Project description:BACKGROUND:Activating the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) adaptor incites antitumor immunity against immunogenic tumors in mice, prompting clinical trials to test STING activators. However, STING signaling in the tumor microenvironment (TME) during development of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) suppresses antitumor immunity to promote tumor growth. We hypothesized that local immune balance favoring suppression of antitumor immunity also attenuates antitumor responses following STING activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how STING activation impacts antitumor responses in mice bearing LLC tumors. METHODS:Mice bearing established LLC tumors were treated with synthetic cyclic diadenyl monophosphate (CDA) to activate STING. Mice were monitored to assess LLC tumor growth, survival and protective antitumor immunity. Transcriptional and metabolic analyses were used to identify pathways responsive to CDA, and mice were co-treated with CDA and drugs that disrupt these pathways. RESULTS:CDA slowed LLC tumor growth but most CDA-treated mice (77%) succumbed to tumor growth. No evidence of tumor relapse was found in surviving CDA-treated mice at experimental end points but mice were not immune to LLC challenge. CDA induced rapid increase in immune regulatory pathways involving programmed death-1 (PD-1), indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) in the TME. PD-1 blockade enhanced antitumor responses to CDA and increased mouse survival but mice did not eliminate primary tumor burdens. Two IDO inhibitor drugs had little or no beneficial effects on antitumor responses to CDA. A third IDO inhibitor drug synergized with CDA to enhance tumor control and survival but mice did not eliminate primary tumor burdens. In contrast, co-treatments with CDA and the COX2-selective inhibitor celecoxib controlled tumor growth, leading to uniform survival without relapse, and mice acquired resistance to LLC re-challenge and growth of distal tumors not exposed directly to CDA. Thus, mice co-treated with CDA and celecoxib acquired stable and systemic antitumor immunity. CONCLUSIONS:STING activation incites potent antitumor responses and boosts local immune regulation to attenuate antitumor responses. Blocking STING-responsive regulatory pathways synergizes with CDA to enhance antitumor responses, particularly COX2 inhibition. Thus, therapy-induced resistance to STING may necessitate co-treatments to disrupt regulatory pathways responsive to STING in patients with cancer.
Project description:Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host, with additional impact due to irradiation. Proton irradiation of tumors induces biological modulations including inhibition of angiogenic and immune factors critical to 'hallmark' processes impacting tumor development. Proton irradiation has also provided promising results for proton therapy in cancer due to targeting advantages. Additionally, protons may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk from space travel (due to the high proportion of high-energy protons in space radiation). Through a systems biology approach, we investigated how host tissue (i.e. splenic tissue) of tumor-bearing mice was altered with age, with or without whole-body proton exposure. Transcriptome analysis was performed on splenic tissue from adolescent (68-day) versus old (736-day) C57BL/6 male mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells with or without three fractionations of 0.5 Gy (1-GeV) proton irradiation. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that proton irradiation of adolescent hosts caused significant signaling changes within splenic tissues that support carcinogenesis within the mice, as compared with older subjects. Increases in cell cycling and immunosuppression in irradiated adolescent hosts with CDK2, MCM7, CD74 and RUVBL2 indicated these were the key genes involved in the regulatory changes in the host environment response (i.e. the spleen). Collectively, these results suggest that a significant biological component of proton irradiation is modulated by host age through promotion of carcinogenesis in adolescence and resistance to immunosuppression, carcinogenesis and genetic perturbation associated with advancing age.
Project description:Indications for immunotherapies are still unclear, and there is a great need for real-time patient immune status monitoring. In this study, we confirmed that the local and systemic immune profiles of an orthotopic osteosarcoma model with or without luciferase transfection were statistically equivalent. Next, we used flow cytometry to describe systemic immune cell populations influenced by osteosarcoma disease progression. When compared to vehicle-inoculated sham mice, it was found that tumor-bearing mice had significant immunophenotype disturbances at approximately 11 weeks after inoculation (at which time 90% of primary tumor-bearing mice have fulminant pulmonary metastases). Percent populations of natural killer cells and T regulatory cells were increased in the spleens of tumor-bearing mice (p < 0.0083) compared to shams. Additionally, T lymphocytes from spleens of tumor-bearing mice showed increased Tim-3/PD-1 exhaustion status (p < 0.0083). There were also increases in the percent populations of myeloid cells and overall M1/M2 macrophage marker expression on tumor-bearing mice spleens versus controls (p < 0.00714). Finally, treatment with 20??g ?-PD-L1 decreased T-cell exhaustion back to sham status, with a corresponding increase in CTLA-4 expression on cytotoxic T cells in the majority of mice tested. Checkpoint inhibition also increased splenic monocyte maturation and returned macrophage M1/M2 marker expression back to sham status. These data suggest that cancer induces systemic immune dysregulation and that these changes may be elucidated and utilized for treatment purposes by sampling the systemic immune environment via the spleen. In addition, treatment with the checkpoint inhibitor ?-PD-L1 may neutralize but not overcome the systemic immunological changes induced by a progressing malignancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and its high fatality means that no effective treatment is available. Developing new therapeutic strategies for lung cancer is urgently needed. Malaria has been reported to stimulate host immune responses, which are believed to be efficacious for combating some clinical cancers. This study is aimed to provide evidence that malaria parasite infection is therapeutic for lung cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antitumor effect of malaria infection was examined in both subcutaneously and intravenously implanted murine Lewis lung cancer (LLC) model. The results showed that malaria infection inhibited LLC growth and metastasis and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of tumors from mice infected with malaria revealed that angiogenesis was inhibited, which correlated with increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated (TUNEL) staining and decreased Ki-67 expression in tumors. Through natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity activity, cytokine assays, enzyme-linked immunospot assay, lymphocyte proliferation, and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that malaria infection provided anti-tumor effects by inducing both a potent anti-tumor innate immune response, including the secretion of IFN-? and TNF-? and the activation of NK cells as well as adaptive anti-tumor immunity with increasing tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and cytolytic activity of CD8(+) T cells. Notably, tumor-bearing mice infected with the parasite developed long-lasting and effective tumor-specific immunity. Consequently, we found that malaria parasite infection could enhance the immune response of lung cancer DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1-hMUC1 and the combination produced a synergistic antitumor effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria infection significantly suppresses LLC growth via induction of innate and adaptive antitumor responses in a mouse model. These data suggest that the malaria parasite may provide a novel strategy or therapeutic vaccine vector for anti-lung cancer immune-based therapy.
Project description:The concept of age-dependent host control of cancer development raises the natural question of how these effects manifest across the host tissue/organ types with which a tumor interacts, one important component of which is the aging immune system. To investigate this, changes in the spleen, an immune nexus in the mouse, was examined for its age-dependent interactive influence on the carcinogenesis process. The model is the C57BL/6 male mice (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, and old or 68, 143, 551 and 736 days old respectively) with and without a syngeneic murine tumor implant. Through global transcriptome analysis, immune-related functions were found to be key regulators in the spleen associated with tumor progression as a function of age with CD2, CD3, CCL19, and CCL5 being the key molecules involved. Surprisingly, other than CCL5, all key factors and immune-related functions were not active in spleens from non-tumor bearing old mice. Our findings of age-dependent tumor-spleen signaling interaction suggest the existence of a global role of the aging host in carcinogenesis. Suggested is a new avenue for therapeutic improvement that capitalizes on the pervasive role of host aging in dictating the course of this disease. Overall design: For genome-wide expression profiling of spleen tissue from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor bearing mice, Mouse WG-6 BeadArray chips (Illumina, San Diego, CA) were used. Total RNA was amplified with the Ambion Illumina TotalPrep Amplification Kit (Ambion, Austin, TX) and labeled from all replicate biological samples for each condition. For spleen replicates, 9 spleen samples from adolescent mice, 7 from young adult mice , 6 from middle-aged mice, and 10 from old mice were used. All replicate samples were run individually. Total RNA was isolated and purified using TRIzol (Invitrogen) and quantified using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Samples were deemed suitable for amplification and hybridization if they had 28s/18s = 2:1, RIN >7. Total RNA of 500ng per sample was amplified using AmbionTotalPrep, and 1.5ug of the product was loaded onto the chips. Following hybridization at 55C, the chips were washed and then scanned using the Illumina iScan System. The data was checked with GenomeStudio (Illumina) for quality control. Data were corrected through COMBAT correction, quantile normalized, collapsed to genes from probes, then imported into MultiExperiment Viewer, MeV for analysis. Statistically significant genes were determined by applying a one-way ANOVA with an adjusted Bonferroni correction and false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 that resulted in a list of significant genes.
Project description:Cancer progression is associated with alterations of intra- and extramedullary hematopoiesis to support a systemic tumor-promoting myeloid response. However, the functional specialty, mechanism, and clinical relevance of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) remain unclear. Here, we showed that the heightened splenic myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing hosts was not only characterized by the accumulation of myeloid precursors, but also associated with profound functional alterations of splenic early hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). With the distinct capability to produce and respond to granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), these splenic HSPCs were "primed" and committed to generating immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Mechanistically, the CCL2/CCR2 axis-dependent recruitment and the subsequent local education by the splenic stroma were critical for eliciting this splenic HSPC response. Selective abrogation of this splenic EMH was sufficient to synergistically enhance the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. Clinically, patients with different types of solid tumors exhibited increased splenic HSPC levels associated with poor survival. These findings reveal a unique and important role of splenic hematopoiesis in tumor-associated myelopoiesis.
Project description:FPR2 (Fpr2 in mouse) is a G-protein-coupled receptor interacting with bacterial and host-derived chemotactic agonists. Fpr2 supports innate and adaptive immune responses as illustrated by the reduction in severity of allergic airway inflammation in Fpr2-KO mice, due to impaired trafficking of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC). The aim of this study is to examine the role of Fpr2 in host antitumor responses. We found that Fpr2-KO mice bearing subcutaneously implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells exhibited significantly shortened survival than normal mice due to more rapidly growing tumors. In contrast, in Fpr2-transgenic mice overexpressing Fpr2, subcutaneously implanted LLC tumors grew more slowly than those in wild-type (WT) littermates. Investigation of tumor tissues revealed an increased number of macrophages associated with tumors grown in Fpr2-KO mice. Macrophages derived from Fpr2-KO mice showed a more potent chemotactic response to LLC-derived supernatant (LLC Sup), which could be neutralized by an anti-CCL2 antibody. The increased chemotaxis of Fpr2-KO mouse macrophages in response to LLC Sup was due to their higher level expression of CCR4, a chemokine receptor that also recognizes the ligand CCL2. Furthermore, macrophages from Fpr2-KO mice acquired an M2 phenotype after stimulation with LLC Sup. These results suggest that Fpr2 plays an important role in host defense against implanted LLC by sustaining macrophages in an M1 phenotype with more potent antitumor activities.