Project description:Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of liver metabolism due to deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes conversion of glyoxylate into glycine. AGT deficiency results in overproduction of oxalate that ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease and death. Organ transplantation as either preemptive liver transplantation or combined liver/kidney transplantation is the only available therapy to prevent disease progression. Gene therapy is an attractive option to provide an alternative treatment for PH1. Toward this goal, we investigated helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of PH1. Compared with saline controls, AGT-deficient mice injected with an HDAd encoding the AGT under the control of a liver-specific promoter showed a significant reduction of hyperoxaluria and less increase of urinary oxalate following challenge with ethylene glycol, a precursor of glyoxylate. These studies may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd for PH1 gene therapy.
Project description:Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I.
Project description:The wheat gene-rich region (GRR) 5L0.5 contains many important genes, including Ph1, the principal regulator of chromosome pairing. Comparative marker analysis identified 32 genes for the GRR controlling important agronomic traits. Detailed characterization of this region was accomplished by first physically localizing 213 wheat group 5L-specific markers, using group 5 nulli-tetrasomics, three Ph1 gene deletion/insertion mutants, and nine terminal deletion lines with their breakpoints around the 5L0.5 region. The Ph1 gene was localized to a much smaller region within the GRR (Ph1 gene region). Of the 61 markers that mapped in the four subregions of the GRR, 9 mapped in the Ph1 gene region. High stringency sequence comparison (e < 1 x10(-25)) of 157 group 5L-specific wheat ESTs identified orthologs for 80% sequences in rice and 71% in Arabidopsis. Rice orthologs were present on all rice chromosomes, although most (34%) were on rice chromosome 9 (R9). No single collinear region was identified in Arabidopsis even for a smaller region, such as the Ph1 gene region. Seven of the nine Ph1 gene region markers mapped within a 450-kb region on R9 with the same gene order. Detailed domain/motif analysis of the 91 putative genes present in the 450-kb region identified 26 candidates for the Ph1 gene, including genes involved in chromatin reorganization, microtubule attachment, acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, DNA binding, and meiosis/anther specific proteins. Five of these genes shared common domains/motifs with the meiosis specific genes Zip1, Scp1, Cor1, RAD50, RAD51, and RAD57. Wheat and Arabidopsis homologs for these rice genes were identified.
Project description:Intraspinal human spinal cord-derived neural stem cell (HSSC) transplantation is a potential therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, previous trials lack controls. This post hoc analysis compared ambulatory limb-onset ALS participants in Phase 1 and 2 (Ph1/2) open-label intraspinal HSSC transplantation studies up to 3 years after transplant to matched participants in Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) and ceftriaxone datasets to provide required analyses to inform future clinical trial designs.Survival, ALSFRS-R, and a composite statistic (ALS/SURV) combining survival and ALS Functional Rating Scale revised (ALSFRS-R) functional status were assessed for matched participant subsets: PRO-ACT n = 1108, Ph1/2 n = 21 and ceftriaxone n = 177, Ph1/2 n = 20.Survival did not differ significantly between cohorts: Ph1/2 median survival 4.7 years, 95% CI (1.2, ?) versus PRO-ACT 2.3 years (1.9, 2.5), P = 1.0; Ph1/2 3.0 years (1.2, 5.6) versus ceftriaxone 2.3 years (1.8, 2.8), P = 0.88. Mean ALSFRS-R at 24 months significantly differed between Ph1/2 and both comparison cohorts (Ph1/2 30.1 ± 8.6 vs. PRO-ACT 24.0 ± 10.2, P = 0.048; Ph1/2 30.7 ± 8.8 vs. ceftriaxone 19.2 ± 9.5, P = 0.0023). Using ALS/SURV, median PRO-ACT and ceftriaxone participants died by 24 months, whereas median Ph1/2 participant ALSFRS-Rs were 23 (P = 0.0038) and 19 (P = 0.14) in PRO-ACT and ceftriaxone comparisons at 24 months, respectively, supporting improved functional outcomes in the Ph1/2 study.Comparison of Ph1/2 studies to historical datasets revealed significantly improved survival and function using ALS/SURV versus PRO-ACT controls. While results are encouraging, comparison against historical populations demonstrate limitations in noncontrolled studies. These findings support continued evaluation of HSSC transplantation in ALS, support the benefit of control populations, and enable necessary power calculations to design a randomized, sham surgery-controlled efficacy study.
Project description:Definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) currently utilizes sequential Sanger sequencing of the AGXT, GRPHR, and HOGA1 genes but efficacy is unproven. This analysis is time-consuming, relatively expensive, and delays in diagnosis and inappropriate treatment can occur if not pursued early in the diagnostic work-up. We reviewed testing outcomes of Sanger sequencing in 200 consecutive patient samples referred for analysis. In addition, the Illumina Truseq custom amplicon system was evaluated for paralleled next-generation sequencing (NGS) of AGXT,GRHPR, and HOGA1 in 90 known PH patients. AGXT sequencing was requested in all patients, permitting a diagnosis of PH1 in 50%. All remaining patients underwent targeted exon sequencing of GRHPR and HOGA1 with 8% diagnosed with PH2 and 8% with PH3. Complete sequencing of both GRHPR and HOGA1 was not requested in 25% of patients referred leaving their diagnosis in doubt. NGS analysis showed 98% agreement with Sanger sequencing and both approaches had 100% diagnostic specificity. Diagnostic sensitivity of Sanger sequencing was 98% and for NGS it was 97%. NGS has comparable diagnostic performance to Sanger sequencing for the diagnosis of PH and, if implemented, would screen for all forms of PH simultaneously ensuring prompt diagnosis at decreased cost.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor targeting small molecular inhibitors are the most popular treatments for many malignant diseases, including cancer. However, the lower clinical response and drug resistance still limit their clinical efficacies. HGFK1, the first kringle domain of hepatocyte growth factor, has been defined as a potent anti-angiogenic factor. Here, we aimed to develop and identify novel nanoparticles-PH1/pHGFK1 as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS:We produced a novel cationic polymer-PH1 and investigated the anti-tumor activity of PH1/pHGFK1 nanoparticle alone and its combination therapy with sorafenib in RCC cell line xenografted mice model. Then, we figured out its molecular mechanisms in human RCC cell lines in vitro. RESULTS:We firstly demonstrated that intravenous injection of PH1/pHGFK1 nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice, as well as synergistically enhanced anti-tumor activities of sorafenib. Furthermore, we elucidated that recombinant HGFK1 improved sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle. In addition, HGFK1 could also decrease sorafenib-induced autophagy and stemness via blockading NF-κB signaling pathway in RCC both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:HGFK1 could inhibit tumor growth, synergistically enhance anti-tumor activities of sorafenib and reverse its drug resistance evolution in RCC. Our results provide rational basis for clinical application of sorafenib and HGFK1 combination therapy in RCC patients.
Project description:Meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes in polyploid wheat is inhibited by the Ph1 locus on the long arm of chromosome 5 in the B genome. Aegilops speltoides (genomes SS), the closest relative of the progenitor of the wheat B genome, is polymorphic for genetic suppression of Ph1. Using this polymorphism, two major suppressor loci, Su1-Ph1 and Su2-Ph1, have been mapped in Ae. speltoides. Su1-Ph1 is located in the distal, high-recombination region of the long arm of the Ae. speltoides chromosome 3S. Its location and tight linkage to marker Xpsr1205-3S makes Su1-Ph1 a suitable target for introgression into wheat. Here, Xpsr1205-3S was introgressed into hexaploid bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring (CS) and from there into tetraploid durum wheat cv. Langdon (LDN). Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization showed that an Ae. speltoides segment with Xpsr1205-3S replaced the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 3A. In the CS genetic background, the chromosome induced homoeologous chromosome pairing in interspecific hybrids with Ae. peregrina but not in progenies from crosses involving alien disomic substitution lines. In the LDN genetic background, the chromosome induced homoeologous chromosome pairing in both interspecific hybrids and progenies from crosses involving alien disomic substitution lines. We conclude that the recombined chromosome harbors Su1-Ph1 but its expression requires expression of complementary gene that is present in LDN but absent in CS. We suggest that it is unlikely that Su1-Ph1 and ZIP4-1, a paralog of Ph1 located on wheat chromosomes 3A and 3B and Ae. tauschii chromosome 3D, are equivalent. The utility of Su1-Ph1 for induction of recombination between homoeologous chromosomes in wheat is illustrated.
Project description:Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by a defect in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate and serine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AGT). This disorder results in hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. Three forms of PH1 have been reported. Data on the infantile form of PH1 are currently limited in literature. Despite the fact that China is the most populated country in the world, only a few AGXT mutations have been reported in several Chinese PH1 patients. In the present study, we investigated a Chinese family in which two siblings are affected by the infantile form of PH1. Sanger sequencing was carried out on the proband, but the results were misleading. Two novel missense mutations (c.517T > C/p.Cys173Arg and c.667A > C/p.Ser223Arg) of the AGXT gene were successfully detected through whole-exome sequencing. These two mutations occurred in the highly conserved residues of the AGT. Four software programs predicted both mutations as the cause of the disease. A postmortem examination was performed and revealed the occurrence of global nephrocalcinosis on both kidneys. The crystals were collected and analyzed as calcium oxalate monohydrate. This study extends the knowledge on the clinical phenotype-genotype correlation of the AGXT mutation. That is, (i) two novel missense mutations were identified for the infantile form of PH1 and (ii) the same AGXT genotype caused the same infantile form of PH1 within the family.
Project description:Urinary oxalate is a major risk factor for calcium oxalate stones. Marked hyperoxaluria arises from mutations in 2 separate loci, AGXT and GRHPR, the causes of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) types 1 (PH1) and 2 (PH2), respectively. Studies of null Slc26a6(-/-) mice have shown a phenotype of hyperoxaluria, hyperoxalemia, and calcium oxalate urolithiasis, leading to the hypothesis that SLC26A6 mutations may cause or modify hyperoxaluria in humans.Cross-sectional case-control.Cases were recruited from the International Primary Hyperoxaluria Registry. Control DNA samples were from a pool of adult subjects who identified themselves as being in good health.PH1, PH2, and non-PH1/PH2 genotypes in cases.Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for SLC26A6 variants. Functional expression of oxalate transport in Xenopus laevis oocytes.80 PH1, 6 PH2, 8 non-PH1/PH2, and 96 control samples were available for SLC26A6 screening. A rare variant, c.487C-->T (p.Pro163Ser), was detected solely in 1 non-PH1/PH2 pedigree, but this variant failed to segregate with hyperoxaluria, and functional studies of oxalate transport in Xenopus oocytes showed no transport defect. No other rare variant was identified specifically in non-PH1/PH2. Six additional missense variants were detected in controls and cases. Of these, c.616G-->A (p.Val206Met) was most common (11%) and showed a 30% reduction in oxalate transport. To test p.Val206Met as a potential modifier of hyperoxaluria, we extended screening to PH1 and PH2. Heterozygosity for this variant did not affect plasma or urine oxalate levels in this population.We did not have a sufficient number of cases to determine whether homozygosity for p.Val206Met might significantly affect urine oxalate.SLC26A6 was effectively ruled out as the disease gene in this non-PH1/PH2 cohort. Taken together, our studies are the first to identify and characterize SLC26A6 variants in patients with hyperoxaluria. Phenotypic and functional analysis excluded a significant effect of identified variants on oxalate excretion.