Project description:Human selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) was originally identified as a protein binding selenium, most likely as selenite. SELENBP1 is associated with cellular redox and thiol homeostasis in several respects, including its established role as a methanethiol oxidase that is involved in degradation of methanethiol, a methionine catabolite, generating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As both H2S and reactive oxygen species (such as H2O2) are major regulators of Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan and stress resistance, we hypothesized that a SELENBP1 ortholog in C. elegans would likely be involved in regulating these aspects. Here we characterize Y37A1B.5, a putative selenium-binding protein 1 ortholog in C. elegans with 52% primary structure identity to human SELENBP1. While conferring resistance to toxic concentrations of selenite, Y37A1B.5 also attenuates resistance to oxidative stress and lowers C. elegans lifespan: knockdown of Y37A1B.5 using RNA interference resulted in an approx. 10% increase of C. elegans lifespan and an enhanced resistance against the redox cycler paraquat, as well as enhanced motility. Analyses of transgenic reporter strains suggest hypodermal expression and cytoplasmic localization of Y37A1B.5, whose expression decreases with worm age. We identify the transcriptional coregulator MDT-15 and transcription factor EGL-27 as regulators of Y37A1B.5 levels and show that the lifespan extending effect elicited by downregulation of Y37A1B.5 is independent of known MDT-15 interacting factors, such as DAF-16 and NHR-49. In summary, Y37A1B.5 is an ortholog of SELENBP1 that shortens C. elegans lifespan and lowers resistance against oxidative stress, while allowing for a better survival under toxic selenite concentrations.
Project description:Y37A1B.5, a SELENBP1 ortholog in C. elegans modulates lifespan and stress resistance. Hence transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) after depletion of Y37A1B.5 via RNAi was performed, aiming to identify targets that would explain these effects. Overall design: We compared RNAi treatment of Y37A1B.5 for five days to control vector treatment for five days in wildtype worms.
Project description:The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) is required for various systemic functions, but its beneficial range is narrow and overexposure may result in adverse health effects. Additionally, the chemical form of the ingested selenium contributes crucially to its health effects. While small Se species play a major role in Se metabolism, their toxicological effects, bioavailability and metabolic transformations following elevated uptake are poorly understood. Utilizing the tractable invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans allowed for an alternative approach to study species-specific characteristics of organic and inorganic Se forms in vivo, revealing remarkable species-dependent differences in the toxicity and bioavailability of selenite, selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). An inverse relationship was found between toxicity and bioavailability of the Se species, with the organic species displaying a higher bioavailability than the inorganic form, yet being less toxic. Quantitative Se speciation analysis with HPLC/mass spectrometry revealed a partial metabolism of SeMet and MeSeCys. In SeMet exposed worms, identified metabolites were Se-adenosylselenomethionine (AdoSeMet) and Se-adenosylselenohomocysteine (AdoSeHcy), while worms exposed to MeSeCys produced Se-methylselenoglutathione (MeSeGSH) and ?-glutamyl-MeSeCys (?-Glu-MeSeCys). Moreover, the possible role of the sole selenoprotein in the nematode, thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1), was studied comparing wildtype and trxr-1 deletion mutants. Although a lower basal Se level was detected in trxr-1 mutants, Se toxicity and bioavailability following acute exposure was indistinguishable from wildtype worms. Altogether, the current study demonstrates the suitability of C. elegans as a model for Se species dependent toxicity and metabolism, while further research is needed to elucidate TrxR-1 function in the nematode.
Project description:The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is employed as a model to study the cellular mechanisms of toxicity and defense against selenite, the most frequent environmental selenium form. We show that yeast cells lacking Aft2, a transcription factor that together with Aft1 regulates iron homeostasis, are highly sensitive to selenite but, in contrast to aft1 mutants, this is not rescued by iron supplementation. The absence of Aft2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional responses to selenite, particularly for DNA damage- and oxidative stress-responsive genes, and results in intracellular hyperaccumulation of selenium. Overexpression of PHO4, the transcriptional activator of the PHO regulon under low phosphate conditions, partially reverses sensitivity and hyperaccumulation of selenite in a way that requires the presence of Spl2, a Pho4-controlled protein responsible for post-transcriptional downregulation of the low-affinity phosphate transporters Pho87 and Pho90. SPL2 expression is strongly downregulated in aft2 cells, especially upon selenite treatment. Selenite hypersensitivity of aft2 cells is fully rescued by deletion of PHO90, suggesting a major role for Pho90 in selenite uptake. We propose that the absence of Aft2 leads to enhanced Pho90 function, involving both Spl2-dependent and independent events and resulting in selenite hyperaccumulation and toxicity.
Project description:Selenium toxicity is a growing environmental concern due to widespread availability of high-dose selenium supplements and the development of high-selenium agricultural drainage basins. To begin to analyze the effects of selenium toxicity at the genetic level, we have systematically determined which genes are involved in responding to high environmental selenium using a collection of viable haploid null allele strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing three major stress pathways: the RAD9-dependent DNA repair pathway, the RAD6/RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway, and the oxidative stress pathway. A total of 53 null allele strains were tested for growth defects in the presence of a range of sodium selenite and selenomethionine (SeMet) concentrations. Our results show that approximately 64-72% of the strains lacking RAD9-dependent DNA repair or RAD6/RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway genes show reduced growth in sodium selenite versus approximately 28-36% in SeMet. Interestingly both compounds reduced growth in approximately 21-25% of the strains lacking oxidative stress genes. These data suggest that both selenite and SeMet are likely inducing DNA damage by generating reactive species. The anticipated effects of loss of components of the oxidative stress pathway were not observed, likely due to apparent redundancies in these gene products that may keep the damaging effects in check.
Project description:Encapsulating bacteria within constrained microenvironments can promote the manifestation of specialized behaviors. Using double-emulsion droplet-generating microfluidic synthesis, live Bacillus subtilis bacteria were encapsulated in a semi-permeable membrane composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PDLLA). This polymer membrane was sufficiently permeable to permit exponential bacterial growth, metabolite-induced gene expression, and rapid biofilm growth. The biodegradable microparticles retained structural integrity for several days and could be successfully degraded with time or sustained bacterial activity. Microencapsulated B. subtilis successfully captured and contained sodium selenite added outside the polymersomes, converting the selenite into elemental selenium nanoparticles that were selectively retained inside the polymer membrane. This remediation of selenium using polymersomes has high potential for reducing the toxicity of environmental selenium contamination, as well as allowing selenium to be harvested from areas not amenable to conventional waste or water treatment.
Project description:Background:Selenium is an essential element; however, at higher doses, it can be toxic. Therefore, alternative nanotechnological solutions are required to overcome toxicological issues, rather than conventional alternatives. Nanoparticles show new and promising properties that may be able to suppress toxicity while maintaining the positive effects of selenium on an organism. The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of sodium selenite and selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on the antioxidant status of rats. Methods:The males of the outbreed rat strain Wistar albino were selected as a model organism. Animals were fed different forms of selenium. The control group was given a mixture without selenium addition, whereas other groups were fed a mixture containing sodium selenite, Se-49, and Se-100 SeNPs respectively. The duration of the trial was 30 days. Results:Analysis of blood and liver was performed where the concentration of reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, and total selenium content were measured. In the liver, a significant reduction in GSSG was found for all experiment groups. Blood samples showed a significant reduction in GSH and an increase in GSSG. Discussion:These results show that SeNPs may be an alternative to dietary selenium for animal organisms.
Project description:Selenium (Se) is an essential element with a small difference between physiological and toxic doses. To provide more effective and safe Se dosing regimens, as compared to dosing with ionic selenium, nanoparticle formulations have been developed. However, due to the nano-formulation, unexpected toxic effects may occur. We used metabolite pattern determination in urine to investigate biological and/or toxic effects in rats administered nanoparticles and for comparison included ionic selenium at an equimolar dose in the form of sodium selenite. Low doses of 10 and 100 fold the recommended human high level were employed to study the effects at borderline toxicity. Evaluations of all significantly changed putative metabolites, showed that Se nanoparticles and sodium selenite induced similar dose dependent changes of the metabolite pattern. Putative identified metabolites included increased decenedioic acid and hydroxydecanedioic acid for both Se formulations whereas dipeptides were only increased for selenite. These effects could reflect altered fatty acid and protein metabolism, respectively.
Project description:Once released into the environment, engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) are subjected to processes that may alter their physical or chemical properties, potentially altering their toxicity vis-à-vis the as-synthesized materials. We examined the toxicity to zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) embryos of CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) before and after exposure to an in vitro chemical model designed to simulate oxidative weathering in soil environments based on a reductant-driven Fenton's reaction. Exposure to these oxidative conditions resulted in severe degradation of the QDs: the Zn shell eroded, Cd(2+) and selenium were released, and amorphous Se-containing aggregates were formed. Products of QD weathering exhibited higher potency than did as-synthesized QDs. Morphological endpoints of toxicity included pericardial, ocular and yolk sac edema, nondepleted yolk, spinal curvature, tail malformations, and craniofacial malformations. To better understand the selenium-like toxicity observed in QD exposures, we examined the toxicity of selenite, selenate, and amorphous selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Selenite exposures resulted in high mortality to embryos/larvae while selenate and SeNPs were nontoxic. Co-exposures to SeNPs + CdCl2 resulted in dramatic increase in mortality and recapitulated the morphological endpoints of toxicity observed with exposure to products of QD weathering. Cadmium body burden was increased in larvae exposed to weathered QDs or SeNP + CdCl2 suggesting the increased potency of products of QD weathering was due to selenium modulation of cadmium toxicity. Our findings highlight the need to examine the toxicity of eNPs after they have undergone environmental weathering processes.
Project description:Supplementation with selenium is common for dairy cows, but the importance of selenium source is not clear. This study aimed to compare nano-selenium (Nano-Se) and sodium selenite supplements for dairy cows on lactation performance, milk Se levels and selenoprotein (Sel) gene expression. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups: a control group fed a basal diet plus 0.30 mg Se/kg of DM as sodium selenite or Nano-Se for 30 days. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were not affected by dietary Se source (P?> 0.05); however, the milk total Se levels and milk glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were higher with Nano-Se supplementation than sodium selenite (P?<?0.05). At the end of the experiment, Nano-Se supplementation significantly increased plasma Se levels and GSH-Px activity, compared with the sodium selenite supplement. The mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 1, 2 and 4; thioredoxin reductase 2 and 3; and selenoproteins W, T, K and F were markedly upregulated (P?<?0.05) in the mammary gland of the Nano-Se group. Thus, the source of selenium plays an important role in the antioxidant status and in particular the Sel gene expression in the mammary glands of dairy cows, both being stimulated by nano sources.