ABSTRACT: Late preterm infant samples from multiple body sites. Samples were extracted with ethanol and processed on a Bruker Daltonics maXis Impact and C18 RP-UPLC for untargeted metabolomic analysis. Positive polarity acquisition of LC-MS/MS.
Project description:Human breast milk as part of late preterm infant study. Samples were extracted with ethanol and processed on a Bruker Daltonics maXis Impact and C18 RP-UPLC for untargeted metabolomic analysis. Positive polarity acquisition of LC-MS/MS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The infant skin microbiota may serve as a reservoir of bacteria that contribute to neonatal infections and stimulate local and systemic immune development. The objectives of our study were to characterize the skin microbiota of preterm and full-term infants during their birth hospitalization and describe its relationship to the microbiota of other body sites and the hospital environment. RESULTS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of 129 infants, including 40 preterm and 89 full-term infants. Samples were collected from five sites: the forehead and posterior auricular scalp (skin upper body); the periumbilical region, inguinal folds, and upper thighs (skin lower body); the oral cavity; the infant's immediate environment; and stool. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and enteric Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia and Enterobacter dominated the skin microbiota. The preterm infant microbiota at multiple sites had lower alpha diversity and greater enrichment with Staphylococcus and Escherichia than the microbiota of comparable sites in full-term infants. The community structure was highly variable among individuals but differed significantly by body site, postnatal age, and gestational age. Source tracking indicated that each body site both contributed to and received microbiota from other body sites and the hospital environment. CONCLUSION:The skin microbiota of preterm and full-term infants varied across individuals, by body site, and by the infant's developmental stage. The skin harbored many organisms that are common pathogens in hospitalized infants. Bacterial source tracking suggests that microbiota are commonly exchanged across body sites and the hospital environment as microbial communities mature in infancy.
Project description:The assembly and development of the gut microbiome in infants have important consequences for immediate and long-term health. Preterm infants represent an abnormal case for bacterial colonization because of early exposure to bacteria and frequent use of antibiotics. To better understand the assembly of the gut microbiota in preterm infants, fecal samples were collected from 32 very low birth weight preterm infants over the first 6 weeks of life. Infant health outcomes included health, late-onset sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We characterized bacterial compositions by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomes by untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Preterm infant fecal samples lacked beneficial Bifidobacterium spp. and were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus organisms due to nearly uniform antibiotic administration. Most of the variance between the microbial community compositions could be attributed to the baby from which the sample derived (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA] R2 = 0.48, P < 0.001), while clinical status (health, NEC, or late-onset sepsis) and overlapping times in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) did not explain a significant amount of variation in bacterial composition. Fecal metabolomes were also found to be unique to the individual (PERMANOVA R2 = 0.43, P < 0.001) and weakly associated with bacterial composition (Mantel statistic r = 0.23 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). No measured metabolites were found to be associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, or a healthy outcome. Overall, preterm infant gut microbial communities were personalized and reflected antibiotic usage.IMPORTANCE Preterm infants face health problems likely related to microbial exposures, including sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the role of the gut microbiome in preterm infant health is poorly understood. Microbial colonization differs from that of healthy term babies because it occurs in the NICU and is often perturbed by antibiotics. We measured bacterial compositions and metabolomic profiles of 77 fecal samples from 32 preterm infants to investigate the differences between microbiomes in health and disease. Rather than finding microbial signatures of disease, we found that both the preterm infant microbiome and the metabolome were personalized and that the preterm infant gut microbiome is enriched in microbes that commonly dominate in the presence of antibiotics. These results contribute to the growing knowledge of the preterm infant microbiome and emphasize that a personalized view will be important to disentangle the health consequences of the preterm infant microbiome.
Project description:PURPOSE:In Alberta, the high occurrence of late preterm infants and early hospital discharge of mother-infant dyads has implications for postpartum care in the community. Shortened hospital stay and complexities surrounding the care of biologically and developmentally immature late preterm infants heighten anxiety and fears. Our descriptive phenomenological study explores mothers' experience of caring for their late preterm infants in the community. METHODS:Eleven mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using an interpretive thematic approach. FINDINGS:The mothers' hospital experience informed their perspective that being a late preterm infant was not a "big deal," and they tended to treat their infant as normal. "Feeding was really problem," especially the variability in feeding effectiveness, which was not anticipated. Failing to recognize late preterm infants' feeding distress exemplified lack of knowledge of feeding cues and tendencies to either rationalize or minimize feeding concerns. Public health nurses represent a source of informational support for managing neonatal morbidities associated with being late preterm; however, maternal experiences with public health nurses varied. Some nurses used a directive style that overwhelmed certain mothers. Seeing multiple public health nurses and care providers was not always effective, given inconsistent and contradictory guidance to care. These new and changing situations increased maternal anxiety and stress and influenced maternal confidence in care. Fathers, family, and friends were important sources of emotional support. CONCLUSION:After discharge, mothers report their lack of preparation to meet the special needs of their late preterm infants. Current approaches to community-based care can threaten maternal confidence in care. New models and pathways of care for late preterm infants and their families need to be responsive to the spectrum of feeding issues encountered, limit duplication of services, and ensure consistent and effective care that parents will accept.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality among infants worldwide, and imposes considerable burden on health, education and social services, as well as on families and caregivers. Morbidity and mortality resulting from preterm birth is highest among early (< 28 weeks gestational age) and moderate (28-32 weeks) preterm infants, relative to late preterm infants (33-36 weeks). However, substantial societal burden is associated with late prematurity due to the larger number of late preterm infants relative to early and moderate preterm infants. METHODS: The aim in this study was to characterize the burden of premature birth in Canada for early, moderate, and late premature infants, including resource utilization, direct medical costs, parental out-of-pocket costs, education costs, and mortality, using a validated and published decision model from the UK, and adapting it to a Canadian setting based on analysis of administrative, population-based data from Québec. RESULTS: Two-year survival was estimated at 56.0% for early preterm infants, 92.8% for moderate preterm infants, and 98.4% for late preterm infants. Per infant resource utilization consistently decreased with age. For moderately preterm infants, hospital days ranged from 1.6 at age two to 0.09 at age ten. Cost per infant over the first ten years of life was estimated to be $67,467 for early preterm infants, $52,796 for moderate preterm infants, and $10,010 for late preterm infants. Based on population sizes this corresponds to total national costs of $123.3 million for early preterm infants, $255.6 million for moderate preterm infants, $208.2 million for late preterm infants, and $587.1 million for all infants. CONCLUSION: Premature birth results in significant infant morbidity, mortality, healthcare utilization and costs in Canada. A comprehensive decision-model based on analysis of a Canadian population-based administrative data source suggested that the greatest national-level burden is associated with moderate preterm infants due to both a large cost per infant and population size while the highest individual-level burden is in early preterm infants and the largest total population size is in late preterm infants. Although the highest medical costs are incurred during the neonatal period, greater resource utilization and costs extend into childhood.
Project description:AIM:This study investigated the effect of time post-ingestion on gastric digestion and gastric hormones after feeding preterm infants unfortified and fortified human milk. METHODS:Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 14 preterm (23-32 weeks birth gestational age) mother-infant pairs within 7-98 days postnatal age. Gastric samples were collected one, two and three hours after beginning of feeding. Samples were analysed for pH, proteolysis, general protease activity and the concentrations of pepsin, gastrin and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). One-way ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test was used. RESULTS:Gastric pH was significantly decreased after each hour in the preterm infant stomach from one to three hours postprandial. Proteolysis increased significantly from human milk to gastric contents at one, two and three hours postprandial (by 62, 131% and 181%, p < 0.05). General protease activity increased significantly by 58% from human milk to the gastric contents at two hours postprandial. GRP was present in human milk, whereas gastrin was produced in the infant stomach. CONCLUSION:Although preterm infants may digest human milk proteins to a lesser extent than term infants, we demonstrated that the preterm infant stomach actively degrades milk proteins with increasing breakdown over digestion time.
Project description:The short and long-term impact of birth mode on the developing gut microbiome in neonates has potential implications for the health of infants. In term infants, the microbiome immediately following birth across multiple body sites corresponds to birth mode, with increased Bacteroides in vaginally delivered infants. We aimed to determine the impact of birth mode of the preterm gut microbiome over the first 100 days of life and following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. In total, 867 stool samples from 46 preterm infants (21 cesarean and 25 vaginal), median gestational age 27 weeks, were sequenced (V4 region 16S rRNA gene, Illumina MiSeq). Of these, 776 samples passed quality filtering and were included in the analysis. The overall longitudinal alpha-diversity and within infant beta-diversity was comparable between cesarean and vaginally delivered infants. Vaginally delivered infants kept significantly more OTUs from 2 months of life and following NICU discharge, but OTUs lost, gained, and regained were not different based on birth mode. Furthermore, the temporal progression of dominant genera was comparable between birth modes and no significant difference was found for any genera following adjustment for covariates. Lastly, preterm gut community types (PGCTs) showed some moderate differences in very early life, but progressed toward a comparable pattern by week 5. No PGCT was significantly associated with cesarean or vaginal birth. Unlike term infants, birth mode was not significantly associated with changes in microbial diversity, composition, specific taxa, or overall microbial development in preterm infants. This may result from the dominating effects of NICU exposures including the universal use of antibiotics immediately following birth and/or the lack of Bacteroides colonizing preterm infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postnatal development of early life microbiota influences immunity, metabolism, neurodevelopment, and infant health. Microbiome development occurs at multiple body sites, with distinct community compositions and functions. Associations between microbiota at multiple sites represent an unexplored influence on the infant microbiome. Here, we examined co-occurrence patterns of gut and respiratory microbiota in pre- and full-term infants over the first year of life, a period critical to neonatal development. RESULTS:Gut and respiratory microbiota collected as longitudinal rectal, throat, and nasal samples from 38 pre-term and 44 full-term infants were first clustered into community state types (CSTs) on the basis of their compositional profiles. Multiple methods were used to relate the occurrence of CSTs to temporal microbiota development and measures of infant maturity, including gestational age (GA) at birth, week of life (WOL), and post-menstrual age (PMA). Manifestation of CSTs followed one of three patterns with respect to infant maturity: (1) chronological, with CST occurrence frequency solely a function of post-natal age (WOL), (2) idiosyncratic to maturity at birth, with the interval of CST occurrence dependent on infant post-natal age but the frequency of occurrence dependent on GA at birth, and (3) convergent, in which CSTs appear first in infants of greater maturity at birth, with occurrence frequency in pre-terms converging after a post-natal interval proportional to pre-maturity. The composition of CSTs was highly dissimilar between different body sites, but the CST of any one body site was highly predictive of the CSTs at other body sites. There were significant associations between the abundance of individual taxa at each body site and the CSTs of the other body sites, which persisted after stringent control for the non-linear effects of infant maturity. Canonical correlations exist between the microbiota composition at each pair of body sites, with the strongest correlations between proximal locations. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that early microbiota is shaped by neonatal innate and adaptive developmental responses. Temporal progression of CST occurrence is influenced by infant maturity at birth and post-natal age. Significant associations of microbiota across body sites reveal distal connections and coordinated development of the infant microbial ecosystem.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human milk immunoglobulins (Ig) are an important support for the naïve infant immune system; yet the extent to which these proteins survive within the infant digestive tract, particularly for preterm infants, is poorly studied. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to evaluate the survival of human milk Igs in the preterm stomach across postprandial time. METHODS:Human milk and infant gastric samples were collected from 11 preterm (23-32 weeks gestational age) mother-infant pairs within 7-98 days postnatal age. Preterm gastric samples were collected 1, 2, and 3 h after the beginning of the feeding. Samples were analyzed for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA [SIgA]/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ig-chain fragment peptides were determined using peptidomic analysis. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests was applied. RESULTS:Concentrations of total IgA were lower in the gastric contents at 3 h postprandial compared with human milk and gastric contents at 1 and 2 h. Human milk SC/SIgA/SIgM, IgG, and total IgM concentrations remained stable in the preterm stomach across postprandial time. Peptide counts from the Ig alpha-chain and the Ig gamma-chain increased in gastric contents from 1 to 2 h postprandial. Peptide counts from the human milk Ig-chain, Ig-chain, and SC were stable across postprandial time. These peptides from Ig-chains were not present in human milk but were released in the stomach due to their partial degradation. CONCLUSIONS:Human milk total SC (SIgA/SC/SIgM), total IgM, and IgG survived mostly intact through the preterm infant stomach, while total IgA was -partially digested.
Project description:Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2 h post-ingestion were collected from 15 preterm (23?32 week gestational age (GA)) mother-infant pairs and from 8 term (38?40 week of GA) mother-infant pairs within 7?98 days postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG as well as peptidomics. Total IgA concentration decreased by 60% from human milk to the preterm infant stomach and decreased by 48% in the term infant stomach. Total IgM and IgG concentrations decreased by 33% and 77%, respectively, from human milk to the term infant stomach but were stable in the preterm infant stomach. Release of peptides from all Ig isotypes in the term infant stomach was higher than in the preterm stomach. Overall, the stability of human milk Igs during gastric digestion is higher in preterm infant than in term infants, which could be beneficial for assisting the preterm infants' immature immune system.