Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) action is a hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) with androgen deprivation being standard therapy. Yet, resistance arises and aberrant AR signaling promotes disease. We sought compounds that inhibited genes driving cancer but not normal growth and hypothesized that genes with consensus androgen response elements (cAREs) drive proliferation but genes with selective elements (sAREs) promote differentiation. In a high-throughput promoter-dependent drug screen, doxorubicin (dox) exhibited this ability, acting on DNA rather than AR. This dox effect was observed at low doses for multiple AR target genes in multiple PCa cell lines and also occurred in vivo. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that low dox downregulated cell cycle genes while high dox upregulated DNA damage response genes. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with low dox, AR binding to sARE-containing enhancers increased, whereas AR was lost from cAREs. Further, ChIP-seq analysis revealed a subset of genes for which AR binding in low dox increased at pre-existing sites that included sites for prostate-specific factors such as FOXA1. AR dependence on cofactors at sAREs may be the basis for differential modulation by dox that preserves expression of genes for survival but not cancer progression. Repurposing of dox may provide unique opportunities for PCa treatment.
Project description:Doxorubicin Treated LNCaP cells RNA-sequencing, and AR and TBP Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing Overall design: LNCaP cells were charcoal strip serum androgen starved, then stimulated with 1nM R1881 and/or 0.1, 0.4, or 0.7 µM Doxorubicin.
Project description:Prostate cancer patients often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with radiation therapy (RT). Recent evidence suggests that both ADT and RT have immune modulatory properties. First, ADT can cause in?ltration of lymphocytes into the prostate, although it remains unclear whether the in?ux of lymphocytes is bene?cial, particularly with the advent of new classes of androgen blockers. Second, in rare cases, radiation can elicit immune responses that mediate regression of metastatic lesions lying outside the ?eld of radiation, a phenomenon known as the abscopal response. In light of these ?ndings, there is emerging interest in exploiting any potential synergy between ADT, RT, and immunotherapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the rationale behind combining immunotherapy with ADT and RT for the treatment of prostate cancer, including an examination of the current clinical trials that employ this combination. The reported outcomes of several trials demonstrate the promise of this combination strategy; however, further scrutiny is needed to elucidate how these standard therapies interact with immune modulators. In addition, we discuss the importance of synchronizing immune modulation relative to ADT and RT, and provide insight into elements that may impact the ability to achieve maximum synergy between these treatments.
Project description:Despite recent advances in diagnosis and management, prostrate cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in American men, after lung cancer. Failure of chemotherapies and hormone-deprivation therapies is the major cause of death in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently, the androgen inhibitors enzalutamide and abiraterone are approved for treatment of metastatic CRPC. Here we show for the first time that both enzalutamide and abiraterone render prostate tumor cells more sensitive to T cell-mediated lysis through immunogenic modulation, and that these immunomodulatory activities are androgen receptor (AR)-dependent. In studies reported here, the NAIP gene was significantly down-regulated in human prostate tumor cells treated in vitro and in vivo with enzalutamide. Functional analysis revealed that NAIP played a critical role in inducing CTL sensitivity. Amplification of AR is a major mechanism of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we show that enzalutamide enhances sensitivity to immune-mediated killing of prostate tumor cells that overexpress AR. The immunomodulatory properties of enzalutamide and abiraterone provide a rationale for their use in combination with immunotherapeutic agents in CRPC, especially for patients with minimal response to enzalutamide or abiraterone alone, or for patients who have developed resistance to ADT.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as is evident from the efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy, AR is also the most frequently mutated gene, in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR has therefore become an even more attractive therapeutic target in aggressive and disseminated prostate cancer. To investigate mechanisms of AR and AR target gene activation in different subpopulations of prostate cancer cells, a toolkit of AR expressor and androgen response element (ARE) reporter vectors were developed. Three ARE reporter vectors were constructed with different ARE consensus sequences in promoters linked to either fluorescence or luciferase reporter genes in lentiviral vector backbones. Cell lines transduced with the different vectors expressed the reporters in an androgen-dependent way according to fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and multi-well fluorescent and luminescence assays. Interestingly, the background reporter activity in androgen-depleted medium was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to the prostate transit amplifying epithelial cell lines, EP156T-AR and 957E/hTERT-AR with exogenous AR. The androgen-induced signal to background was much higher in the latter benign prostate cells than in LNCaP cells. Androgen-independent nuclear localization of AR was seen in LNCaP cells and reduced ARE-signaling was seen following treatment with abiraterone, an androgen synthesis inhibitor. The ARE reporter activity was significantly stronger when stimulated by androgens than by ?-estradiol, progesterone and dexamethasone in all tested cell types. Finally, no androgen-induced ARE reporter activity was observed in tumorigenic mesenchymal progeny cells of EP156T cells following epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This underscores the observation that expression of the classical luminal differentiation transcriptome is restricted in mesenchymal type cells with or without AR expression, and presence of androgen.
Project description:Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns in DNA that can mediate sequence-specific binding for proteins such as transcription factors or DNA modifying enzymes. The androgen response element (ARE) is a palindromic, dihexameric motif present in promoters or enhancers of genes targeted by the androgen receptor (AR). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) we refined AR-binding and AREs at a genome-scale in androgen-insensitive and androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines. Model-based searches identified more than 120,000 ChIP-Seq motifs allowing for expansion and refinement of the ARE. We classified AREs according to their degeneracy and their transcriptional involvement. Additionally, we quantified ARE utilization in response to somatic copy number amplifications, AR splice-variants, and steroid treatment. Although imperfect AREs make up 99.9% of the motifs, the degree of degeneracy correlates negatively with validated transcriptional outcome. Weaker AREs, particularly ARE half sites, benefit from neighboring motifs or cooperating transcription factors in regulating gene expression. Taken together, ARE full sites generate a reliable transcriptional outcome in AR positive cells, despite their low genome-wide abundance. In contrast, the transcriptional influence of ARE half sites can be modulated by cooperating factors.
Project description:The NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) transcription factors mediate activation of a large number of gene promoters containing diverse kappaB-site sequences. Here, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) was used as an AR (androgen receptor)-responsive gene to examine the underlying mechanism by which the NF-kappaB p65 transcription factor down-regulates the transcriptional activity of AR in cells. We observed that activation of NF-kappaB by TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) inhibited both basal and androgen-stimulated PSA expression, and that this down-regulation occurred at the promoter level, as confirmed by the super-repressor IkappaBalpha (S32A/S36A), a dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Using a linker-scanning mutagenesis approach, we identified a cis -element, designated XBE (X-factor-binding element), in the AREc (androgen response element enhancer core) of the PSA promoter, which negatively regulated several AR-responsive promoters, including that of PSA. When three copies of XBE in tandem were juxtaposed to GRE4 (glucocorticoid response element 4), a 4-6-fold reduction of inducible GRE4 activity was detected in three different cell lines, LNCaP, ARCaP-AR and PC3-AR. Bioinformatics and molecular biochemical studies indicated that XBE is a kappaB-like element that binds specifically to the NF-kappaB p65 subunit; consistent with these observations, only NF-kappaB p65, but not the NF-kappaB p50 subunit, was capable of inhibiting AR-mediated PSA promoter transactivation in LNCaP cells. In addition, our data also showed that AR binds to XBE, as well as to the kappaB consensus site, and that the transfection of AR inhibits the kappaB-responsive promoter in transient co-transfection assays. Collectively, these data indicate that cross-modulation between AR and NF-kappaB p65 transcription factors may occur by a novel mechanism involving binding to a common cis -DNA element.
Project description:More than 50% of prostate cancers have undergone a genomic reorganization that juxtaposes the androgen-regulated promoter of TMPRSS2 and the protein coding parts of several ETS oncogenes. These gene fusions lead to prostate-specific and androgen-induced ETS expression and are associated with aggressive lesions, poor prognosis, and early-onset prostate cancer. In this study, we showed that an enhancer at 13 kb upstream of the TMPRSS2 transcription start site is crucial for the androgen regulation of the TMPRSS2 gene when tested in bacterial artificial chromosomal vectors. Within this enhancer, we identified the exact androgen receptor binding sequence. This newly identified androgen response element is situated next to two binding sites for the pioneer factor GATA2, which were identified by DNase I footprinting. Both the androgen response element and the GATA-2 binding sites are involved in the enhancer activity. Importantly, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs8134378) within this androgen response element reduces binding and transactivation by the androgen receptor. The presence of this SNP might have implications on the expression and/or formation levels of TMPRSS2 fusions, because both have been shown to be influenced by androgens.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in the onset and progression of prostate cancer by promoting cellular proliferation. Recent studies suggest AR is a master regulator of G1-S progression and possibly a licensing factor for DNA replication yet the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report that AR targets the human Cdc6 gene for transcriptional regulation. Cdc6 is an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells and its mRNA expression is inversely modulated by androgen or antiandrogen treatment in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. AR binds at a distinct androgen-response element (ARE) in the Cdc6 promoter that is functionally required for androgen-dependent Cdc6 transcription. We found that peak AR occupancy at the novel ARE occurs during the G1/S phase concomitant with peak Cdc6 mRNA expression. We also identified several of the coactivators and corepressors involved in AR-dependent Cdc6 transcriptional regulation in vivo and further characterized ligand-induced alterations in histone acetylation and methylation at the Cdc6 promoter. Significantly, AR silencing in prostate cancer cells markedly decreases Cdc6 expression and androgen-dependent cellular proliferation. Collectively, our results suggest that Cdc6 is a key regulatory target for AR and provide new insights into the mechanisms of prostate cancer cell proliferation.
Project description:Prostate epithelial cells depend on androgens for survival and function. In early prostate cancer, besides survival, androgens also regulated tumor growth, which is exploited by androgen ablation/ blockade therapies in metastatic disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize the role of the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer progression and to identify potential disease markers. Microarray analysis was used to establish the androgen-regulated gene expression profile, upon stimulation with the synthetic androgen R1881 or the antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide, of the androgen-responsive PC346C cell line and its derivative castration-resistant sublines: PC346DCC (vestigial AR levels), PC346Flu1 (AR overexpression) and PC346Flu2 (T877A mutated AR) PC346C, PC346DCC, PC346Flu1 and PC346Flu2 were stimulated with 1 nM R1881, 1uM hydroxyflutamide or vehicle control, following a 4, 8 and 16h time-course. Each condition was performed in dye-swap, using biological duplicates. PC346DCC was only stimulated with R1881, not hydroxyflutamide.