Proteomic analysis of antigen-specific serum and gut antibodies in celiac disease patients
ABSTRACT: Comparison of serum and gut antibodies against two major antigens in celiac disease patients, the autoantigen transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and a deamidated gluten peptide (DGP) from food. The antigen-specific antibodies were affinity-purified from isolated total IgA of serum or gut biopsy secretions or from whole serum samples. Individual clonotypes could be identified among the purified antibodies based on matching to a database of IgH sequences obtained from antigen-specific gut plasma cells of the same patients.
Project description:Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain.
Project description:Detection of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) antigens is promising in Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. However, not a single antigen marker has been found to be widely expressed in all TB patients. This study is aimed to prepare broadly reactive polyclonal antibodies targeting multiple antigen markers (multi-target antibodies) and evaluate their efficacies in TB diagnosis.A fusion gene consisting of 38kD, ESAT6, and CFP10 was constructed and overexpressed. The fusion polyprotein was used as an immunogen to elicit production of multi-target antibodies. Their reactivities were tested. Then, the multi-target antibodies and three corresponding antibodies elicited by each single antigen (mono-target antibodies) were evaluated with sandwich ELISA for detecting M. tuberculosis antigens. Their diagnostic efficacies for TB were also compared.The polyprotein successfully elicited production of multi-target antibodies targeting 38kD, ESAT6, and CFP10 as analyzed by Western blotting. When used as coating antibodies, the multi-target antibodies were more efficient in capturing the three antigens than the corresponding mono-target antibodies. By testing clinical serum, the multi-target antibodies demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity for clinical TB diagnosis than all three mono-target antibodies.The multi-target antibodies allowed detecting multiple antigens simultaneously and significantly enhanced TB detection compared to routine mono-target antibodies. Our study may provide a promising strategy for TB diagnosis.
Project description:Humoral immune responses are traditionally characterized by determining the presence and quality of antibodies specific for certain antigens. Arraying of large numbers of antigens allows the parallel measurement of antibodies, generating patterns called antibody profiles. Functional characterization of these antibodies could help draw an even more informative map of an immune response. To generate functional antibody profiles we simultaneously tested not only IgM, IgG and IgA binding to but also complement activation by a panel of endogenous and exogenous antigens printed as microarrays, using normal and autoimmune human sera. We show that complement activation by a particular antigen in a given individual cannot be predicted by the measurement of antigen specific antibodies, in spite of a general correlation between the amount of antigen-bound antibody and the deposited C3 fragments. This is due to both differences in the isotypes that dominate in the recognition of an antigen and individual variations for a given isotype, resulting in altered complement activation potential. Thus, antigen specific C3 deposition can be used as an additional parameter in immune response monitoring. This is exemplified by comparing the coordinates of antigens, used for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, of normal and autoimmune serum samples in a two-dimensional space derived from C3 deposition and antibody binding. Since cleavage fragments of C3 mediate important immunological processes we propose that measurement of their deposition on antigen microarrays, in addition to antibody profiling, can provide useful functional signature about the tested serum. Keywords: IgM immuneprofile, antigen array Overall design: IgM, IgG, IgA and C3 binding in 30 human serum samples were examined using custom-made protein arrays
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Presence of serum antibodies against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn's Disease (CD) as a disease characteristic remains controversial. In the present work, we assessed antibody reactivity of serum and intestinal fluid against four distinct MAP-antigens, including the recently identified MAP-specific lipopentapeptide (L5P). METHODS: Immunoglobulin concentrations and specificity against 3 non MAP-specific antigens: glycosyl-transferase-d (GSD), purified protein derivative from MAP (Johnin-PPD), heparin binding haemagglutinin (MAP-HBHA) and one MAP-specific antigen: synthetic L5P were determined by ELISA in gut lavage fluids from adult controls or patients with CD, and in sera of children or adult controls or patients with CD, ulcerative colitis or celiac disease. RESULTS: Total IgA and IgG concentrations were increased in sera of children with CD but were decreased in sera of adults with CD, thereof specificity against MAP antigens was assessed by normalizing immunoglobulin concentrations between samples. In CD patients, IgG reactivity was increased against the four MAP antigens, including L5P in gut lavage fluids but it was only increased against L5P in sera. By contrast, anti-L5P IgG were not increased in patients with ulcerative colitis or celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in anti-L5P IgG is observed in sera of children and adults with CD but not in patients with other intestinal inflammatory diseases. Anti-L5P antibodies may serve as serological marker for CD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for protein antigens usually depends on purified recombinant protein for both immunisation and hybridoma screening. Purification of recombinant protein in sufficient yield and purity is a tedious undertaking and can be demanding especially in the case of membrane proteins. Furthermore, antibodies generated against a purified recombinant protein are frequently incapable of binding to the endogenous protein in its native context. RESULTS: We describe a strategy to generate monoclonal antibodies against membrane or membrane-associated proteins that completely bypasses any need for purified recombinant antigen. This approach utilises stably transfected mammalian cells expressing recombinant antigens on their cell surface for immunisation of mice. The transfected cells are also used for measuring seroconversion, hybridoma selection and antibody characterisation. By presenting the antigen in its native conformation for immunisation and hybridoma selection, this procedure promotes the generation of antibodies capable of binding to the endogenous protein. In the present study, we applied this approach successfully for three predicted GPI-anchored proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSIONS: The described entirely cell-based technology is a fast and efficient approach for obtaining antibodies reactive with endogenous cell-surface proteins in their native conformation.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and antibodies to the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) are consistently increased in MS patients. The hypothesis of this study is that anti-EBNA-1 antibodies cross-react with a self antigen in MS patients. We affinity purified anti-EBNA-1 antibodies from human plasma, used the anti-EBNA-1 to immunoprecipitate antigens from human brain, and identified bound antigens with mass spectrometry. Anti-EBNA-1 consistently bound heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HNRNPL). We expressed both the long and short isoforms of this protein, and verified with Western blots and ELISA that the long isoform cross-reacts with EBNA-1. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that anti-EBNA-1 bound to an antigen in the nucleus of cultured rat central nervous system cells. ELISA demonstrated the presence of antibodies to HNRNPL in the plasma of both healthy controls and MS patients, but anti-HNRNPL was not increased in MS patients. We conclude that HNRNPL is an autoantigen which cross-reacts with EBNA-1. The relevance of this autoantigen to MS and other autoimmune diseases remains to be investigated.
Project description:Humoral immune responses are traditionally characterized by determining the presence and quality of antibodies specific for certain antigens. Arraying of large numbers of antigens allows the parallel measurement of antibodies, generating patterns called antibody profiles. Functional characterization of these antibodies could help draw an even more informative map of an immune response. To generate functional antibody profiles we simultaneously tested not only IgM, IgG and IgA binding to but also complement activation by a panel of endogenous and exogenous antigens printed as microarrays, using normal and autoimmune human sera. We show that complement activation by a particular antigen in a given individual cannot be predicted by the measurement of antigen specific antibodies, in spite of a general correlation between the amount of antigen-bound antibody and the deposited C3 fragments. This is due to both differences in the isotypes that dominate in the recognition of an antigen and individual variations for a given isotype, resulting in altered complement activation potential. Thus, antigen specific C3 deposition can be used as an additional parameter in immune response monitoring. This is exemplified by comparing the coordinates of antigens, used for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus, of normal and autoimmune serum samples in a two-dimensional space derived from C3 deposition and antibody binding. Since cleavage fragments of C3 mediate important immunological processes we propose that measurement of their deposition on antigen microarrays, in addition to antibody profiling, can provide useful functional signature about the tested serum. Keywords: IgM immuneprofile, antigen array IgM, IgG, IgA and C3 binding in 30 human serum samples were examined using custom-made protein arrays
Project description:IgE-mediated food allergy is a common cause of enteric disease and is responsible for approximately 100 systemic anaphylaxis deaths in the United States each year. IgG antibodies can protect against IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis induced by injected antigens by neutralizing antigens before they can bind to mast cell-associated IgE.We have investigated whether IgA and IgG antibodies can similarly protect against systemic, IgE-mediated anaphylaxis induced by ingested antigens and, if so, whether IgA and IgG antibodies protect by neutralizing antigens before or after their systemic absorption.Murine passive and active anaphylaxis models were used to study the abilities of serum versus gut lumenal IgA antibodies and serum IgG antibodies to inhibit systemic anaphylaxis induced by ingested allergens in normal mice, mice deficient in the ability to secrete IgA into the intestines, and mice in which intestinal IL-9 overexpression has induced intestinal mastocytosis and increased intestinal permeability.IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation induced by antigen ingestion are suppressed by both serum antigen-specific IgA and IgG, but not by IgA within the gut lumen.Systemic rather than enteric antibodies protect against systemic anaphylaxis induced by ingested antigen. This implies that ingested antigens must be absorbed systemically to induce anaphylaxis and suggests that immunization protocols that increase serum levels of antigen-specific, non-IgE antibodies should protect against severe food allergy.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.
Project description:Autoantibodies are infrequently detected in the sera of patients with the demyelinating form of Guillain-Barré syndrome most commonly encountered in the Western world, despite abundant circumstantial evidence suggesting their existence. We hypothesised that antibody specificities reliant on the cis interactions of neighbouring membrane glycolipids could explain this discrepancy, and would not have been detected by traditional serological assays using highly purified preparations of single gangliosides. To assess the frequency of glycolipid complex antibodies in a Western European cohort of patients GBS we used a newly developed combinatorial glycoarray methodology to screen against large range of antigens (11 gangliosides, 8 other single glycolipids and 162 heterodimeric glycolipid complexes). Serum samples of 181 patients from a geographically defined, Western European cohort of GBS cases were analysed, along with 161 control sera. Serum IgG binding to single gangliosides was observed in 80.0% of axonal GBS cases, but in only 11.8% of cases with demyelinating electrophysiology. The inclusion of glycolipid complexes increased the positivity rate in demyelinating disease to 62.4%. There were 40 antigens with statistically significantly increased binding intensities in GBS as compared to healthy control sera. Of these, 7 complex antigens and 1 single ganglioside also produced statistically significantly increased binding intensities in GBS versus neurological disease controls. The detection of antibodies against specific complexes was associated with particular clinical features including disease severity, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and axonal electrophysiology. This study demonstrates that while antibodies against single gangliosides are often found in cases with axonal-type electrophysiology, antibodies against glycolipid complexes predominate in cases with demyelinating electrophysiology, providing a more robust serum biomarker than has ever been previously available for such cases. This work confirms the activation of the humoral immune system in the dysimmune disease process in GBS, and correlates patterns of antigen recognition with different clinical features.