Project description:OBJECTIVES:Aspergillus flavus isolate TERIBR1 was isolated from tannery sludge highly contaminated with chromium. During characterization process, it exhibited capability to adapt and grow in fungal growth media amended with chromium concentration as high as 250 mg/l. In order to understand the genetic underpinnings of the chromium tolerance trait, whole genome sequencing of the TERIBR1 genome was carried out. Information from the current genome will facilitate an understanding of the mechanisms underlying fungal adaptation to heavy metal stress and also heavy metal bioremediation. DATA DESCRIPTION:Here, we report the draft genome sequence along with the assembly and annotation methods used for genome sequence of the A. flavus isolate TERIBR1. The draft genome assembly size is estimated at 37.7 Mb coding for 13,587 genes and has high similarity to the reference genome of A. flavus strain NRRL3357.
Project description:Aflatoxin contamination of food and livestock feed results in significant annual crop losses internationally. Aspergillus flavus is the major fungus responsible for this loss. Additionally, A. flavus is the second leading cause of aspergillosis in immunocompromised human patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain NRRL 3357.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that infects corn, peanuts, tree nuts and other agriculturally important crops. Once the crop is infected the fungus has the potential to secrete one or more mycotoxins, the most carcinogenic of which is aflatoxin. Aflatoxin contaminated crops are deemed unfit for human or animal consumption, which results in both food and economic losses. Within A. flavus, two morphotypes exist: the S strains (small sclerotia) and L strains (large sclerotia). Significant morphological and physiological differences exist between the two morphotypes. For example, the S-morphotypes produces sclerotia that are smaller (< 400 ?m), greater in quantity, and contain higher concentrations of aflatoxin than the L-morphotypes (>400 ?m). The morphotypes also differ in pigmentation, pH homeostasis in culture and the number of spores produced. Here we report the first full genome sequence of an A. flavus S morphotype, strain AF70. We provide a comprehensive comparison of the A. flavus S-morphotype genome sequence with a previously sequenced genome of an L-morphotype strain (NRRL 3357), including an in-depth analysis of secondary metabolic clusters and the identification SNPs within their aflatoxin gene clusters.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus produces aflatoxins that adversely impact human health and the economy. We report the genome sequence of A. flavus CA14 that has been widely used in gene function studies. The information will benefit A. flavus functional genomics studies on fungal development, secondary metabolite production, and fungus-host plant interactions.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus first gained scientific attention for its production of aflatoxin. The underlying regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been serving as a theoretical model for biosynthesis of other microbial secondary metabolites. Nevertheless, for several decades, the DNA methylation status, one of the important epigenomic modifications involved in gene regulation, in A. flavus remains to be controversial. Here, we applied bisulfite sequencing in conjunction with a biological replicate strategy to investigate the DNA methylation profiling of A. flavus genome. Both the bisulfite sequencing data and the methylome comparisons with other fungi confirm that the DNA methylation level of this fungus is negligible. Further investigation into the DNA methyltransferase of Aspergillus uncovers its close relationship with RID-like enzymes as well as its divergence with the methyltransferase of species with validated DNA methylation. The lack of repeat contents of the A. flavus' genome and the high RIP-index of the small amount of remanent repeat potentially support our speculation that DNA methylation may be absent in A. flavus or that it may possess de novo DNA methylation which occurs very transiently during the obscure sexual stage of this fungal species. This work contributes to our understanding on the DNA methylation status of A. flavus, as well as reinforces our views on the DNA methylation in fungal species. In addition, our strategy of applying bisulfite sequencing to DNA methylation detection in species with low DNA methylation may serve as a reference for later scientific investigations in other hypomethylated species.
Project description:RNA-seq was used to compare differential gene expressions for Aspergillus flavus wild type strain and ASPES transcription factor deletion strains.The goals of this study are to explore the aflatoxin regulation pathway in A. flavus. Overall design: Examination of differential gene expressions by RNA-seq in Aspergillus flavus wild type strain under both YES and YEP, and two APSES transcription factor mutant strains(AfRafA knoutout strain and AfStuA)
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aspergillus flavus is intensively studied for its role in infecting crop plants and contaminating produce with aflatoxin, but its role as a human pathogen is less well understood. In parts of the Middle East and India, A. flavus surpasses A. fumigatus as a cause of invasive aspergillosis and is a significant cause of cutaneous, sinus, nasal and nail infections. METHODS: A collection of 45 clinical and 10 environmental A. flavus isolates from Iran were analysed using Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) markers with MICROSAT and goeBURST to determine their genetic diversity and their relatedness to clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates from Australia. Phylogeny was assessed using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing, and mating type was determined by PCR. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on selected isolates using a reference microbroth dilution method. RESULTS: There was considerable diversity in the A. flavus collection, with no segregation on goeBURST networks according to source or geographic location. Three Iranian isolates, two from sinus infections and one from a paranasal infection grouped with Aspergillus minisclerotigenes, and all produced B and G aflatoxin. Phylogenic analysis using partial ?-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing confirmed two of these as A. minisclerotigenes, while the third could not be differentiated from A. flavus and related species within Aspergillus section flavi. Based on epidemiological cut-off values, the A. minisclerotigens and A. flavus isolates tested were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of human infection due to A. minisclerotigenes, and it raises the possiblity that other species within Aspergillus section flavi may also cause clinical disease. Clinical isolates of A. flavus from Iran are not distinct from Australian isolates, indicating local environmental, climatic or host features, rather than fungal features, govern the high incidence of A. flavus infection in this region. The results of this study have important implications for biological control strategies that aim to reduce aflatoxin by the introduction of non-toxigenic strains, as potentially any strain of A. flavus, and closely related species like A. minisclerotigenes, might be capable of human infection.
Project description:Several agricultural commodities can be infected by Aspergillus flavus, a fungus that can produce the carcinogen aflatoxin. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences for 20 georeferenced isolates collected from soil and corn under field conditions. This information contributes to an understanding of A. flavus population structure and dynamics in a field environment.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is an important zoonotic pathogen and a well-known aflatoxin producer. Aspergillus flavus strains that are prevalent in Japanese environments are reported to be non-aflatoxigenic, although their aflatoxin productivity, especially among clinical isolates, has not been thoroughly investigated to date. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of ten strains of A. flavus isolated in Japan and compared their sequences with each other as well as with those of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 and A. flavus NRRL3357. The phylogenetic analysis based on identified SNPs indicated that five strains were closer to A. oryzae RIB40 than to A. flavus NRRL3357. In contrast, of those isolates that were closer to A. flavus NRRL3357 than to A. oryzae RIB40, three were found to possess either the entire or partial aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster of NRRL3357-type. Furthermore, two of the three actually produced either aflatoxin B1 or an intermediate of the reaction leading to aflatoxin formation. Three of the ten strains we isolated were identified to possess part of the aflatoxin gene cluster, while five others retained the A. oryzae RIB40-type cluster. The genome data thus obtained may be further explored and utilized for comparative analysis of aflatoxin production in environmental and clinical isolates of A. flavus.
Project description:Aflatoxin is a toxic, carcinogenic mycotoxin primarily produced by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have predicted the existence of more than 20 genes in the gene cluster involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Among these genes, aflK encodes versicolorin B synthase, which converts versiconal to versicolorin B. Past research has investigated aflK in A. parasiticus, but few studies have characterized aflK in the animal, plant, and human pathogen A. flavus. To understand the potential role of aflK in A. flavus, its function was investigated here for the first time using gene replacement and gene complementation strategies. The aflK deletion-mutant ?aflK exhibited a significant decrease in sclerotial production and aflatoxin biosynthesis compared with wild-type and the complementation strain ?aflK::aflK. ?aflK did not affect the ability of A. flavus to infect seeds, but downregulated aflatoxin production after seed infection. This is the first report of a relationship between aflK and sclerotial production in A. flavus, and our findings indicate that aflK regulates aflatoxin formation.