The Inhibition of B7H3 by 2-HG Accumulation Is Associated With Downregulation of VEGFA in IDH Mutated Gliomas
ABSTRACT: B7H3 (also known as CD276) is a co-stimulator checkpoint protein of the cell surface B7 superfamily. Recently, the function beyond immune regulation of B7H3 has been widely studied. However, the expression preference and the regulation mechanism underlying B7H3 in different subtypes of gliomas is rarely understood. We show here that B7H3 expression is significantly decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and in cultured IDH1-R132H glioma cells. Accumulation of 2-HG leads to a remarkable downregulation of B7H3 protein and the activity of IDH1-R132H mutant is responsible for B7H3 reduction in glioma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by inhibitors like leupeptin, chloroquine (CQ), and Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1) blocks the degradation of B7H3 in glioma cells. In the meantime, the autophagy flux is more active with higher LC3B-II and lower p62 in IDH1-R132H glioma cells than in IDH1-WT cells. Furthermore, sequence alignment analysis reveals potential LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs 'F-V-S/N-I/V' in B7H3. Moreover, B7H3 interacts with p62 and CQ treatment significantly enhances this interaction. Additionally, we find that B7H3 is positively correlated with VEGFA and MMP2 by bioinformatics analysis in gliomas. B7H3 and VEGFA are decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and further reduced in 2-HGhigh gliomas compared to 2-HGlow glioma sections by IHC staining. Our study demonstrates that B7H3 is preferentially overexpressed in IDH wild-type gliomas and could serve as a potential theranostic target for the precise treatment of glioma patients with wild-type IDH.
INSTRUMENT(S): Liquid Chromatography MS - alternating - reverse phase
Project description:B7H3 (also known as CD276) is a co-stimulator checkpoint protein of the cell surface B7 superfamily. Recently, the function beyond immune regulation of B7H3 has been widely studied. However, the expression preference and the regulation mechanism underlying B7H3 in different subtypes of gliomas is rarely understood. We show here that B7H3 expression is significantly decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and in cultured IDH1-R132H glioma cells. Accumulation of 2-HG leads to a remarkable downregulation of B7H3 protein and the activity of IDH1-R132H mutant is responsible for B7H3 reduction in glioma cells. Inhibition of autophagy by inhibitors like leupeptin, chloroquine (CQ), and Bafilomycin A1 (Baf-A1) blocks the degradation of B7H3 in glioma cells. In the meantime, the autophagy flux is more active with higher LC3B-II and lower p62 in IDH1-R132H glioma cells than in IDH1-WT cells. Furthermore, sequence alignment analysis reveals potential LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs "F-V-S/N-I/V" in B7H3. Moreover, B7H3 interacts with p62 and CQ treatment significantly enhances this interaction. Additionally, we find that <i>B7H3</i> is positively correlated with <i>VEGFA</i> and <i>MMP2</i> by bioinformatics analysis in gliomas. B7H3 and VEGFA are decreased in IDH-mutated gliomas and further reduced in 2-HG<sup>high</sup> gliomas compared to 2-HG<sup>low</sup> glioma sections by IHC staining. Our study demonstrates that B7H3 is preferentially overexpressed in IDH wild-type gliomas and could serve as a potential theranostic target for the precise treatment of glioma patients with wild-type IDH.
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations occur frequently in lower-grade gliomas, which result in genome-wide epigenetic alterations. The wild-type IDH1 is reported to participate in lipid biosynthesis and amino acid metabolism, but its role in tumorigenesis is still unclear. In this study, the expressions of IDH1 and podoplanin (Pdpn) were determined in IDH-mutated and IDH-wild-type gliomas, and their relationships in glioma were further analyzed. In addition, the regulation of wild-type IDH1 and mutant IDH1 on Pdpn expression was investigated by luciferase assays and promoter methylation analysis. Our study showed that Pdpn was almost undetectable in IDH-mutated glioma but strongly expressed in higher-grade IDH-wild-type glioma. Pdpn overexpression promoted the migration of glioma cells but had little effect on cell growth. Moreover, Pdpn expression was positively correlated with the increased wild-type IDH1 levels in IDH-wild-type glioma. Consistently, the wild-type IDH1 greatly promoted the transcription and expression of Pdpn, but the mutant IDH1 and D-2-hydroxyglutarate significantly suppressed Pdpn expression in glioma cells. Besides, our results revealed that the methylation of CpG islands in the Pdpn promoter was opposingly regulated by wild-type and mutant IDH1 in glioma. Collectively, our results indicated that wild-type and mutant IDH1 opposingly controlled the Pdpn expression in glioma by regulating its promoter methylation, which provides a basis for understanding the relationship between wild-type and mutant IDH1 in epigenetic regulation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is the most frequently mutated gene in World Health Organization grade II-III and secondary glioma. The majority of IDH1 mutation cases involve the substitution from arginine to histidine at codon 132 (IDH1-R132H). Although the oncogenic role of IDH1-R132H has been confirmed, patients with IDH1-R132H brain tumors exhibit a better response to radiotherapy compared with those with wild-type (WT) IDH1. In the present study, the potential mechanism of radiosensitization mediated by IDH1-R132H was investigated by overexpressing IDH1-R132H in U87MG glioma cells. The results demonstrated decreased clonogenic capacity of IDH1-R132H-expressing cells, as well as delayed repair of DNA double-strand breaks compared with IDH1-WT. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed, which demonstrated that the expression of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) was lower in patients with glioma harboring IDH1 mutations compared with that in patients with IDH1-WT. TIGAR-knockdown increases the radiosensitivity of glioma cells; in U87MG cells, IDH1-R132H suppressed TIGAR expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed increased levels of repressive H3K9me3 markers at the TIGAR promoter in IDH1-R132H compared with IDH1-WT. These data indicated that IDH1-R132H may overcome radioresistance in glioma cells through epigenetic suppression of TIGAR expression. However, these favorable effects were not observed in U87MG glioma stem-like cells. The results of the present study provide an improved understanding of the functionality of IDH1 mutations in glioma cells, which may improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy.
Project description:Mutations in the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) lead to metabolic alterations and a sustained formation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). 2-HG is an oncometabolite as it inhibits the activity of α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases such as ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. Inhibitors of mutant IDH enzymes, like ML309, are currently tested in order to lower the levels of 2-HG. Vitamin C (VC) is an inducer of TET enzymes. To test a new therapeutic avenue of synergistic effects, the anti-neoplastic activity of inhibition of mutant IDH1 via ML309 in the presence of VC was investigated in the colon cancer cell line HCT116 <i>IDH1<sup>R132H/+</sup></i> (harbouring a mutated <i>IDH1</i> allele) and the parental cells HCT116 <i>IDH1<sup>+/+</sup></i> (wild type <i>IDH1</i>). Measurement of the oncometabolite indicated a 56-fold higher content of 2-HG in mutated cells compared to wild type cells. A significant reduction of 2-HG was observed in mutated cells after treatment with ML 309, whereas VC produced only minimally changes of the oncometabolite. However, combinatorial treatment with both, ML309 and VC, in mutated cells induced pronounced reduction of 2-HG leading to levels comparable to those in wild type cells. The decreased level of 2-HG in mutated cells after combinatorial treatment was accompanied by an enhanced global DNA hydroxymethylation and an increased gene expression of certain tumour suppressors. Moreover, mutated cells showed an increased percentage of apoptotic cells after treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of ML309 and VC. These results suggest that combinatorial therapy is of interest for further investigation to rescue TET activity and treatment of <i>IDH1/2</i> mutated cancers.
Project description:The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) mutations are frequent genetic abnormalities in the majority of WHO grade II/III glioma and secondary GBM. IDH1-mutated (IDH1<sup>Mut</sup>) glioma exhibits distinctive patterns in cancer biology and metabolism. In the present study, we showed that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP4) are significantly upregulated in IDH1<sup>Mut</sup> glioma. Further, we demonstrated that cancer-associated BMP4 is secreted to tumor microenvironment, which enhances the tumor migration and invasion through an autocrine manner. Mechanistically, BMP4 activates its receptor and concomitant SMAD1/5/8 signaling, which potentiates Wnt/?-catenin signaling by enhancing Frizzled receptor expression. LDN-193189, a selective BMP receptor inhibitor, prolonged the overall survival of mice bearing IDH1-mutated intracranial xenografts by limiting BMP/catenin signaling. These findings demonstrate the pivotal role of BMP4 on tumor aggressiveness in IDH1<sup>Mut</sup> gliomas, suggesting a possible therapeutic strategy for this type of malignancy.
Project description:The vast majority (>90%) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients belong to the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild type (IDH1<sup>WT</sup>) group which exhibits a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 15 months. This study demonstrated numerous immunosuppressive genes as well as β-catenin gene, pivotal for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, were upregulated in 206 IDH1<sup>WT</sup> glioma patients using the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database. The increase in microglia with an immunosuppressive phenotype and the overexpression of β-catenin protein were further verified in IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GBM patients and IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GL261 glioma allografts. Subsequently, we found that IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GL261 cell-derived conditioned medium activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary microglia and triggered their transition to an immunosuppressive phenotype. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling not only attenuated microglial polarization to the immunosuppressive subtype but also reactivated immune responses in IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GBM allografts by simultaneously enhancing cytotoxic CD8<sup>+</sup> T cell infiltration and downregulating regulatory T cells. Positron emission tomography imaging demonstrated enhanced proinflammatory activities in IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GBM allografts after the blockade of Wnt signaling. Finally, gavage administration of a Wnt signaling inhibitor significantly restrained tumor proliferation and improved the survival of model mice bearing IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GBM allografts. Depletion of CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells remarkably abrogated the therapeutic efficacy induced by the Wnt signaling inhibitor. Overall, the present work indicates that the crosstalk between IDH1<sup>WT</sup> glioma cells and immunosuppressive microglia is important in maintaining the immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment. Blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a promising complement for IDH1<sup>WT</sup> GBM treatment by improving the hostile immunosuppressive microenvironment.
Project description:IDH1 mutations in gliomas associate with longer survival. Prooxidant and antiproliferative effects of IDH1 mutations and its D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) product have been described in vitro, but inconsistently observed. It is also unclear whether overexpression of mutant IDH1 in wild-type cells accurately phenocopies the effects of endogenous IDH1-mutations on tumor apoptosis and autophagy. Herein we investigated the effects of 2-HG and mutant IDH1 overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and autophagy in IDH1 wild-type glioma cells, and compared those results with patient-derived tumors. 2-HG reduced viability and proliferation of U87MG and LN18 cells, triggered apoptosis in LN18 cells, and autophagy in U87MG cells. In vitro studies and flank xenografts of U87MG cells overexpressing R132H IDH1 exhibited increased oxidative stress, including increases of both manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and p62. Patient-derived IDH1-mutant tumors showed no significant differences in apoptosis or autophagy, but showed p62 accumulation and actually trended toward reduced MnSOD expression. These data indicate that mutant IDH1 and 2-HG can induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis, but these effects vary greatly according to cell type.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 2 (IDH2) are found in a subset of gliomas. Among the many phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type IDH1/2 gliomas, the most salient is that IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients demonstrate markedly improved survival compared with IDH1/2 wild-type glioma patients. To address the mechanism underlying the superior clinical outcome of IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients, we investigated whether overexpression of the IDH1(R132H) protein could affect response to therapy in the context of an isogenic glioma cell background. Stable clonal U87MG and U373MG cell lines overexpressing IDH1(WT) and IDH1(R132H) were generated, as well as U87MG cell lines overexpressing IDH2(WT) and IDH2(R172K). In vitro experiments were conducted to characterize baseline growth and migration and response to radiation and temozolomide. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured under various conditions. U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, U373MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, and U87MG-IDH2(R172K) cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to radiation but not to temozolomide. Radiosensitization of U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells was accompanied by increased apoptosis and accentuated ROS generation, and this effect was abrogated by the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Interestingly, U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells also displayed decreased growth at higher cell density and in soft agar, as well as decreased migration. Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) and IDH2(R172K) mutant protein in glioblastoma cells resulted in increased radiation sensitivity and altered ROS metabolism and suppression of growth and migration in vitro. These findings provide insight into possible mechanisms contributing to the improved outcomes observed in patients with IDH1/2 mutant gliomas.
Project description:Point mutations at Arg132 of the cytoplasmic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) occur frequently in gliomas and result in a gain of function to produce the "oncometabolite" D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). The mutated IDH1 allele is usually associated with a wild-type IDH1 allele (heterozygous) in cancer. Here, we identify 2 gliomas that underwent loss of the wild-type IDH1 allele but retained the mutant IDH1 allele following tumor progression from World Health Organization (WHO) grade III anaplastic astrocytomas to WHO grade IV glioblastomas. Intratumoral D-2HG was 14-fold lower in the glioblastomas lacking wild-type IDH1 than in glioblastomas with heterozygous IDH1 mutations. To characterize the contribution of wild-type IDH1 to cancer cell D-2HG production, we established an IDH1-mutated astrocytoma (IMA) cell line from a WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma. Disruption of the wild-type IDH1 allele in IMA cells by gene targeting resulted in an 87-fold decrease in cellular D-2HG levels, showing that both wild-type and mutant IDH1 alleles are required for D-2HG production in glioma cells. Expression of wild-type IDH1 was also critical for mutant IDH1-associated D-2HG production in the colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. These insights may aid in the development of therapeutic strategies to target IDH1-mutated cancers.