAs are differentially expressed between GDM women and controls and could be candidate biomarkers for predicting GDM. The utility of miR-29a, miR-222 and miR-132 as serum-based non-invasive biomarkers warrants further evaluation and optimization.
Project description:The association between circulating betatrophin levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically review available literature linking betatrophin to GDM for a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating betatrophin levels and GDM in human.PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Medline and CNKI were searched for studies published up to August 2016. Manual searches of references of the relevant original studies were conducted. Pooled estimates were measured using the fixed or random effect model. Overall effect was reported in a standard mean difference (SMD). All data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 12.0.Of 25 references reviewed, 8 studies met our inclusion criteria and contributed to meta-analysis. All the studies were used to evaluate the relationship between betatrophin levels in blood and GDM. Betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with GDM compared with those without GDM (SMD = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.41-1.68, P = 0.001). This evidence was more consistent among women with betatrophin blood draw during the third trimester (SMD = 1.3, 95% CI: 1-1.61, P < 0.001) and for women BMI ? 28 kg/m2 (SMD = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.30-1.75, P < 0.001).The evidences from this meta-analysis indicated that the levels of circulating betatrophin were significantly elevated among women with GDM compared with women with normal glucose tolerance, especially with BMI ? 28 kg/m2 and in the third trimester.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Using a specific cutoff of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to screen gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can reduce the use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Since the prevalence of GDM increases with age, this screening method may not be appropriate in healthcare systems where women become pregnant at older ages. Therefore, we aimed to develop a screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration. METHODS:We included 945 pregnant women without history of GDM who received 75g OGTT to diagnose GDM in 2011. Screening algorithms using FPG with or without age were developed. Another 362 pregnant women were recruited in 2013-2015 as the validation cohort. RESULTS:Using FPG criteria alone, more GDM diagnoses were missed in women ?35 years than in women <35 years (13.2% vs. 5.8%, p <0.001). Among GDM women ?35 years, 63.6% had FPG <92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L). Use of the algorithm with an "age plus FPG" cutoff could reduce the use of OGTT (OGTT%) from 77.6% to 62.9%, while maintaining good sensitivity (from 91.9% to 90.2%) and specificity (from 100% to 100%). Similar reduction in OGTT% was found in the validation cohort (from 86.4% to 76.8%). In the simulation, if the percentage of women ?35 years were 40% or more, the screening algorithm with an "age plus FPG" cutoff could further reduce OGTT% by 11.0%-18.8%. CONCLUSIONS:A screening algorithm for GDM that takes maternal age into consideration can reduce the use of OGTT when women become pregnant at older ages.
Project description:Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is the key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses that facilitate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and play an essential role in type 2 diabetes and pregnancy, both of which are under a low-grade inflammatory state. However, the action of MFG-E8 in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unclear. We measured plasma MFG-E8 levels in pregnancy and GDM for the first time, and elucidated possible relationships between its plasma levels and various metabolic parameters.Plasma MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 66 women with GDM, 70 with normal pregnancy (p-NGT) and 44 healthy non-pregnant controls (CON), who were matched for age and body mass index. Inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and C-reactive protein levels were measured, oral glucose tolerance test was carried out and ?-cell function was evaluated.Plasma MFG-E8 levels were remarkably higher in p-NGT than in CON (P = 0.024), and were further elevated in GDM vs p-NGT (P = 0.016). MFG-E8 concentrations correlated positively with hemoglobin A1c, glucose levels and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance), and correlated inversely with TNF-? and insulin secretion evaluated by disposition indices in pregnancies. Fasting glucose levels, disposition index of first phase insulin secretion and TNF-? were independent predictors of MFG-E8 levels in pregnancies. Logistic regression analyses showed that women in the third tertile of MFG-E8 levels had a markedly elevated risk of GDM.Circulating MFG-E8 levels are dramatically elevated in pregnancy, and are significantly higher in GDM vs p-NGT. MFG-E8 concentrations are significantly associated with TNF-?, fasting glucose levels, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and disposition indices. However, further studies are required to elucidate the regulation mechanism of MFG-E8 during pregnancy and GDM.
Project description:Background:The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been reported as a novel and independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the association with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma TMAO concentration and GDM in a 2-phase study. Design:A 2-phase design was used in the current study. An initial phase included 866 participants (433 GDM cases and 433 matched controls) with fasting blood samples collected at the time of GDM screening (24-32 wk of gestation). An independent-phase study, with 276 GDM cases and 552 matched controls who provided fasting blood samples before 20 wk of gestation and who had GDM screened during 24-32 wk of gestation, was nested within a prospective cohort study. These 2 studies were both conducted in Wuhan, China, and the incidence of GDM in the cohort study was 10.8%. Plasma TMAO concentrations were determined by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria by using an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Results:In the initial case-control study, the adjusted OR of GDM comparing the highest TMAO quartile with the lowest quartile was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.28, 2.93). Each SD increment of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was associated with 22% (95% CI: 5%, 41%) higher odds of GDM. In the nested case-control study, women in the highest quartile also had increased odds of GDM (adjusted OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.31) compared with women in the lowest quartile, and the adjusted OR for GDM per SD increment of ln-transformed plasma TMAO was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.47). Conclusions:Consistent findings from this 2-phase study indicate a positive association between plasma TMAO concentrations and GDM. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03415295.
Project description:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and macrosomia. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of developing GDM. Today, GDM is diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a rather cumbersome test for the women and health care system. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether HbA1c in first trimester of pregnancy could be used as a screening test for GDM in first trimester and throughout pregnancy in order to reduce the number of OGTTs, and whether it could predict preeclampsia and macrosomia in women with PCOS.Post hoc analyses of data from 228 women from a prospective, randomised, multicenter study comparing metformin to placebo from first trimester to delivery. Fasting and 2-h plasma glucose were measured during a 75 g OGTT in first trimester, gestational week 19 and 32 as well as fasting plasma glucose in gestational week 36. GDM was diagnosed by WHO criteria from 1999 in first trimester and throughout pregnancy and by modified IADPSG criteria (i.e. lacking the 1-h plasma glucose value) in first trimester. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by logistic regression and ROC curve analysis.The area under the ROC curve for first trimester HbA1c for screening of GDM diagnosed by WHO criteria in first trimester was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.44-0.75) and 0.56 (95 % CI 0.47-0.65) for GDM diagnosed throughout pregnancy. Only 2.2 % (95 % CI 0.7-5.1 %) of the participants could have avoided OGTT. HbA1c was not statistically significantly associated with GDM diagnosed by modified IADPSG criteria in first trimester. However, first trimester HbA1c was statistically significantly associated with preeclampsia. Both HbA1c and GDM by WHO criteria in first trimester, but not by IADPSG, were negatively associated with birth weight.First trimester HbA1c can not be used to exclude or predict GDM in women with PCOS, but it might be better to predict preeclampsia than the GDM diagnosis.