Project description:To investigate gene expression changes induced by LPIAT1 depletion, Lpiat1F/F and LKO mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) or chow for 18 weeks from 6 weels old and microarray gene profiling were performed. Categorization of the differentially expressed genes between HFD-fed Lpiat1f/f and LKO mice, in relation to their functions in biological pathways, revealed an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis Overall design: 4 samples
Project description:OBJECTIVE:PARKIN is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitochondrial quality control through a process called mitophagy. Recent human and rodent studies suggest that loss of hepatic mitophagy may occur during the pathogenesis of obesity-associated fatty liver and contribute to changes in mitochondrial metabolism associated with this disease. Whole-body Prkn knockout mice are paradoxically protected against diet-induced hepatic steatosis; however, liver-specific effects of Prkn deficiency cannot be discerned in this model due to pleotropic effects of germline Prkn deletion on energy balance and subsequent protection against diet-induced obesity. We therefore generated the first liver-specific Prkn knockout mouse strain (LKO) to directly address the role of hepatic Prkn. METHODS:Littermate control (WT) and LKO mice were fed regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) and changes in body weight and composition were measured over time. Liver mitochondrial content was assessed using multiple, complementary techniques, and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was assessed using Oroboros O2K platform. Liver fat was measured biochemically and assessed histologically, while global changes in hepatic gene expression were measured by RNA-seq. Whole-body and tissue-specific insulin resistance were assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with isotopic tracers. RESULTS:Liver-specific deletion of Prkn had no effect on body weight or adiposity during RC or HFD feeding; however, hepatic steatosis was increased by 45% in HFD-fed LKO compared with WT mice (P < 0.05). While there were no differences in mitochondrial content between genotypes on either diet, mitochondrial respiratory capacity and efficiency in the liver were significantly reduced in LKO mice. Gene enrichment analyses from liver RNA-seq results suggested significant changes in pathways related to lipid metabolism and fibrosis in HFD-fed Prkn knockout mice. Finally, whole-body insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% in HFD-fed LKO mice (P < 0.05), which was primarily due to increased hepatic insulin resistance (60% of whole-body effect; P = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that PARKIN contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis in the liver and plays a protective role against the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.
Project description:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor regulating the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic response. Recent studies have suggested that AhR plays essential roles not only in xenobiotic detoxification but also energy metabolism. Thus, in this study, we studied the roles of AhR in lipid metabolism. Under high fat diet (HFD) challenge, liver-specific AhR knock-out (AhR LKO) mice exhibited severe steatosis, inflammation, and injury in the liver. Gene expression analysis and biochemical study revealed thatde novolipogenesis activity was significantly increased in AhR LKO mice. In contrast, induction of suppressor of cytokine signal 3 (Socs3) expression by HFD was attenuated in the livers of AhR LKO mice. Rescue of theSocs3gene in the liver of AhR LKO mice cancelled the HFD-induced hepatic lipotoxicities. Promoter analysis established Socs3 as novel transcriptional target of AhR. These results indicated that AhR plays a protective role against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and the subsequent lipotoxicity effects, such as inflammation, and that the mechanism of protection involves the direct transcriptional regulation ofSocs3expression by AhR.
Project description:Adult (12 weeks old) WT, LKO and KO male mice from C57Bl6J were either treated with a control diet (CTRL) or an High Fat Diet (HFD) during 12 weeks prior to liver gene expression analysis Overall design: 8 mice per group (CTRL and HFD) and per genotype (WT, LKO, KO).
Project description:Gene expression in livers of male wild-type (WT) and OGG1-deficient (Ogg1-/-) mice fed either a chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) were examined. Mice were fed the diet for 10 weeks prior to tissue collection and were 22 weeks of age at the time of tissue collection. 24 Total samples were analyzed. We generated the following pairwise comparisons using GeneSifter: WT Chow vs Ogg1-/- Chow; WT HFD vs. Ogg1-/- HFD using t-test followed by Benjamini and Hochberg correction. An adjusted p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Project description:Celastrol was recently identified as a potential novel treatment for obesity. However, the effect of Celastrol on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains elusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Celastrol in NAFLD.Functional studies were performed using wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice and liver specific Sirt1-deficient (LKO) mice. The molecular mechanism was explored in primary mouse liver and primary hepatocytes.When WT mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with Celastrol, reductions in body weight, subcutaneous and visceral fat content, and liver lipid droplet formation were observed, along with reduced hepatic intracellular triglyceride and serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, and ALT concentrations. Furthermore, Celastrol decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebp-1c) expression, enhanced the phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?), and increased the expression of hepatic serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1). Additionally, Celastrol treatment improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in WT mice fed the HFD. Celastrol administration also improved the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative status by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) activity and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increasing mitochondrial DNA copy number and anti-oxidative stress genes expression in WT mice liver, in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, Celastrol induced hepatic Sirt1 expression in WT mice, in vivo and in vitro. These Celastrol-mediated protective effects in WT mice fed a HFD were abolished in LKO mice fed a HFD. It was more interesting that Celastrol aggravated HFD-induced liver damage in LKO mice fed a HFD by inhibiting the phosphorylation of AMPK? and boosting the translocation of NF?B into the nucleus, thereby resulting in the increase of Srebp-1c expression and the mRNA levels of liver proinflammatory cytokines.Celastrol ameliorates NAFLD by decreasing lipid synthesis and improving the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory status. And Sirt1 has an important role in Celastrol-ameliorating liver metabolic damage caused by HFD.
Project description:Insulin resistance drives the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In liver, diacylglycerol (DAG) is a key mediator of lipid-induced insulin resistance. DAG activates protein kinase C epsilon (PKCÎµ), which phosphorylates and inhibits the insulin receptor. In rats, a 3-day high fat diet produces hepatic insulin resistance through this mechanism, and knockdown of hepatic PKCÎµ protects against high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Here we employ a systems level approach to uncover additional signaling pathways involved in high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. We used quantitative phosphoproteomics to map global in vivo changes in hepatic protein phosphorylation in chow-fed, high fat-fed, and high fat-fed with PKCÎµ knockdown rats to distinguish the impact of lipid- and PKCÎµ-induced protein phosphorylation.
Project description:The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet. In male wild-type mice, HFD markedly increased brain N-acylethanolamides, but not 2-monoacylglycerols. LKO blocked these effects of HFD in male mice. In female wild-type mice, HFD slightly decreased or did not alter these endocannabinoids as compared with male wild type. LKO did not block the HFD effects in female mice. The HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonic acid-derived arachidonoylethanolamide in males correlated with increased brain-free and total arachidonic acid. The ability of LKO to block the HFD-induced increase in brain arachidonoylethanolamide correlated with reduced ability of HFD to increase brain-free and total arachidonic acid in males. In females, brain-free and total arachidonic acid levels were much less affected by either HFD or LKO in the context of HFD. These data showed that LKO markedly diminished the impact of HFD on brain endocannabinoid levels, especially in male mice.
Project description:The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a key regulator of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a critical regulator that directly binds to mPTP constituents to facilitate the pore opening. We previously found that global CypD knockout mice (KO) are protected from diet-induced glucose intolerance; however, the tissue-specific function of CypD and mPTP, particularly in the control of glucose homeostasis, has not been ascertained. To this end, we performed calcium retention capacity (CRC) assay to compare the importance of CypD in the liver versus skeletal muscle. We found that liver mitochondria are more dependent on CypD for mPTP opening than skeletal muscle mitochondria. To ascertain the tissue-specific role of CypD in metabolic homeostasis, we generated liver-specific and muscle-specific CypD knockout mice (LKO and MKO, respectively) and fed them either a chow diet or 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. MKO mice displayed similar body weight gain and glucose intolerance compared with wild type littermates (WT), whereas LKO mice developed greater visceral obesity, glucose intolerance and pyruvate intolerance compared with WT mice. These findings demonstrate that loss of muscle CypD is not sufficient to alter whole body glucose metabolism, while the loss of liver CypD exacerbates obesity and whole-body metabolic dysfunction in mice fed HFD.
Project description:Purpose: Aim of the study is to identify changes in hepatic gene expression induced by either a 40kcal% coconut oil rich high fat diet (HFD), a 40kcal% soybean oil plus coconut oil high fat diet (SO-HFD) or a low fat vivarium chow diet (Viv). Methods: Livers from mice that had been fed one of the above mentioned diets for 35 weeks, were used to make cDNA libraries that were then sent for deep sequencing, using the Illumina TruSeq RNA. Result: Many genes involved in metabolism, lipid binding, transport and storage and many Cyp genes are dysregulated in the two high fat diets as compared to Viv HFDs in SO-HFD mice. Comparing the two HFDs shows more metabolism and disease related genes dysregulated in SO-HFD vs HFD. Conclusion: A diet high in soybean oil may be more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in saturated fats. cDNA isolated from livers from mice fed HFD, SO-HFD or Viv for 35 weeks, were 50bp pair-ended sequenced in triplicate using Illumina TruSeq RNA Sample Prep v2 Kit.