Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Microneedling therapy is a widely used technique in dermatology. However, little is known about the underlying molecular effects of this therapy on extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by microneedling treatment in a standardized in vitro full-thickness 3D model of human skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A microneedling device was used to treat full-thickness 3D skin models. Specimens were harvested at specified time points and qRT-PCR and microarray studies were performed. Frozen sections were examined histologically. RESULTS:Microneedling treatment caused morphological changes in the skin model resulting in an almost complete recovery of the epidermis five days after treatment. Microarray analysis identified an upregulation of genes that are associated with tissue remodeling and wound healing (e.g. COL3A1, COL8A1, TIMP3), epithelial proliferation and differentiation (KRT13, IGF1), immune cell recruitment (CCL11), and a member of the heat shock protein family (HSPB6). On the other hand, we detected a downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL1?, IL1?, IL24, IL36?, IL36RN), and antimicrobial peptides (e.g. S100A7A, DEFB4). These data were confirmed by independent RT-PCR analyses. CONCLUSION:We present for the first time the direct molecular effects of microneedling therapy on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using a standardized 3D skin model. Treatment resulted in histological alterations and changed the expression of various genes related to epidermal differentiation, inflammation, and dermal remodeling. This data suggests that skin microneedling plays a role in dermal remodeling, increases epidermal differentiation, and might also have a direct effect on collagen synthesis. These findings may increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human skin repair induced by microneedling therapy and will allow comparisons with competing applications, such as ablative laser therapies.
Project description:Skin wound repair requires complex and highly coordinated interactions between keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and immune cells to restore the epidermal barrier and tissue architecture after acute injury. The cytokine IL-22 mediates unidirectional signaling from immune cells to epithelial cells during injury of peripheral tissues such as the liver and colon, where IL-22 causes epithelial cells to produce antibacterial proteins, express mucins, and enhance epithelial regeneration. In this study, we used IL-22(-/-) mice to investigate the in vivo role for IL-22 in acute skin wounding. We found that IL-22(-/-) mice displayed major defects in the skin's dermal compartment after full-thickness wounding. We also found that IL-22 signaling is active in fibroblasts, using in vitro assays with primary fibroblasts, and that IL-22 directs extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression and myofibroblast differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These data define roles of IL-22 beyond epithelial cross talk, and suggest that IL-22 has a previously unidentified role in skin repair by mediating interactions between immune cells and fibroblasts.
Project description:Stable closure of full-thickness burn wounds remains a limitation to recovery from burns of greater than 50% of the total body surface area (TBSA). Hypothetically, engineered skin substitutes (ESS) consisting of autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts attached to collagen-based scaffolds may reduce requirements for donor skin, and decrease mortality. ESS were prepared from split-thickness skin biopsies collected after enrollment of 16 pediatric burn patients into an approved study protocol. ESS and split-thickness autograft (AG) were applied to 15 subjects with full-thickness burns involving a mean of 76.9% TBSA. Data consisted of photographs, tracings of donor skin and healed wounds, comparison of mortality with the National Burn Repository, correlation of TBSA closed wounds with TBSA full-thickness burn, frequencies of regrafting, and immunoreactivity to the biopolymer scaffold. One subject expired before ESS application, and 15 subjects received 2056 ESS grafts. The ratio of closed wound to donor areas was 108.7?±?9.7 for ESS compared with a maximum of 4.0?±?0.0 for AG. Mortality for enrolled subjects was 6.25%, and 30.3% for a comparable population from the National Burn Repository (P < .05). Engraftment was 83.5?±?2.0% for ESS and 96.5?±?0.9% for AG. Percentage TBSA closed was 29.9?±?3.3% for ESS, and 47.0?±?2.0% for AG. These values were significantly different between the graft types. Correlation of % TBSA closed with ESS with % TBSA full-thickness burn generated an R value of 0.65 (P < .001). These results indicate that autologous ESS reduce mortality and requirements for donor skin harvesting, for grafting of full-thickness burns of greater than 50% TBSA.
Project description:Advances in treatment have increased childhood cancer 5-year survival rates to greater than 80%. However, children previously treated with radiation are at significantly increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms, the most common of which are skin cancers. The National Cancer Institute and Children's Oncology Group have issued recommendations for survivors treated with radiation to perform monthly skin self-examinations and receive a physician skin examination at least annually, as early detection has demonstrated markedly improved outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancers. The goal of the present study is to increase rates of skin self-examinations and clinical skin examinations among adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with radiation.This randomized controlled trial uses a 3-group comparative effectiveness design comparing: (1) Patient Activation and Education (PAE) including text messaging, print and web-based tutorials over 12 months; (2) PAE plus physician activation (PAE + MD) adding physician activation/educational materials about survivors' increased skin cancer risk and conducting full-body skin exams; and (3) PAE plus physician activation, plus teledermoscopy (PAE + MD + TD) adding participant receipt of a dermatoscope intended to empower them to photograph suspect moles or lesions for review by the study dermatologist.The current study addresses barriers to screening in this population by providing educational and motivational information for both survivors and physicians regarding the value of periodic skin examinations. It also utilizes innovative mobile health technology to encourage and motivate (that is activate) survivors to conduct skin self-examinations, request physician exams, and obtain treatment when worrisome lesions are found. Finally, as a comparative effectiveness trial, this study isolates the effects of adding specific components to the patient activation intervention to test the most effective intervention for enhancing skin examination vigilance among this high-risk group.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02046811 ; Registration date: 22 January 2014.
Project description:The microbial ecology of human skin is complex, but little is known about its species composition. We examined the diversity of the skin biota from the superficial volar left and right forearms in six healthy subjects using broad-range small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) PCR-based sequencing of randomly selected clones. For the initial 1,221 clones analyzed, 182 species-level operational taxonomic units (SLOTUs) belonging to eight phyla were identified, estimated as 74.0% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), approximately 64.8-77.9%] of the SLOTUs in this ecosystem; 48.0 +/- 12.2 SLOTUs were found in each subject. Three phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) accounted for 94.6% of the clones. Most (85.3%) of the bacterial sequences corresponded to known and cultivated species, but 98 (8.0%) clones, comprising 30 phylotypes, had <97% similarity to prior database sequences. Only 6 (6.6%) of the 91 genera and 4 (2.2%) of the 182 SLOTUs, respectively, were found in all six subjects. Analysis of 817 clones obtained 8-10 months later from four subjects showed additional phyla (numbering 2), genera (numbering 28), and SLOTUs (numbering 65). Only four (3.4%) of the 119 genera (Propionibacteria, Corynebacteria, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were observed in each subject tested twice, but these genera represented 54.4% of all clones. These results show that the bacterial biota in normal superficial skin is highly diverse, with few well conserved and well represented genera, but otherwise low-level interpersonal consensus.
Project description:The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations. We also introduce the concept of 'living data' through continuous reanalysis of deposited data.
Project description:Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNF?/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes.
Project description:Skin fragility refers to a large group of conditions in which the ability of the skin to provide protection against trivial mechanical trauma is diminished, resulting in the formation of blisters, erosions, wounds, or scars. Acquired and physiological skin fragility is common; genetic disorders are rare but give insight into the molecular mechanisms ensuring skin stability. The paradigm is represented by inherited epidermolysis bullosa. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of genetic skin fragility, including emerging concepts, controversies, unanswered questions, and opinions of the author. In spite of the advanced knowledge on the genetic causes of skin fragility, the molecular pathology is still expanding. Open questions in understanding the molecular basis of genetic skin fragility are the following: what are the causes of phenotypes which remain genetically unsolved, and what are the molecular modifiers which might explain phenotypic differences among individuals with similar mutations? New mutational mechanisms and new genes have recently been discovered and are briefly described here. Comprehensive next-generation sequencing-based genetic testing improved mutation detection and facilitated the identification of the genetic basis of unclear and new phenotypes. Characterization of the biochemical and cell biological consequences of the genetic variants is challenging and laborious but may represent the basis for personalized therapeutic approaches. Molecular modifiers of skin fragility have been uncovered in particular animal and genetic models but not in larger cohorts of patients. This scientific progress is the basis for revisions of the epidermolysis bullosa classification and for innovative therapeutic approaches designed for this intractable condition.
Project description:Stretchable capacitive devices are instrumental for new-generation multifunctional haptic technologies particularly suited for soft robotics and electronic skin applications. A majority of elongating soft electronics still rely on silicone for building devices or sensors by multiple-step replication. In this study, fabrication of a reliable elongating parallel-plate capacitive touch sensor, using nitrile rubber gloves as templates, is demonstrated. Spray coating both sides of a rubber piece cut out of a glove with a conductive polymer suspension carrying dispersed carbon nanofibers (CnFs) or graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) is sufficient for making electrodes with low sheet resistance values (?10 ? sq-1). The electrodes based on CnFs maintain their conductivity up to 100% elongation whereas the GnPs-based ones form cracks before 60% elongation. However, both electrodes are reliable under elongation levels associated with human joints motility (?20%). Strikingly, structural damages due to repeated elongation/recovery cycles could be healed through annealing. Haptic sensing characteristics of a stretchable capacitive device by wrapping it around the fingertip of a robotic hand (ICub) are demonstrated. Tactile forces as low as 0.03 N and as high as 5 N can be easily sensed by the device under elongation or over curvilinear surfaces.
Project description:The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.