Project description:Precise promoter annotation is required for understanding the mechanistic basis of transcription initiation. In the context of complex genomes, such as herpesviruses where there is extensive genic overlap, identification of transcription start sites (TSSs) is particularly problematic and cannot be comprehensively accessed by standard RNA sequencing approaches. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and the B cell lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Here, we leverage RNA annotation and mapping of promoters for analysis of gene expression (RAMPAGE) and define KSHV TSSs transcriptome-wide and at nucleotide resolution in two widely used models of KSHV infection, namely iSLK.219 cells and the PEL cell line TREx-BCBL1-RTA. By mapping TSSs over a 96 h time course of reactivation we confirm 48 of 50 previously identified TSSs. Moreover, we identify over 100 novel transcription start site clusters (TSCs) in each cell line. Our analyses identified cell-type specific differences in TSC positions as well as promoter strength, and defined motifs within viral core promoters. Collectively, by defining TSSs at high resolution we have greatly expanded the transcriptional landscape of the KSHV genome and identified transcriptional control mechanisms at play during KSHV lytic reactivation.
Project description:Epigenetic modifications of the herpesviral genome play a key role in the transcriptional control of latent and lytic genes during a productive viral lifecycle. In this study, we describe for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide ChIP-on-Chip analysis of the chromatin associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome during latency and lytic reactivation. Depending on the gene expression class, different combinations of activating [acetylated H3 (AcH3) and H3K4me3] and repressive [H3K9me3 and H3K27me3] histone modifications are associated with the viral latent genome, which changes upon reactivation in a manner that is correlated with their expression. Specifically, both the activating marks co-localize on the KSHV latent genome, as do the repressive marks. However, the activating and repressive histone modifications are mutually exclusive of each other on the bulk of the latent KSHV genome. The genomic region encoding the IE genes ORF50 and ORF48 possesses the features of a bivalent chromatin structure characterized by the concomitant presence of the activating H3K4me3 and the repressive H3K27me3 marks during latency, which rapidly changes upon reactivation with increasing AcH3 and H3K4me3 marks and decreasing H3K27me3. Furthermore, EZH2, the H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase of the Polycomb group proteins (PcG), colocalizes with the H3K27me3 mark on the entire KSHV genome during latency, whereas RTA-mediated reactivation induces EZH2 dissociation from the genomic regions encoding IE and E genes concurrent with decreasing H3K27me3 level and increasing IE/E lytic gene expression. Moreover, either the inhibition of EZH2 expression by a small molecule inhibitor DZNep and RNAi knockdown, or the expression of H3K27me3-specific histone demethylases apparently induced the KSHV lytic gene expression cascade. These data indicate that histone modifications associated with the KSHV latent genome are involved in the regulation of latency and ultimately in the control of the temporal and sequential expression of the lytic gene cascade. In addition, the PcG proteins play a critical role in the control of KSHV latency by maintaining a reversible heterochromatin on the KSHV lytic genes. Thus, the regulation of the spatial and temporal association of the PcG proteins with the KSHV genome may be crucial for propagating the KSHV lifecycle.
Project description:Precise promoter annotation is required for understanding the mechanistic basis of transcription initiation. Here we use RAMPAGE to profile genome wide KSHV transcription initiation events, which will provide basis for further virus transcripts expression studies. Overall design: We performed RAMPAGE in iSLK.219 and TREx-BCBL1-RTA cell lines, samples were taken at latency and dox induced lytic activation for 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h.
Project description:Herpesvirus persistence requires a dynamic balance between latent and lytic cycle gene expression, but how this balance is maintained remains enigmatic. We have previously shown that the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) major latency transcripts encoding LANA, vCyclin, vFLIP, v-miRNAs, and Kaposin are regulated, in part, by a chromatin organizing element that binds CTCF and cohesins. Using viral genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (3C) methods, we now show that KSHV latency control region is physically linked to the promoter regulatory region for ORF50, which encodes the KSHV immediate early protein RTA. Other linkages were also observed, including an interaction between the 5' and 3' end of the latency transcription cluster. Mutation of the CTCF-cohesin binding site reduced or eliminated the chromatin conformation linkages, and deregulated viral transcription and genome copy number control. siRNA depletion of CTCF or cohesin subunits also disrupted chromosomal linkages and deregulated viral latent and lytic gene transcription. Furthermore, the linkage between the latent and lytic control region was subject to cell cycle fluctuation and disrupted during lytic cycle reactivation, suggesting that these interactions are dynamic and regulatory. Our findings indicate that KSHV genomes are organized into chromatin loops mediated by CTCF and cohesin interactions, and that these inter-chromosomal linkages coordinate latent and lytic gene control.
Project description:Lytic induction of latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been considered as a therapeutic option for efficient treatment of several KSHV-associated malignancies. Here, we developed a robust high-throughput screening system that allows an easy and quantitative measurement of lytic induction of latent KSHV and discovered three anthracyclines as potent inducers from screen of FDA-approved drugs. Lytic induction of latent KSHV by three compounds was verified by the significant induction of lytic genes and subsequent production of infectious KSHV. Importantly, lytic induction by three compounds was much more efficient than that by sodium butyrate, a well-characterized inducer of KSHV lytic cycle. Mechanistically, the anthracyclines caused lytic induction of KSHV through apoptosis induced by their DNA intercalation rather than topoisomerase II inhibition. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrated a role of anthracyclines as effective lytic inducers of KSHV and also provided a molecular basis of their use for efficient treatment of diseases associated with KSHV infection.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the burden of these diseases there are few treatment options for afflicted individuals, due in part to our limited understanding of virus-host interactions. Tip60, a histone aceytltransferase (HAT) has been previously shown to interact with both the KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen protein (LANA), which is the main factor in maintaining the viral latent state, and ORF36, a viral kinase expressed in the lytic phase. We further investigated Tip60-virus interaction to ascertain Tip60's role in the viral life cycle and its potential as a target for future therapeutics. Through modulation of Tip60 expression in HEK293T cells harboring a plasmid containing the KSHV viral episome, Bac36, we found that Tip60 is vital for both lytic replication as well as efficient expression of latent genes. Interestingly, Tip60 small molecule inhibitors, MG149 and NU9056, similarly inhibited latent and lytic genes, and reduced virion production in wild-type KSHV+/EBV- PEL, BCBL-1 cells. Long-term treatment with these Tip60 inhibitors selectively decreased the viability of KSHV-infected B lymphoma cells compared to uninfected cells. From this study, we conclude that Tip60 is important for KSHV infection and its associated cancer development, and Tip60 is therefore a potential target for future antiviral and anticancer therapeutics.
Project description:ZIC2 is required for the maintenance of KSHV latency in human host cells. To understand the molecular action of ZIC2, we map ZIC2 binding sites across the KSHV genome in BCBL-1 cells using ChIP-Seq analysis. Overall design: Examination of ZIC2 binding in KSHV latent and lytic reactivated cells
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with three malignancies- Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Central to the pathogenesis of these diseases is the KSHV viral life cycle, which is composed of a quiescent latent phase and a replicative lytic phase. While the establishment of latency enables persistent KSHV infection and evasion of the host immune system, lytic replication is essential for the dissemination of the virus between hosts and within the host itself. The transition between these phases, known as lytic reactivation, is controlled by a complex set of environmental, host, and viral factors. The effects of these various factors converge on the regulation of two KSHV proteins whose functions facilitate each phase of the viral life cycle-latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and the master switch of KSHV reactivation, replication and transcription activator (RTA). This review presents the current understanding of how the transition between the phases of the KSHV life cycle is regulated, how the various phases contribute to KSHV pathogenesis, and how the viral life cycle can be exploited as a therapeutic target.
Project description:Herpesvirus latency is generally thought to be governed by epigenetic modifications, but the dynamics of viral chromatin at early timepoints of latent infection are poorly understood. Here, we report a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of DNA methylation and histone modifications during latent infection with Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiologic agent of Kaposi Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). By use of high resolution tiling microarrays in conjunction with immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (MeDIP) or modified histones (chromatin IP, ChIP), our study revealed highly distinct landscapes of epigenetic modifications associated with latent KSHV infection in several tumor-derived cell lines as well as de novo infected endothelial cells. We find that KSHV genomes are subject to profound methylation at CpG dinucleotides, leading to the establishment of characteristic global DNA methylation patterns. However, such patterns evolve slowly and thus are unlikely to control early latency. In contrast, we observed that latency-specific histone modification patterns were rapidly established upon a de novo infection. Our analysis furthermore demonstrates that such patterns are not characterized by the absence of activating histone modifications, as H3K9/K14-ac and H3K4-me3 marks were prominently detected at several loci, including the promoter of the lytic cycle transactivator Rta. While these regions were furthermore largely devoid of the constitutive heterochromatin marker H3K9-me3, we observed rapid and widespread deposition of H3K27-me3 across latent KSHV genomes, a bivalent modification which is able to repress transcription in spite of the simultaneous presence of activating marks. Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced.
Project description:Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are the causative agents of several malignancies. Like all herpesviruses, KSHV and EBV undergo distinct latent and lytic replication programmes. The transition between these states allows the establishment of a lifelong persistent infection, dissemination to sites of disease and the spread to new hosts. Latency-associated viral proteins have been well characterised in transformation and tumourigenesis pathways; however, a number of studies have shown that abrogation of KSHV and EBV lytic gene expression impairs the oncogenesis of several cancers. Furthermore, several lytically expressed proteins have been functionally tethered to the angioproliferative and anti-apoptotic phenotypes of virus-infected cells. As a result, the investigation and therapeutic targeting of KSHV and EBV lytic cycles may be essential for the treatment of their associated malignancies.