Project description:Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is naturally competent and proficient at homologous recombination, so it can be transformed without restriction digests or ligation reactions. Expression vectors for this system, however, are not yet widely available. Here we describe the construction and characterization of inducible expression vectors that replicate as plasmids in A. baylyi or integrate into a nonessential part of its chromosome. These tools will facilitate the engineering of genes and genomes in this promising model organism.
Project description:Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Transfer tDNA-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selective restriction fragment amplification (amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicate that strain ADP1 and a second transformable strain, designated 93A2, are members of the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Transformation assays demonstrate that the A. baylyi type strain B2(T) and two other originally identified members of the species (C5 and A7) also have the ability to undergo natural transformation at high frequencies, confirming that these five strains belong to a separate species of the genus Acinetobacter, characterized by the high transformability of its strains that have been cultured thus far.
Project description:There are no previous reports of human infection due to Acinetobacter baylyi. In this study, we report on six patients with bacteremia due to A. baylyi, based on analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer and the 16S rRNA gene. All six patients had multiple underlying diseases. The infection was nosocomially acquired in five patients. The six clinical isolates had similar ribopatterns, suggesting a clonal relationship. Compared to the reference strain, the clinical isolates were more resistant to antimicrobial agents, especially beta-lactam antibiotics. In three of the isolates, they may have undetermined plasmid mediated class C type beta-lactamases because of the positive results in a double-disk synergy test using 3-aminophenylboronic acid. Two of the clinical isolates retained a level of natural transformability similar to that of the reference strain. None of the patients died, although only three of them received appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study demonstrates that A. baylyi is a potential human pathogen that can cause nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patients.
Project description:Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has the potential to be a versatile bacterial host for synthetic biology because it is naturally transformable. To examine the genetic reliability of this desirable trait and to understand the potential stability of other engineered capabilities, we propagated ADP1 for 1,000 generations of growth in rich nutrient broth and analyzed the genetic changes that evolved by whole-genome sequencing. Substantially reduced transformability and increased cellular aggregation evolved during the experiment. New insertions of IS1236 transposable elements and IS1236-mediated deletions led to these phenotypes in most cases and were common overall among the selected mutations. We also observed a 49-kb deletion of a prophage region that removed an integration site, which has been used for genome engineering, from every evolved genome. The comparatively low rates of these three classes of mutations in lineages that were propagated with reduced selection for 7,500 generations indicate that they increase ADP1 fitness under common laboratory growth conditions. Our results suggest that eliminating transposable elements and other genetic failure modes that affect key organismal traits is essential for improving the reliability of metabolic engineering and genome editing in undomesticated microbial hosts, such as Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.
Project description:Members of the genus Acinetobacter have been the focus recent attention due to both their clinical significance and application to molecular biology. The soil commensal bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a model system for molecular and genetic studies, whereas in a clinical environment, Acinetobacter spp. are of increasing importance due to their propensity to cause serious and intractable systemic infections. Clinically, a major factor in the success of Acinetobacter spp. as opportunistic pathogens can be attributed to their ability to rapidly evolve resistance to common antimicrobial compounds. Whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter spp. isolates has revealed the presence of numerous multidrug transporters within the core and accessory genomes, suggesting that efflux is an important host defense response in this genus. In this work, we used the drug-susceptible organism A. baylyi ADP1 as a model for studies into the evolution of efflux mediated resistance in genus Acinetobacter, due to the high level of conservation of efflux determinants across four diverse Acinetobacter strains, including clinical isolates. A single exposure of therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol to populations of A. baylyi ADP1 cells produced five individual colonies displaying multidrug resistance. The major facilitator superfamily pump craA was upregulated in one mutant strain, whereas the resistance nodulation division pump adeJ was upregulated in the remaining four. Within the adeJ upregulated population, two different levels of adeJ mRNA transcription were observed, suggesting at least three separate mutations were selected after single-step exposure to chloramphenicol. In the craA upregulated strain, a T to G substitution 12 nt upstream of the craA translation initiation codon was observed. Subsequent mRNA stability analyses using this strain revealed that the half-life of mutant craA mRNA was significantly greater than that of wild-type craA mRNA.
Project description:Expansive knowledge of bacterial metabolism has been gained from genome sequencing output, but the high proportion of genes lacking a proper functional annotation in a given genome still impedes the accurate prediction of the metabolism of a cell. To access to a more global view of the functioning of the soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, we adopted a multi 'omics' approach. Application of RNA-seq transcriptomics and LC/MS-based metabolomics, along with the systematic phenotyping of the complete collection of single-gene deletion mutants of A. baylyi ADP1 made possible to interrogate on the metabolic perturbations encountered by the bacterium upon a biotic change. Shifting the sole carbon source from succinate to quinate elicited in the cell not only a specific transcriptional response, necessary to catabolize the new carbon source, but also a major reorganization of the transcription pattern. Here, the expression of more than 12 % of the total number of genes was affected, most of them being of unknown function. These perturbations were ultimately reflected in the metabolome, in which the concentration of about 50 % of the LC/MS-detected metabolites was impacted. And the differential regulation of many genes of unknown function is probably related to the synthesis of the numerous unidentified compounds that were present exclusively in quinate-grown cells. Together, these data suggest that A. baylyi ADP1 metabolism involves unsuspected enzymatic reactions that await discovery.
Project description:The number and type of outer membrane (OM) channels responsible for carbapenem uptake in Acinetobacter are still not well defined. Here, we addressed these questions by using Acinetobacter baylyi as a model species and a combination of methodologies aimed to characterize OM channels in their original membrane environment. Kinetic and competition analyses of imipenem (IPM) uptake by A. baylyi whole cells allowed us to identify different carbapenem-specific OM uptake sites. Comparative analyses of IPM uptake by A. baylyi wild-type (WT) cells and ?carO mutants lacking CarO indicated that this OM protein provided a carbapenem uptake site displaying saturable kinetics and common binding sites for basic amino acids compatible with a specific channel. The kinetic analysis uncovered another carbapenem-specific channel displaying a somewhat lower affinity for IPM than that of CarO and, in addition, common binding sites for basic amino acids as determined by competition studies. The use of A. baylyi gene deletion mutants lacking OM proteins proposed to function in carbapenem uptake in Acinetobacter baumannii indicated that CarO and OprD/OccAB1 mutants displayed low but consistent reductions in susceptibility to different carbapenems, including IPM, meropenem, and ertapenem. These two mutants also showed impaired growth on l-Arg but not on other carbon sources, further supporting a role of CarO and OprD/OccAB1 in basic amino acid and carbapenem uptake. A multiple-carbapenem-channel scenario may provide clues to our understanding of the contribution of OM channel loss or mutation to the carbapenem-resistant phenotype evolved by pathogenic members of the Acinetobacter genus.
Project description:Here we present an examination of type IV pilus genes associated with competence and twitching in the bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi (strain ADP1, BD413). We used bioinformatics to identify potential competence and twitching genes and their operons. We measured the competence and twitching phenotypes of the bioinformatically-identified genes. These results demonstrate that competence and twitching in A. baylyi both rely upon a core of the same type IV pilus proteins. The core includes the inner membrane assembly platform (PilC), a periplasmic assemblage connecting the inner membrane assembly platform to the secretin (ComM), a secretin (ComQ) and its associated pilotin (PilF) that assists with secretin assembly and localization, both cytoplasmic pilus retraction ATPases (PilU, PilT), and pilins (ComP, ComB, PilX). Proteins not needed for both competence and twitching are instead found to specialize in either of the two traits. The pilins are varied in their specialization with some required for either competence (FimT) and others for twitching (ComE). The protein that transports DNA across the inner membrane (ComA) specializes in competence, while signal transduction proteins (PilG, PilS, and PilR) specialize in twitching. Taken together our results suggest that the function of accessory proteins should not be based on homology alone. In addition the results suggest that in A. baylyi the mechanisms of natural transformation and twitching are mediated by the same set of core Type IV pilus proteins with distinct specialized proteins required for each phenotype. Finally, since competence requires multiple pilins as well as both pilus retraction motors PilU and PilT, this suggests that A. baylyi employs a pilus in natural transformation.
Project description:Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are two-partner secretion systems in which toxic CdiA proteins are exported on the outer membrane by cognate transporter CdiB proteins. Upon binding to specific receptors, the C-terminal toxic (CT) domain, detached from CdiA, is delivered to neighbouring cells. Contacts inhibit the growth of not-self-bacteria, lacking immunity proteins co-expressed with CdiA, but promote cooperative behaviours in "self" bacteria, favouring the formation of biofilm structures. The Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 strain features two CdiA, which differ significantly in size and have different CT domains. Homologous proteins sharing the same CT domains have been identified in A. baumannii. The growth inhibition property of the two A. baylyi CdiA proteins was supported by competition assays between wild-type cells and mutants lacking immunity genes. However, neither protein plays a role in biofilm formation or adherence to epithelial cells, as proved by assays carried out with knockout mutants. Inhibitory and stimulatory properties may be similarly uncoupled in A. baumannii proteins.
Project description:bla(SIM-1) and bla(OXA-23) were codetected in clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baylyi strain NB09A30. Both of carbapenemase genes were located on a large plasmid (ca. 360 kb). bla(SIM-1) was found as a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron identical to that determined in Acinetobacter sp. isolates from South Korea. The genetic structure of bla(OXA-23) in NB09A30 was different from that in the prevalent Acinetobacter baumannii of clonal complex 92 (CC92) from the same hospital.