Untangling the wine metabolome by combining untargeted SMPE-GCxGC-TOF-MS and sensory analysis to profile Sauvignon blanc co-fermented with seven different yeasts
ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) is the main driver of alcoholic fermentation however for aroma and flavour formation in wine non-Saccharomyces species can have a powerful effect. This study aimed to compare untargeted volatile compound profiles from SPME-GCxGC-TOF-MS and sensory analysis data of Sauvignon blanc wine inoculated with six different non-Saccharomyces yeasts followed by SC. Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD), Lachancea thermotolerans (LT), Pichia kluyveri (PK) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima (MP) where commercial starter strains, while Candida zemplinina (CZ) and Kazachstania aerobia (KA), were isolated from wine grape environments. Each fermentation produced a distinct profile both sensorially and chemically. SC and CZ were the most distinct in both of these cases. SC had guava, grapefruit, banana, and pineapple aromas while CZ was driven by fermented apple, dried peach/apricot, and stewed fruit as well as sour flavor. Chemically over 300 unique features were identified as significantly different across the fermentations. SC had the highest number of esters in the highest relative concentration but all the yeasts had distinct ester profiles. CZ displayed the highest number of terpenes in high concentration but also produced a large amount of acetic acid. KA was high in ethyl acetate. TD had fewer esters but three distinctly higher thiol compounds. LT showed a relatively high number of increased acetate esters and certain terpenes. PK had some off odor compounds while the MP had high levels of different methyl butyl-, methyl propyl-, and phenethyl esters. Overall, this study gives a more detailed profile of these yeasts than anything previously reported.
Project description:The use of selected Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces strains as mixed starters has advantages over pure fermentation due to achieving wine products with distinctive and diversified aroma expected by consumers. To obtain a way to improve the aroma diversity and increase the differentiation of wine product, in this study, the aromatic effect of multi-culture of indigenous Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD12), simultaneous and sequential inoculation with two Saccharomyces strains (indigenous icewine yeast SC45 and commercial yeast BDX) with different enological characteristics were investigated in laboratory-scale 20 L fermenter, respectively. The results showed that T. delbrueckii co-fermented with different S. cerevisiae strain could generate diversified physicochemical and aromatic quality of wine as evidenced by PCA. Mixed fermentation of SC45/TD12 produced higher contents of higher alcohol (3-methyl-1-pentanol and phenylethyl alcohol), ethyl esters (ethyl decanoate and ethyl butanoate), terpenes and phenylacetaldehyde with less fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid) and acetic acid, while BDX/TD12 generated more C6 alcohol (1-hexanol) and acetate esters (ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate). Compared to simultaneous inoculation, sequential inoculation could achieve higher aroma diversity, and generate higher intensity of fruity, flowery and sweet attributes of wine as assessed by calculating the odor activity values. The different S. cerevisiae strain and inoculation method in alcoholic fermentation could further influence the formations of aromatic compounds in malolactic fermentation. Our results highlighted the importance of S. cerevisiae strain in shaping the aromatic quality of wine in mixed fermentation, and also suggested that using different S. cerevisiae strains with distinct aromatic characteristics co-fermentation with specific non-Saccharomyces strain is a potential way to increase the aromatic diversity and quality of wine product, which could provide an alternative way to meet the requirement of wine consumers for diversified aromatic quality.
Project description:A new type of fruit wine made from red dragon fruit juice was produced through alcoholic fermentation (AF) with different yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Lachancea thermotolerans Concerto. Complete AF with similar fermentation rates in terms of sugar utilisation and ethanol production (8-9%, v/v) was achieved by three yeast strains. T. delbrueckii produced a significantly lower amount of glycerol and acetic acid, while L. thermotolerans produced more lactic and succinic acids. In addition, the two non-Saccharomyces strains were more efficient in proline utilisation. For volatile compounds, S. cerevisiae produced the highest amounts of esters, while T. delbrueckii produced more higher alcohols, isoamyl acetate and terpenes. On the other hand, AF caused significant degradation of betacyanin pigments and total phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, better retention of antioxidant activity and colour stability was found in L. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii fermented wines than that of S. cerevisiae. This study suggested that it is feasible to use pure non-Saccharomyces yeast to produce red dragon fruit wine for commercialization.
Project description:Using novel non-Saccharomyces strains is regarded as an effective way to improve the aroma diversity of wines to meet the expectations of consumers. The non-Saccharomyces Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima have good aromatic properties useful for the production of table wine. However, no detailed information is available on their performances in icewine fermentation. In this study, simultaneous and sequential fermentation trials of indigenous M. pulcherrima CVE-MP20 or H. vineae CVE-HV11 with S. cerevisiae (SC45) were performed in 50-L fermenters of Vidal icewine, respectively. The results showed that SC45 cofermented with different non-Saccharomyces strains could generate a distinct aroma quality of icewine compared with four S. cerevisiae strain monocultures as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA). Mixed fermentation of MP20/SC45 produced higher contents of acetate esters and ?-damascenone with lower C6 alcohols relative to SC45 monoculture. Interestingly, HV11/SC45 generated the highest amounts of C6 alcohols [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-3-hexen-1-ol], higher alcohols (isobutanol, isopentanol, and 2-phenylethanol), acetate esters (2-phenethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), cis-rose oxide, ?-damascenone, and phenylacetaldehyde. Compared with simultaneous inoculation, sequential inoculation could achieve higher aroma diversity and produce higher intensity of fruity, flowery, and sweet attributes of icewine as assessed by calculating the odor activity values (OAVs). Our results verified the desired enological characteristics of H. vineae strain in icewine fermentation and also demonstrated that using indigenous non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains is a feasible way to improve aroma diversity of icewine products, which could provide an alternative way to meet the requirement of wine consumers for diversified aromatic quality.
Project description:Background:During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes more than 400 different compounds with higher alcohols, acetate esters of higher alcohols and ethyl esters of medium-chain fatty acids being the most important products of its metabolism, determining the particular flavour profile of each wine. The concentration of the metabolites produced depends to a large extent on the strain used. The use of indigenous strains as starting cultures can lead to the production of wines with excellent organoleptic characteristics and distinct local character, superior in quality when compared to their commercial counterparts. However, the relationship of these wild-type genotypes, linked to specific terroirs, with the biosynthetic profiles of flavour metabolites is not completely clarified and understood. To this end, qRT-PCR was employed to examine, for the first time on the transcriptional level, the performance of an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (Z622) in its natural environment (Debina grape must). The expression of genes implicated in higher alcohols and esters formation was correlated with the concentrations of these compounds in the produced wine. Furthermore, by applying the same fermentation conditions, we examined the same parameters in a commercial strain (VL1) and compared its performance with the one of strain Z622. Results:Strain Z622, exhibited lower concentrations of 2-methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanol and 2-phenyl ethanol, than VL1 correlating with the elevated expression levels of transaminase and decarboxylase genes. Furthermore, the significantly high induction of ADH3 throughout fermentation of Z622 probably explains the larger population numbers reached by Z622 and reflects the better adaptation of the strain to its natural environment. Regarding acetate ester biosynthesis, Z622 produced higher concentrations of total acetate esters, compared with VL1, a fact that is in full agreement with the elevated expression levels of both ATF1 and ATF2 in strain Z622. Conclusions:This study provides evidence on the transcriptional level that indigenous yeast Z622 is better adapted to its natural environment able to produce wines with desirable characteristics, i.e. lower concentrations of higher alcohol and higher ester, verifying its potential as a valuable starter for the local wine-industry.
Project description:During must fermentation thousands of volatile aroma compounds are formed, with higher alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters being the main aromatic compounds contributing to floral and fruity aromas. The action of yeast, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the must components will build the architecture of the wine flavour and its fermentation bouquet. The objective of the present work was to better understand the molecular and metabolic bases of aroma production during a fermentation process. For such, comparative transcriptomic and metabolic analysis was performed at two time points (5 and 50 g/L of CO2 released) in fermentations conducted by four yeast strains from different origins and/or technological applications (cachaça, sake, wine, and laboratory), and multivariate factorial analyses were used to rationally identify new targets for improving aroma production.Results showed that strains from cachaça, sake and wine produced higher amounts of acetate esters, ethyl esters, acids and higher alcohols, in comparison with the laboratory strain. At fermentation time T1 (5 g/L CO2 released), comparative transcriptomics of the three S. cerevisiae strains from different fermentative environments in comparison with the laboratory yeast S288c, showed an increased expression of genes related with tetracyclic and pentacyclic triterpenes metabolism, involved in sterol synthesis. Sake strain also showed upregulation of genes ADH7 and AAD6, involved in the formation of higher alcohols in the Ehrlich pathway. For fermentation time point T2 (50 g/L CO2 released), again sake strain, but also VL1 strain, showed an increased expression of genes involved in formation of higher alcohols in the Ehrlich pathway, namely ADH7, ADH6 and AAD6, which is in accordance with the higher levels of methionol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and phenylethanol observed.Our approach revealed successful to integrate data from several technologies (HPLC, GC-MS, microarrays) and using different data analysis methods (PCA, MFA). The results obtained increased our knowledge on the production of wine aroma and flavour, identifying new gene in association to the formation of flavour active compounds, mainly in the production of fatty acids, and ethyl and acetate esters.
Project description:Yeast strain plays a central role in the formation of aroma and flavour of fruit wine. The effect of four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (D254, VIC, BV818 and CECA) on volatile compounds of fermented pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) juice was investigated. Alcohols and esters were the most abundant groups in terms of the amounts of identified volatiles in four pineapple wines, followed by acids and sulphur compounds. Different S. cerevisiae strains possess various capacities to release or synthesize volatiles during pineapple wine fermentation. For global aroma, strain D254 yielded the highest total number and concentration of volatiles and could be used as a starter culture for the making of intense pineapple wine. Strain BV818 produced wine with the highest amounts of volatiles with OAVs > 1 and scored the highest in global aroma. Thus, BV818 might be the appropriate strain that could impart characteristic aromas and enhance wine complexity. The relative content of esters formed by strain VIC was higher than that yielded by the other strains. Strain CECA produced the highest relative contents of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. However, VIC and CECA were not ideal starter cultures because of their low sense scores. This study provided a foundation for the production of pineapple wine with the desired flavour profile.
Project description:The aromatic metabolites derived from yeast metabolism determine the characteristics of aroma and taste in wines, so they are considered of great industrial interest. Volatile esters represent the most important group and therefore, their presence is extremely important for the flavor profile of the wine. In this work, we use and compare two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains: P29, typical of sparkling wines resulting of second fermentation in a closed bottle; G1, a flor yeast responsible for the biological aging of Sherry wines. We aimed to analyze and compare the effect of endogenous CO2 overpressure on esters metabolism with the proteins related in these yeast strains, to understand the yeast fermentation process in sparkling wines. For this purpose, protein identification was carried out using the OFFGEL fractionator and the LTQ Orbitrap, following the detection and quantification of esters with gas chromatograph coupled to flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and stir-bar sorptive extraction, followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GC-MS). Six acetate esters, fourteen ethyl esters, and five proteins involved in esters metabolism were identified. Moreover, significant correlations were established between esters and proteins. Both strains showed similar behavior. According to these results, the use of this flor yeast may be proposed for the sparkling wine production and enhance the diversity and the typicity of sparkling wine yeasts.
Project description:Non-Saccharomyces yeasts have received increased attention by researchers and winemakers, due to their particular contributions to the characteristics of wine. In this group, Saccharomycodes ludwigii is one of the less studied species. In the present study, a native S. ludwigii strain, UTAD17 isolated from the Douro wine region was characterized for relevant oenological traits. The genome of UTAD17 was recently sequenced. Its potential use in winemaking was further evaluated by conducting grape-juice fermentations, either in single or in mixed-cultures, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, following two inoculation strategies (simultaneous and sequential). In a pure culture, S. ludwigii UTAD17 was able to ferment all sugars in a reasonable time without impairing the wine quality, producing low levels of acetic acid and ethyl acetate. The overall effects of S. ludwigii UTAD17 in a mixed-culture fermentation were highly dependent on the inoculation strategy which dictated the dominance of each yeast strain. Wines whose fermentation was governed by S. ludwigii UTAD17 presented low levels of secondary aroma compounds and were chemically distinct from those fermented by S. cerevisiae. Based on these results, a future use of this non-Saccharomyces yeast either in monoculture fermentations or as a co-starter culture with S. cerevisiae for the production of wines with greater expression of the grape varietal character and with flavor diversity could be foreseen.
Project description:Multi-starter wine fermentations employing non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts are becoming an emerging trend in winemaking. It is therefore important to determine the impacts of different NS strains in the wine phenotype and in particular the aroma outputs in different inoculation schemes and fermentation conditions. Here, two native NS yeasts, Lachancea thermotolerans LtMM7 and Hanseniaspora uvarum HuMM19, were assessed for their ability to improve the quality of Moschofilero, a Greek aromatic white wine. The NS strains were initially examined in laboratory scale fermentations in mixed inoculations with ScMM23, a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. LtMM7 was selected to be further evaluated in pilot scale fermentations. Five different inoculation schemes were considered: single inoculation of ScMM23 (IS), simultaneous inoculation of ScMM23 with HuMM19 (SMH) or LtMM7 (SML), and sequential inoculation of HuMM19 (SQH) or LtMM7 (SQL) followed by ScMM23. At laboratory scale fermentations, the chemical profiles were largely affected by both the NS species and the inoculation scheme applied. The sequential inoculation using HuMM19 produced the most divergent wine phenotype. However, HuMM19 caused significant increases in acetic acid and ethyl acetate levels that impeded its use in pilot scale trials. LtMM7 significantly affected the chemical profiles of wines produced at the winery, especially in the sequential inoculation scheme. Importantly, LtMM7 significantly increased the levels of acetate esters or ethyl esters, depending on the inoculation method applied. In particular, acetate esters like isobutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate, which all impart fruity or floral aromas, were significantly increased in SQL. On the other hand, higher levels of total ethyl esters were associated with SML. The most striking differences were observed in the levels of fruit-impair esters like ethyl decanoate, 3-methylbutyl octanoate, and isoamyl hexanoate. This is the first study to report a significant increase in the ethyl ester fraction by L. thermotolerans. Interestingly, L. thermotolerans in SQL also increased the concentrations of damascenone and geraniol, the major teprenic compound of Moschofilero, which are associated with several typical floral and fruity aromas of the variety. Present results show that L. thermotolerans may enhance the varietal character and increase the chemical complexity of Moschofilero wines.
Project description:The effect of four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (D254, VIC, BV818, and RV100) on the volatile profile of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) wine was investigated in this study. Alcohols and esters were the most two abundant groups of identified volatiles in wax apple wines. However, different S. cerevisiae strains possess various capacities in releasing/synthesizing volatiles with varied mRNA levels of genes involved in volatiles metabolism during wax apple wine fermentation. VIC, which yielded the highest total concentration of volatiles and largest number of volatiles with odor activity value (OAV)?>?1, could be used as a starter culture to produce wax apple wine characterized with intense aroma. D254 and RV100, which produced the greatest variety of volatiles and scored the highest in global aroma, respectively, could be used to enhance the wine complexity. Four wax apple wines could be differentiated by their main volatile compounds.