Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most of lung cancers develop sporadically and thus inherited lung cancers are rare. Several reports show that germline mutations in the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as R776G, R776H, T790M, V843I and P848L, predispose to develop lung cancer. Most lung cancer cases with germline EGFR T790M mutations had secondary EGFR somatic mutations. Never smokers with germline EGFR T790M mutations develop lung cancer more frequently than ever smokers. In addition, germline EGFR T790M mutations favored female gender. Therefore, germline EGFR T790M mutations result in a unique inherited lung cancer syndrome targeting never smokers. The authors previously reported a Japanese familial lung cancer pedigree with germline mutations in the transmembrane domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The female proband and her mother in this pedigree, who were light or never smokers, developed multiple lung adenocarcinomas, and had germline HER2 G660D mutations. They had no EGFR somatic mutations or other genes known to cause lung cancers. Although we know only one pedigree with germline HER2 mutations, these mutations may also cause inherited lung cancers targeting female never smokers. Based on our in vitro analyses, we administered HER2 inhibitor afatinib to the proband and achieved partial response. These lung cancers arising from germline mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR and HER2 may have different features from those with sporadic mutations.
Project description:The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. Although a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years show that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anticancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never-smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers.
Project description:Approximately one third of all lung cancer patients in East Asia are never-smokers. Furthermore, the proportion of lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has been increasing over time. Never-smokers are more often diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in East Asia, a subtype largely defined by oncogenic drivers. In this subgroup of patients, as high as 90% of patients have been found to harbor well-known oncogenic mutations and can be successfully managed with targeted therapies inhibiting specific oncogenic mutant kinases. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment has been the most important targeted therapy in lung adenocarcinoma from East Asian never-smokers as approximately 70% of these patients have the opportunity to receive EGFR-TKI treatment. Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are two common histologic types of smoking-related non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The proportion of never-smokers with SQCC and SCLC in East Asian patients seems to be higher than that in Caucasian patients. Recent studies also suggest that lung SQCC and SCLC in never-smokers may be distinct subtypes. Therefore, better understanding of the biologic characteristics of these subtypes of patients may provide new insights for the treatment. In this review, we will provide an overview of East Asian experience in the treatment of advanced, never-smoking lung cancer, focusing on etiologic factors in the development of LCINS, targeted therapy for never-smokers with adenocarcinoma, distinct characteristics of never-smokers with lung SQCC and SCLC, and the role of immunotherapy in never-smokers with NSCLC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. METHODS:We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450?K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N =?903), LifeLines DEEP (N =?166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N =?150) and RS-BIOS (N =?206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). RESULTS:A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value<?0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. CONCLUSIONS:With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.
Project description:Lung cancer in never-smokers ranks among the 10 most common causes of death due to cancer worldwide and in the United States. However, it is unknown whether never-smokers at elevated risk for developing lung cancer may benefit from lung cancer screening.The MIcrosimulation SCreening ANalysis (MISCAN)-Lung microsimulation model was used to assess the effects of lung cancer screening for simulated cohorts of never-smokers at different levels of relative risk (RR) for lung cancer compared with never-smokers at average risk. The benefits and harms of screening were estimated for each cohort and compared with those of a cohort of ever-smokers eligible for lung cancer screening according to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria.The relative lung cancer mortality reduction in never-smokers was higher than the USPSTF eligible cohort (37% compared with 32%). However, the number of life-years gained per lung cancer death averted was lower (10.4 compared with 11.9) and the proportion of overdiagnosed cancers was higher (9.6% compared with 8.4%) for never-smokers compared with the USPSTF eligible cohort, as never-smokers are diagnosed at a later age. The estimated number of screens per lung cancer death averted ranged from 6162 for never-smokers at average risk to 151 for never-smokers with an RR of 35 compared with 353 for the USPSTF eligible cohort.Never-smokers with RRs of 15 to 35 have similar to better trade-offs between benefits and harms compared with ever-smokers recommended for lung cancer screening by the USPSTF guidelines. For most never-smokers, lung cancer screening is not beneficial.
Project description:To assess directly the effects of various risk factors on lung cancer incidence among never smokers, large prospective studies are needed. In a cohort of 1.2 million UK women without prior cancer, half (634,039) reported that they had never smoked. Mean age at recruitment was 55 (SD5) years, and during 14 (SD3) years of follow-up, 0.2% (1,469) of these never smokers developed lung cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of lung cancer for 34 potential risk factors, of which 31 were nonsignificant (p?>?0.05). The remaining three risk factors were associated with a significantly increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers: non-white vs. white ethnicity (RR?=?2.34, 95% CI 1.55-3.52, p?<?0.001), asthma requiring treatment vs. not (RR?=?1.32, 1.10-1.58, p?=?0.003) and taller stature (height???165 cm vs. <160 cm: RR?=?1.16, 1.03-1.32, p?=?0.02). There was little association with other sociodemographic, anthropometric or hormonal factors, or with dietary intakes of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and fiber. The findings were not materially affected by restricting the analyses to adenocarcinomas, the most common histological type among never smokers.
Project description:More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10 to 15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000 to 24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the United States if considered as a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Obesity is found to increase the risk of most cancer types, but reduce lung cancer risk in many studies. However, the association between obesity and lung cancer is still controversial, mainly owing to the confounding effect of smoking.<h4>Methods</h4>Eligible studies were identified from electric databases to July 1, 2017. Relevant data were extracted and pooled using random-effects models; dose-response and subgroup analyses were also performed.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-nine studies with more than 10,000 lung cancer cases in15 million never smokers were included. Compared with normal weight, the summary relative risk (RR) was 0.77(95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.88, P?<?0.01) for excess body weight (body mass index [BMI]???25 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). An inverse linear dose-response relationship was observed between BMI and lung cancer risk in never smokers, with an RR of 0.89(95% CI: 0.84-0.95, P?<?0.01) per 5 kg/m<sup>2</sup> increment in BMI. The results remained stable in most subgroup analyses. However, when stratified by sex, a significant inverse association existed in women but not in men. Similar results were found in analyses for other categories of BMI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results indicate that higher BMI is associated with lower lung cancer risk in never smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lung cancer in never smokers would rank as the seventh most common cause of cancer death worldwide. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of lung adenocarcinoma in sixty never smokers and identified fourteen new minimal common regions (MCR) of gain or loss, of which five contained a single gene (MOCS2, NSUN3, KHDRBS2, SNTG1 and ST18). One larger MCR of gain contained NSD1. One focal amplification and nine gains contained FUS. NSD1 and FUS are oncogenes hitherto not known to be associated with lung cancer. FISH showed that the amplicon containing FUS was joined to the next telomeric amplicon at 16p11.2. FUS was over-expressed in 10 tumors with gain of 16p11.2 compared to 30 tumors without that gain. Other cancer genes present in aberrations included ARNT, BCL9, CDK4, CDKN2B, EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, MDM4, MET, MYC and KRAS. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering with adjustment for false-discovery rate revealed clusters differing by the level and pattern of aberrations and displaying particular tumor characteristics. One cluster was strongly associated with gain of MYC. Another cluster was characterized by extensive losses containing tumor suppressor genes of which RB1 and WRN. Tumors in that cluster frequently harbored a central scar-like fibrosis. A third cluster was associated with gains on 7p and 7q, containing ETV1 and BRAF, and displayed the highest rate of EGFR mutations. SNP array analysis validated copy-number aberrations and revealed that RB1 and WRN were altered by recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has uncovered new aberrations containing cancer genes. The oncogene FUS is a candidate gene in the 16p region that is frequently gained in never smokers. Multiple genetic pathways defined by gains of MYC, deletions of RB1 and WRN or gains on 7p and 7q are involved in lung adenocarcinoma in never smokers.