Project description:We sorted CD4 T cells from patients with metastatic melanoma at baseline and after three doses of ipilimumab. Overall design: We examined the differential expression of epigenetic enzymes
Project description:CD4(+) T cells provide help to enhance and sustain cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses. A direct lytic role for this cell population in mouse models further supports the use of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells for cancer immunotherapy. CTLA-4 blockade has been shown to expand antigen-specific cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells in mouse models. We took advantage of spontaneous immunity to the NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigen to investigate quantitative and qualitative changes in antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses after ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody) treatment in advanced melanoma patients. Four NY-ESO-1 seropositive melanoma patients were chosen upon the availability of suitable blood specimens for characterizing the functions of NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell response by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and cytotoxicity assays. Multiple NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses with Th1 dominance were induced or enhanced after ipilimumab treatment in peripheral blood in all four patients. NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell lines established from all 4 patients after ipilimumab treatment recognized naturally processed NY-ESO-1 protein in antigen-presenting cells, expressed master transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) and secreted perforin and Granzyme B. Finally, we demonstrated that these NY-ESO-1 antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell lines directly lysed autologous melanoma cell lines expressing NY-ESO-1 in an MHC class II restricted manner. Our results show that antigen specific cytotoxic CD4(+) T cell responses are induced after ipilimumab therapy in human cancer patients. Ipilimumab may induce the expression of lytic granules on antigen specific cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells via Eomes, revealing a novel consequence of immunologic checkpoint blockade.
Project description:High dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) can induce durable responses in a subset of patients leading to long-term survival. Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has demonstrated similarly durable responses in a larger proportion of patients. However, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint blockade and subsequent therapeutic options need to be explored.The PROCLAIM database was queried for patients with metastatic melanoma who had received HD IL-2 after treatment with ipilimumab or without prior ICB. Patient characteristics, toxicity and efficacy were analyzed.A total of 52 metastatic melanoma patients were treated with high dose IL-2 after ipilimumab and 276 patients were treated with high dose IL-2 without prior ICB. The overall response rate in the prior ipilimumab group was 21 % as compared to 12 % in the group that had not received prior ipilimumab. The median overall survival, measured from the initiation of HD IL-2 therapy, was 19.3 months in the prior ipilimumab group and 19.4 months in the no prior ICB group. Toxicities observed on HD IL-2 were relatively equivalent between the groups although there were cases of CTLA4 antibody-induced colitis reported after HD IL-2 treatment and a CTLA4 antibody-induced colitis related death.In this retrospective analysis HD IL-2 therapy displayed antitumor activity in melanoma patients who progressed following treatment with ipilimumab. Most HD IL-2 toxicity was not worsened by prior ipilimumab therapy except for one treatment related death from colitis. Care should be taken to avoid reactivation of CTLA4 antibody-induced colitis.
Project description:Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting coinhibitory pathways in T cells possess efficacy in combating cancer. In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antibodies which are already established in tumor immunotherapy, immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 or BTLA are emerging, which may have the potential to enhance T-cell responses alone or in combination with PD-1 blockers. CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells play a central role in the immune system and contribute to productive immune responses in multiple ways. The effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on this cell subset may thus critically influence therapeutic outcomes. Here, we have used in vitro responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model system to study the effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell responses. CFSE-labeled PBMCs of 65 donors were stimulated with TT in the presence of blocking antibodies to PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or BTLA for 7 days. We found that the PD-L1 antibody greatly enhanced cytokine production and antigen-specific CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell proliferation, whereas blocking antibodies to BTLA or LAG-3 did not augment responses to TT. Surprisingly, the presence of the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab resulted in a significant reduction of CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Stimulation experiments with an IgG4 variant of ipilimumab indicated that the inhibitory effect of ipilimumab was dependent on its IgG1 isotype. Our results indicate that the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab can impair CD4<sup>+</sup> effector T-cell responses and that this activity is mediated by its Fc part and CD16-expressing cells.
Project description:Novel immune checkpoint blockade with ipilimumab, an antibody blocking the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), is revolutionizing cancer therapy. However, ipilimumab induces symptomatic, sometimes severe, endocrine immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that are inconsistently recognized and reported. The objective of this review was to comprehensively characterize the incidence, presentation, and management of endocrinopathies following ipilimumab therapy in a single center that is highly specialized in immune checkpoint blockade. We carried out a retrospective analysis of endocrine irAEs in melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab therapy in clinical trials between 2007 and 2013. A total of 256 patients were included in this analysis. We reviewed pituitary-, thyroid-, and adrenal-related hormone test results, as well as radiographic studies and the clinical histories of patients, to identify and characterize cases of hypophysitis, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, and adrenal dysfunction. Following ipilimumab therapy, the overall incidence of hypophysitis was 8% and that of hypothyroidism/thyroiditis 6%. Primary adrenal dysfunction was rare. Therapy with a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also called PD1) receptor antibody, was associated with a 22% incidence of either thyroiditis or hypothyroidism and a 9% incidence of hypophysitis. Symptomatic relief, in particular, for hypophysitis, was achieved in all patients with hormone replacement, although endogenous hormone secretion rarely recovered. In summary, we observed that CTLA4 blockade alone, and in particular in combination with PD1 blockade, is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic, sometimes severe, hypophysitis as well as thyroid dysfunction. Prompt initiation with hormone replacement reverses symptoms. Evaluation and reporting of endocrine irAEs in clinical trials should be done using standardized diagnostic criteria and terminology.
Project description:In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first new therapy for melanoma in more than a decade, ipilimumab (Yervoy). Ipilimumab is a novel antibody that blocks cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells. Blockade of this important immune checkpoint can lead to durable tumor regression, and phase III studies show an overall survival benefit for patients with advanced melanoma. During the clinical development of ipilimumab, several unique features of this immunotherapy were identified, including the remarkable durability of responses and a distinct side-effects profile. We review the preclinical and clinical development of CTLA-4-blocking antibodies and describe current practices using ipilimumab for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Unique clinical issues related to ipilimumab will be summarized. Lastly, we will briefly preview combination therapies that incorporate ipilimumab and new checkpoint-targeting antibodies currently in clinical development.
Project description:We conducted a phase II clinical trial of anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in 22 patients with metastatic melanoma and determined clinical outcomes and immunologic responses. The treatment consisted of a 3-mo induction with ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg administered every 3 weeks for four doses in combination with GM-CSF at 125 µg/m2 for 14 d beginning on the day of the ipilimumab infusion and then GM-CSF for 3 mo on the same schedule without ipilimumab. This was followed by maintenance therapy with the combination every 3 mo for up to 2 y or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Blood samples for determination of immune subsets were obtained before treatment, at week 3 (end of cycle 1) and at week 6 (end of cycle 2). Blood samples were also obtained from seven subjects who were cancer-free. The immune response disease control (irDC) rate at 24 weeks was 41% and the overall response rate (ORR) was 32%. The median progression free-survival (PFS) was 3.5 mo and the median overall survival (OS) was 21.1 mo. 41% of the patients experienced Grade 3 to 4 adverse events. We conclude that this combination is safe and the results suggest the combination may be more effective than ipilimumab monotherapy. Further, the results suggest that lower levels of CD4+ effector T cells but higher levels of CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1 at pre-treatment could be a potential biomarker for disease control in patients who receive immunotherapy with ipilimumab and GM-CSF. Further trials of this combination are warranted.
Project description:Background: The use of ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab as monotherapies or in combination has transformed the management of advanced melanoma even though these drugs are associated with a new profile of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The incidence of irAEs from clinical trials of these agents is an important factor for clinicians when treating patients with advanced melanoma. In the current study, we aimed to profile the incidence of potential irAEs of these agents when used as monotherapy and as combination therapy. Methods: We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases; clinicaltrials.gov; and websites of regulatory agencies in the USA, Europe, Australia, and Japan for phase 1-3 trials of ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab for advanced melanoma. Random effect meta-analysis was utilized to profile the incidence of potential irAEs. Results: A total of 58 reports of 35 trials including 6,331 patients with advanced melanoma and reporting irAE data were included in the meta-analyses. We found higher incidences of potential irAEs in combination therapies vs. monotherapies for most of the types of irAEs. Among the monotherapies, ipilimumab users had the most frequent incidence of potential irAEs related to the gastrointestinal system (diarrhea, 29%; and colitis, 8%) and skin (rash, 31%; pruritus, 27%; and dermatitis, 10%), with hypophysitis in 4% of the patients. The most frequent potential irAEs among nivolumab users were maculopapular rash (13%), erythema (4%), hepatitis (3%), and infusion-related reactions (3%), while they were arthralgia (12%), hypothyroidism (8%), and hyperglycemia (6%), among pembrolizumab users. Conclusion: Especially the combination therapies tend to elevate the incidence of potential irAEs. Clinicians should be vigilant about irAEs following combination therapy as well as gastrointestinal and skin irAEs following ipilimumab therapy, in addition to being aware of potential irAEs leading to hyperglycemia, thyroid, hepatic, and musculoskeletal disorders following nivolumab and pembrolizumab therapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ipilimumab was the first FDA-approved agent for advanced melanoma to improve survival and represents a paradigm shift in melanoma and cancer treatment. Its unique toxicity profile and kinetics of treatment response raise novel patient education challenges. We assessed patient perceptions of ipilimumab therapy across the treatment trajectory. METHODS:Four patient cohorts were assessed at different time points relative to treatment initiation: (1) prior to initiation of ipilimumab (n = 10), (2) at weeks 10-12 before restaging studies (n = 11), (3) at week 12 following restaging studies indicating progression of disease (n = 10), and (4) at week 12 following restaging studies indicating either a radiographic response or disease stability (n = 10). Patients participated in a semistructured qualitative interview to assess their experiences with ipilimumab. Quality of life was assessed via the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and its Melanoma-specific module. RESULTS:Perceived quality of life was comparable across cohorts, and a majority of the sample understood side effects from ipilimumab and the potential for a delayed treatment response. Patients without progression of disease following restaging studies at week 12 held more positive views regarding ipilimumab compared to patients who had progressed. CONCLUSION:Patients generally regarded ipilimumab positively despite the risk of unique toxicities and potential for delayed therapeutic responses; however, those with progression expressed uncertainty regarding whether taking ipilimumab was worthwhile. Physician communication practices and patient education regarding realistic expectations for therapeutic benefit as well as unique toxicities associated with ipilimumab should be developed so that patients can better understand the possible outcomes from treatment.