Project description:In many organisms, a synaptonemal complex (SC) intimately connects each pair of homologous chromosomes during much of the first meiotic prophase and is thought to play a role in regulating recombination. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the central element of each SC contains Zip1, a protein orthologous to mammalian SYCP1. To study the dynamics of SCs in living meiotic cells, a functional ZIP1::GFP fusion was introduced into yeast and analyzed by fluorescence video microscopy. During pachytene, SCs exhibited dramatic and continuous movement throughout the nucleus, traversing relatively large distances while twisting, folding, and unfolding. Chromosomal movements were accompanied by changes in the shape of the nucleus, and all movements were reversibly inhibited by the actin antagonist Latrunculin B. Normal movement required the NDJ1 gene, which encodes a meiosis-specific telomere protein needed for the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear periphery and for normal kinetics of recombination and meiosis. These results show that SC movements involve telomere attachment to the nuclear periphery and are actin-dependent and suggest these movements could facilitate completion of meiotic recombination.
Project description:Meiotic recombination plays a key role in sexual reproduction as it generates crossovers that, in combination with sister chromatid cohesion, physically connect homologous chromosomes, thereby promoting their proper segregation at the first meiotic division. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved, topoisomerase-like protein Spo11. Repair of these DSBs is highly regulated to create crossovers between homologs that are distributed throughout the genome. This repair requires the presence of the mitotic recombinase, Rad51, as well as the strand exchange activity of the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. A key regulator of meiotic DSB repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1, which promotes interhomolog strand invasion and is required for the meiotic recombination checkpoint and the crossover/noncrossover decision. Understanding how Mek1 regulates meiotic recombination requires the identification of its substrates. Towards that end, an unbiased phosphoproteomic approach utilizing Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cells (SILAC) was utilized to generate a list of potential Mek1 substrates, as well as proteins containing consensus phosphorylation sites for cyclin-dependent kinase, the checkpoint kinases, Mec1/Tel1, and the polo-like kinase, Cdc5. These experiments represent the first global phosphoproteomic dataset for proteins in meiotic budding yeast.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase Sgs1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic genome stability. The stage at which Sgs1 acts during meiosis is subject to debate. Cytological experiments showed that a deletion of SGS1 leads to an increase in synapsis initiation complexes and axial associations leading to the proposal that it has an early role in unwinding surplus strand invasion events. Physical studies of recombination intermediates implicate it in the dissolution of double Holliday junctions between sister chromatids.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this work, we observed an increase in meiotic recombination between diverged sequences (homeologous recombination) and an increase in unequal sister chromatid events when SGS1 is deleted. The first of these observations is most consistent with an early role of Sgs1 in unwinding inappropriate strand invasion events while the second is consistent with unwinding or dissolution of recombination intermediates in an Mlh1- and Top3-dependent manner. We also provide data that suggest that Sgs1 is involved in the rejection of 'second strand capture' when sequence divergence is present. Finally, we have identified a novel class of tetrads where non-sister spores (pairs of spores where each contains a centromere marker from a different parent) are inviable. We propose a model for this unusual pattern of viability based on the inability of sgs1 mutants to untangle intertwined chromosomes. Our data suggest that this role of Sgs1 is not dependent on its interaction with Top3. We propose that in the absence of SGS1 chromosomes may sometimes remain entangled at the end of pre-meiotic replication. This, combined with reciprocal crossing over, could lead to physical destruction of the recombined and entangled chromosomes. We hypothesise that Sgs1, acting in concert with the topoisomerase Top2, resolves these structures.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This work provides evidence that Sgs1 interacts with various partner proteins to maintain genome stability throughout meiosis.
Project description:Homologous recombination occurs closely between homologous chromatids with highly ordered recombinosomes through RecA homologs and mediators. The present study demonstrates this relationship during the period of "partner choice" in yeast meiotic recombination. We have examined the formation of recombination intermediates in the absence or presence of Shu1, a member of the PCSS complex, which also includes Psy3, Csm2, and Shu2. DNA physical analysis indicates that Shu1 is essential for promoting the establishment of homolog bias during meiotic homologous recombination, and the partner choice is switched by Mek1 kinase activity. Furthermore, Shu1 promotes both crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) pathways of meiotic recombination. The inactivation of Mek1 kinase allows for meiotic recombination to progress efficiently, but is lost in homolog bias where most doublestrand breaks (DSBs) are repaired via stable intersister joint molecules. Moreover, the Srs2 helicase deletion cells in the budding yeast show slightly reduced COs and NCOs, and Shu1 promotes homolog bias independent of Srs2. Our findings reveal that Shu1 and Mek1 kinase activity have biochemically distinct roles in partner choice, which in turn enhances the understanding of the mechanism associated with the precondition for homolog bias.
Project description:During homologous recombination, a number of proteins cooperate to catalyze the loading of recombinases onto single-stranded DNA. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins stimulate recombination by coating single-stranded DNA and keeping it free of secondary structure; however, in order for recombinases to load on single-stranded-DNA-binding protein-coated DNA, the activity of a class of proteins known as recombination mediators is required. Mediator proteins coordinate the handoff of single-stranded DNA from single-stranded DNA-binding protein to recombinase. Here we show that a complex of Mei5 and Sae3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae preferentially binds single-stranded DNA and relieves the inhibition of the strand assimilation and DNA binding abilities of the meiotic recombinase Dmc1 imposed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein replication protein A. Additionally, we demonstrate the physical interaction of Mei5-Sae3 with replication protein A. Our results, together with previous in vivo studies, indicate that Mei5-Sae3 is a mediator of Dmc1 assembly during meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the meiosis-specific axis proteins Hop1 and Red1 are present nonuniformly across the genome. In a previous study, the meiosis-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) was used to examine Spo11-independent recombination in a recombination reporter inserted in a Hop1/Red1-enriched region (HIS4) and in a Hop1/Red1-poor region (URA3). VDE-initiated crossovers at HIS4 were mostly dependent on Mlh3, a component of the MutLγ meiotic recombination intermediate resolvase, while VDE-initiated crossovers at URA3 were mostly Mlh3-independent. These differences were abolished in the absence of the chromosome axis remodeler Pch2, and crossovers at both loci became partly Mlh3-dependent. To test the generality of these observations, we examined inserts at six additional loci that differed in terms of Hop1/Red1 enrichment, chromosome size, and distance from centromeres and telomeres. All six loci behaved similarly to URA3: the vast majority of VDE-initiated crossovers were Mlh3-independent. This indicates that, counter to previous suggestions, levels of meiotic chromosome axis protein enrichment alone do not determine which recombination pathway gives rise to crossovers during VDE-initiated meiotic recombination. In pch2∆ mutants, the fraction of VDE-induced crossovers that were Mlh3-dependent increased to levels previously observed for Spo11-initiated crossovers in pch2∆, indicating that Pch2-dependent processes play an important role in controlling the balance between MutLγ-dependent and MutLγ-independent crossovers.
Project description:Among the collection of chromatin modifications that influence its function and structure, the substitution of canonical histones by the so-called histone variants is one of the most prominent actions. Since crucial meiotic transactions are modulated by chromatin, here we investigate the functional contribution of the H2A.Z histone variant during both unperturbed meiosis and upon challenging conditions where the meiotic recombination checkpoint is triggered in budding yeast by the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 We have found that H2A.Z localizes to meiotic chromosomes in an SWR1-dependent manner. Although meiotic recombination is not substantially altered, the htz1 mutant (lacking H2A.Z) shows inefficient meiotic progression, impaired sporulation, and reduced spore viability. These phenotypes are likely accounted for by the misregulation of meiotic gene expression landscape observed in htz1 In the zip1 mutant, the absence of H2A.Z results in a tighter meiotic arrest imposed by the meiotic recombination checkpoint. We have found that Mec1-dependent Hop1-T318 phosphorylation and the ensuing Mek1 activation are not significantly altered in zip1 htz1; however, downstream checkpoint targets, such as the meiosis I-promoting factors Ndt80, Cdc5, and Clb1, are drastically downregulated. The study of the checkpoint response in zip1 htz1 has also allowed us to reveal the existence of an additional function of the Swe1 kinase, independent of CDK inhibitory phosphorylation, which is relevant to restrain meiotic cell cycle progression. In summary, our study shows that the H2A.Z histone variant impacts various aspects of meiotic development adding further insight into the relevance of chromatin dynamics for accurate gametogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Meiotic recombination alters frequency and distribution of genetic variation, impacting genetics and evolution. In the budding yeast, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and D loops form either crossovers (COs) or non-crossovers (NCOs), which occur at many sites in the genome. Differences at the nucleotide level associated with COs and NCOs enable us to detect these recombination events and their distributions. RESULTS: We used high throughput sequencing to uncover over 46 thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between two budding yeast strains and investigated meiotic recombinational events. We provided a detailed analysis of CO and NCO events, including number, size range, and distribution on chromosomes. We have detected 91 COs, very close to the average number from previous genetic studies, as well as 21 NCO events and mapped the positions of these events with high resolution. We have obtained DNA sequence-level evidence for a wide range of sizes of chromosomal regions involved in CO and NCO events. We show that a large fraction of the COs are accompanied by gene conversion (GC), indicating that meiotic recombination changes allelic frequencies, in addition to redistributing existing genetic variations. CONCLUSION: This work is the first reported study of meiotic recombination using high throughput sequencing technologies. Our results show that high-throughput sequencing is a sensitive method to uncover at single-base resolution details of CO and NCO events, including some complex patterns, providing new clues about the mechanism of this fundamental process.
Project description:We sequenced the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YJM789, which was derived from a yeast isolated from the lung of an AIDS patient with pneumonia. The strain is used for studies of fungal infections and quantitative genetics because of its extensive phenotypic differences to the laboratory reference strain, including growth at high temperature and deadly virulence in mouse models. Here we show that the approximately 12-Mb genome of YJM789 contains approximately 60,000 SNPs and approximately 6,000 indels with respect to the reference S288c genome, leading to protein polymorphisms with a few known cases of phenotypic changes. Several ORFs are found to be unique to YJM789, some of which might have been acquired through horizontal transfer. Localized regions of high polymorphism density are scattered over the genome, in some cases spanning multiple ORFs and in others concentrated within single genes. The sequence of YJM789 contains clues to pathogenicity and spurs the development of more powerful approaches to dissecting the genetic basis of complex hereditary traits.