Transcriptional profiling of colonic Regulatory T (Treg) cells, CD4+ conventional T (Tconv) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and epithelial cells (ECs) from Vdr WT- or Vdr KO-Foxp3 reporter mice
ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling of colonic Regulatory T (Treg) cells, CD4+ conventional T (Tconv) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and epithelial cells (ECs) from Vdr WT- or Vdr KO-Foxp3 reporter mice
Project description:We reported transcriptional characterization of Treg cells, Tconv cells, and DCs isolated from coloinc lamina propria of Vdr WT- or Vdr KO-Foxp3 reporter mice. We also reported transcriptional characterization of colonic ECs isolated from Vdr WT- or Vdr KO-Foxp3 reporter mice. Overall design: Gene expression profiles of colonic Treg cells, Tconv cells, DCs, and ECs from Vdr WT- or Vdr KO-Foxp3 reporter mice.
Project description:Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in immune regulation, but can also show plasticity in specific settings. CD161 is a lectin-like receptor and its expression identifies an effector-like Treg population. Here, we determined how CD161+ Treg relate to CD161+ conventional T cells (Tconv). Transcriptional profiling identified a shared transcriptional signature between CD161+ Tconv and CD161+ Treg, which is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and tissue homing, including high expression of gut-homing receptors. Upon retinoic acid (RA) exposure, CD161+ T cells were more enriched for CCR9+ and integrin ?4+?7+ cells than CD161- T cells. In addition, CD161+ Tconv and CD161+ Treg were enriched at the inflamed site in autoimmune arthritis, and both CD161+ and CD161- Treg from the inflamed site were suppressive in vitro. CD161+ T cells from the site of autoimmune arthritis showed a diminished gut-homing phenotype and blunted response to RA suggesting prior imprinting by RA in the gut or at peripheral sites rather than during synovial inflammation. TCR? repertoires of CD161+ and CD161- Tconv and Treg from blood showed limited overlap whereas there was clear overlap between CD161+ and CD161- Tconv, and CD161+ and CD161- Treg from the inflamed site suggesting that the inflamed environment may alter CD161 levels, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Mammary tumor cells derived from vitamin D receptor (VDR) knock-out (KO) mice were engineered to stably express wild-type (WT) or mutated VDR for characterization of the mechanisms by which 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), the VDR ligand, mediates growth regulation. Although KO cells were completely resistant to 1,25D, introduction of WT human VDR restored gene expression and growth inhibition in response to 1,25D and a variety of structural analogs. Pdgfb, Vegfa, and Nfkbi were identified as genomic targets of both human and murine VDR signaling in this cell model. KO cells expressing hVDRs containing point mutations (W286R, R274L) that reduce or abolish ligand binding did not exhibit changes in gene expression or growth in response to physiological doses of 1,25D but did respond to higher doses and more potent analogs. KO cells expressing hVDR with the G46D point mutation, which abrogates VDR binding to DR3 response elements, exhibited partial growth inhibition in response to 1,25D and synthetic vitamin D analogs, providing proof of principle that VDR signaling through alternative genomic or non-genomic mechanisms contributes to vitamin D mediated growth effects in transformed cells. We conclude that the 1,25D-VDR signaling axis that triggers anti-cancer effects is highly conserved between the murine and human systems despite differences in VDR protein, cofactors, and target genes and that these actions are not solely mediated via canonical VDRE signaling.
Project description:To investigate the molecular mechanism how Uhrf1 regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression in Treg, we precipitated methylated DNA using recombinant MBD1 followed by genome-wide analysis of methylated gene loci by next generation sequencer Examination of methylated DNA in Treg and Tconv isolated from Cd4cre-Uhrf1+/+ and Cd4cre-Uhrf1flox/flox (Cd4cre-Uhrf1fl/fl)
Project description:We have postulated that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) contains two overlapping ligand binding sites, a genomic pocket and an alternative pocket (AP), that mediate regulation of gene transcription and rapid responses, respectively. Flexible VDR + ligand docking calculations predict that the major blood metabolite, 25(OH)-vitamin D(3) (25D3), and curcumin (CM) bind more selectively to the VDR-AP when compared with the seco-steroid hormone 1?,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) (1,25D3). In VDR wild-type-transfected COS-1 cells and TM4 Sertoli cells, 1,25D3, 25D3, and CM each trigger voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) currents that can be blocked by the VDR antagonist 1?,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and the chloride channel antagonist (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid). VDR mutational analysis in transfected COS-1 cells demonstrate the DNA-binding domain is not, but the ligand binding and hinge domains of the VDR are, required for 1,25D3 and 25D3 to activate the ORCC. Dose-response studies demonstrate that 25D3 and 1,25D3 are approximately equipotent in stimulating ORCC rapid responses, whereas 1 nm 1,25D3 was 1000-fold more potent than 25D3 and CM in stimulating gene expression. The VDR-AP agonist effects of 1,25D3, 25D3, and low-dose CM are lost after pretreatment of TM4 cells with VDR small interfering RNA. Collectively, these results are consistent with an essential role for the VDR-AP in initiating the signaling required for rapid opening of ORCC. The fact that 25D3 is equipotent to 1,25D3 in opening ORCC suggests that reconsideration of the ability of 25D3 to generate biological responses in vivo may be in order.
Project description:: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates vitamin D activity. We examined whether VDR expression in excised melanoma tissues is associated with VDR gene (VDR) polymorphisms.: We evaluated VDR protein expression (by monoclonal antibody immunostaining), melanoma characteristics, and carriage of VDR-FokI-rs2228570 (C>T),VDR-BsmI-rs1544410 (G>A),VDR-ApaI-rs7975232 (T>G), andVDR-TaqI-rs731236 (T>C) polymorphisms (by restriction fragment length polymorphism). Absence or presence of restriction site was denoted by a capital or lower letter, respectively: " F" and " f" for FokI, " B" and " b" for BsmI, " A" and " a" for ApaI, and " T" and " t" for TaqI endonuclease. Seventy-four Italian cutaneous primary melanomas (52.1±12.7 years old) were studied; 51.4% were stage I, 21.6% stage II, 13.5% stage III, and 13.5% stage IV melanomas. VDR expression was categorized as follows: 100% positivevs. <100%; over the median 20% (high VDR expression) vs. ≤20% (low VDR expression); absence vs. presence of VDR-expressing cells.: Stage I melanomas, Breslow thickness of <1.00 mm, level II Clark invasion, Aa heterozygous genotype, and AaTT combined genotype were more frequent in melanomas with high vs. low VDR expression. Combined genotypes BbAA, bbAa, AATt, BbAATt, and bbAaTT were more frequent in 100% vs. <100% VDR-expressing cells. Combined genotype AATT was more frequent in melanomas lacking VDR expression (odds ratio=14.5; P=0.025). VDR expression was not associated with metastasis, ulceration, mitosis >1, regression, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumoral infiltration of vascular tissues, additional skin and non-skin cancers, and melanoma familiarity.: We highlighted that VDR polymorphisms can affect VDR expression in excised melanoma cells. Low VDR expression in AATT carriers is a new finding that merits further study. VDR expression possibly poses implications for vitamin D supplementation against melanoma. VDR expression and VDR genotype may become precise medicinal tools for melanoma in the future.
Project description:Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homoeostasis through mechanisms that remain incompletely defined. Here by two-photon (2P) imaging, we examine the cellular dynamics of endogenous Tregs. Tregs are identified as two non-overlapping populations in the T-zone and follicular regions of the lymph node (LN). In the T-zone, Tregs migrate more rapidly than conventional T cells (Tconv), extend longer processes and interact with resident dendritic cells (DC) and Tconv. Tregs intercept immigrant DCs and interact with antigen-induced DC:Tconv clusters, while continuing to form contacts with activated Tconv. During antigen-specific responses, blocking CTLA4-B7 interactions reduces Treg-Tconv interaction times, increases the volume of DC:Tconv clusters and enhances subsequent Tconv proliferation in vivo. Our results demonstrate a role for altered cellular choreography of Tregs through CTLA4-based interactions to limit T-cell priming.
Project description:The genome-wide analysis of the binding sites of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) is essential for a global appreciation the physiological impact of the nuclear hormone 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Genome-wide analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-polarized THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells via chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) resulted in 1,318 high-confidence VDR binding sites, of which 789 and 364 occurred uniquely with and without 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation, while only 165 were common. We re-analyzed five public VDR ChIP-seq datasets with identical peak calling settings (MACS, version 2) and found, using a novel consensus summit identification strategy, in total 23,409 non-overlapping VDR binding sites, 75% of which are unique within the six analyzed cellular models. LPS-differentiated THP-1 cells have 22% more genomic VDR locations than undifferentiated cells and both cell types display more overlap in their VDR locations than the other investigated cell types. In general, the intersection of VDR binding profiles of ligand-stimulated cells is higher than those of unstimulated cells. De novo binding site searches and HOMER screening for binding motifs formed by direct repeats spaced by three nucleotides (DR3) suggest for all six VDR ChIP-seq datasets that these sequences are found preferentially at highly ligand responsive VDR loci. Importantly, all VDR ChIP-seq datasets display the same relationship between the VDR occupancy and the percentage of DR3-type sequences below the peak summits. The comparative analysis of six VDR ChIP-seq datasets demonstrated that the mechanistic basis for the action of the VDR is independent of the cell type. Only the minority of genome-wide VDR binding sites contains a DR3-type sequence. Moreover, the total number of identified VDR binding sites in each ligand-stimulated cell line inversely correlates with the percentage of peak summits with DR3 sites.
Project description:Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1? and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.
Project description:CTLA-4 is a critical negative regulator of the immune system and a major target for immunotherapy. However, precisely how it functions in vivo to maintain immune homeostasis is not clear. As a highly endocytic molecule, CTLA-4 can capture costimulatory ligands from opposing cells by a process of transendocytosis (TE). By restricting costimulatory ligand expression in this manner, CTLA-4 controls the CD28-dependent activation of T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitutively express CTLA-4 at high levels and, in its absence, show defects in TE and suppressive function. Activated conventional T cells (Tconv) are also capable of CTLA-4-dependent TE; however, the relative use of this mechanism by Tregs and Tconv in vivo remains unclear. Here, we set out to characterize both the perpetrators and cellular targets of CTLA-4 TE in vivo. We found that Tregs showed constitutive cell surface recruitment of CTLA-4 ex vivo and performed TE rapidly after TCR stimulation. Tregs outperformed activated Tconv at TE in vivo, and expression of ICOS marked Tregs with this capability. Using TCR transgenic Tregs that recognize a protein expressed in the pancreas, we showed that the presentation of tissue-derived self-antigen could trigger Tregs to capture costimulatory ligands in vivo. Last, we identified migratory dendritic cells (DCs) as the major target for Treg-based CTLA-4-dependent regulation in the steady state. These data support a model in which CTLA-4 expressed on Tregs dynamically regulates the phenotype of DCs trafficking to lymph nodes from peripheral tissues in an antigen-dependent manner.