Project description:We used RNAseq to explore the gene expression changes induced by ionizing radiation across multiple tissues Overall design: Mouse were treated with ionizing radiation (10gy) and sacrificed at different timepoints and tissues extracted and processed for RNA
Project description:Studies of radiation interaction with tumor cells often focus on apoptosis as an end point; however, clinically relevant doses of radiation also promote autophagy and senescence. Moreover, functional p53 has frequently been implicated in contributing to radiation sensitivity through the facilitation of apoptosis. To address the involvement of apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and p53 status in the response to radiation, the current studies utilized isogenic H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells that were either p53-wild type (H460wt) or null (H460crp53). As anticipated, radiosensitivity was higher in the H460wt cells than in the H460crp53 cell line; however, this differential radiation sensitivity did not appear to be a consequence of apoptosis. Furthermore, radiosensitivity did not appear to be reduced in association with the promotion of autophagy, as autophagy was markedly higher in the H460wt cells. Despite radiosensitization by chloroquine in the H460wt cells, the radiation-induced autophagy proved to be essentially nonprotective, as inhibition of autophagy via 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 or ATG5 silencing failed to alter radiation sensitivity or promote apoptosis in either the H460wt or H460crp53 cells. Radiosensitivity appeared to be most closely associated with senescence, which occurred earlier and to a greater extent in the H460wt cells. This finding is consistent with the in-depth proteomics analysis on the secretomes from the H460wt and H460crp53 cells (with or without radiation exposure) that showed no significant association with radioresistance-related proteins, whereas several senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors were upregulated in H460wt cells relative to H460crp53 cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that senescence, rather than apoptosis, plays a central role in determination of radiosensitivity; furthermore, autophagy is likely to have minimal influence on radiosensitivity under conditions where autophagy takes the nonprotective form.
Project description:Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV+)-associated head and neck cancer (HNC) show significantly improved survival outcome compared with those with HPV-negative (HPV-) tumors. Published data examining this difference offers conflicting results to date. We systematically investigated the radiation sensitivity of all available validated HPV+ HNC cell lines and a series of HPV- HNC cell lines using in vitro and in vivo techniques. HPV+ HNCs exhibited greater intrinsic radiation sensitivity (average SF2 HPV-: 0.59 vs. HPV+: 0.22; P < 0.0001), corresponding with a prolonged G2-M cell-cycle arrest and increased apoptosis following radiation exposure (percent change 0% vs. 85%; P = 0.002). A genome-wide microarray was used to compare gene expression 24 hours following radiation between HPV+ and HPV- cell lines. Multiple genes in TP53 pathway were upregulated in HPV+ cells (Z score 4.90), including a 4.6-fold increase in TP53 (P < 0.0001). Using immortalized human tonsillar epithelial (HTE) cells, increased radiation sensitivity was seen in cell expressing HPV-16 E6 despite the effect of E6 to degrade p53. This suggested that low levels of normally functioning p53 in HPV+ HNC cells could be activated by radiation, leading to cell death. Consistent with this, more complete knockdown of TP53 by siRNA resulted in radiation resistance. These results provide clear evidence, and a supporting mechanism, for increased radiation sensitivity in HPV+ HNC relative to HPV- HNC. This issue is under active investigation in a series of clinical trials attempting to de-escalate radiation (and chemotherapy) in selected patients with HPV+ HNC in light of their favorable overall survival outcome.
Project description:There is presently great interest in mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors that are now being used widely in the treatment of a variety of common human cancers. To investigate these mechanisms, we established EGFR inhibitor-resistant clones from non-small cell lung cancer cells. A comparative analysis revealed that acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors was associated consistently with the loss of p53 and cross-resistance to radiation. To examine the role of p53, we first knocked down p53 in sensitive parental cells and found a reduction in sensitivity to both EGFR inhibitors and radiation. Conversely, restoration of functional p53 in EGFR inhibitor-resistant cells was sufficient to resensitize them to EGFR inhibitors or radiation in vitro and in vivo. Further studies indicate that p53 may enhance sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and radiation via induction of cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. Taken together, these findings suggest a central role of p53 in the development of acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors and prompt consideration to apply p53 restoration strategies in future clinical trials that combine EGFR inhibitors and radiation.
Project description:The use of gene expression-based classifiers has resulted in a number of promising potential signatures of patient diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. However, these approaches have also created difficulties in trying to use gene expression alone to predict a complex trait. A practical approach to this problem is to integrate existing biological knowledge with gene expression to build a composite predictor. We studied the problem of predicting radiation sensitivity within human cancer cell lines from gene expression. First, we present evidence for the need to integrate known biological conditions (tissue of origin, RAS, and p53 mutational status) into a gene expression prediction problem involving radiation sensitivity. Next, we demonstrate using linear regression, a technique for incorporating this knowledge. The resulting correlations between gene expression and radiation sensitivity improved through the use of this technique (best-fit adjusted R2 increased from 0.3 to 0.84). Overfitting of data was examined through the use of simulation. The results reinforce the concept that radiation sensitivity is not driven solely by gene expression, but rather by a combination of distinct parameters. We show that accounting for biological heterogeneity significantly improves the ability of the model to identify genes that are associated with radiosensitivity.
Project description:Increasing the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to radiation is a promising approach to improve survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This study aims to determine if serine/threonine phosphatase (protein phosphatase 6 (PP6)) is a molecular target for GBM radiosensitization treatment. The GBM orthotopic xenograft mice model was used in this study. Our data demonstrated that the protein level of PP6 catalytic subunit (PP6c) was upregulated in the GBM tissue from about 50% patients compared with the surrounding tissue or control tissue. Both the in vitro survival fraction of GBM cells and the patient survival time were highly correlated or inversely correlated with PP6c expression (R(2)=0.755 and -0.707, respectively). We also found that siRNA knockdown of PP6c reduced DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in three different GBM cell lines, increasing their sensitivity to radiation. In the orthotopic mice model, the overexpression of PP6c in GBM U87 cells attenuated the effect of radiation treatment, and reduced the survival time of mice compared with the control mice, while the PP6c knocking-down improved the effect of radiation treatment, and increased the survival time of mice. These findings demonstrate that PP6 regulates the sensitivity of GBM cells to radiation, and suggest small molecules disrupting or inhibiting PP6 association with DNA-PK is a potential radiosensitizer for GBM.
Project description:DNA strand breaks pose the greatest threat to genomic stability. Genetically determined mutagen sensitivity predisposes individuals to a variety of cancers, including glioma. However, polymorphisms in DNA strand break repair genes that may determine mutagen sensitivity are not well studied in cancer risk, especially in gliomas.We correlated genotype data for tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of DNA strand break repair genes with a gamma-radiation-induced mutagen sensitivity phenotype [expressed as mean breaks per cell (B/C)] in samples from 426 glioma patients. We also conducted analysis to assess joint and haplotype effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mutagen sensitivity. We further validate our results in an independent external control group totaling 662 subjects.Of the 392 tSNPs examined, we found that mutagen sensitivity was modified by one tSNP in the EME2 gene and six tSNPs in the RAD51L1 gene (P < 0.01). Among the six RAD51L1 SNPs tested in the validation set, one (RAD51L1 rs2180611) was significantly associated with mutagen sensitivity (P = 0.025). Moreover, we found a significant dose-response relationship between the mutagen sensitivity and the number of adverse tSNP genotypes. Furthermore, haplotype analysis revealed that RAD51L1 haplotypes F-A (zero adverse allele) and F-E (six adverse alleles) exhibited the lowest (0.42) and highest (0.93) mean B/C values, respectively. A similar dose-response relationship also existed between the mutagen sensitivity and the number of adverse haplotypes.These results suggest that polymorphisms in and haplotypes of the RAD51L1 gene, which is involved in the double-strand break repair pathway, modulate gamma-radiation-induced mutagen sensitivity.
Project description:It is well established that cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle when their chromatin is highly compacted. However, highly compacted chromatin is less susceptible to DNA Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) than relaxed chromatin. Therefore, it is now becoming apparent that it is the cell capacity to repair its damaged DNA and refold its chromatin into its original compacted status that primarily affects the overall cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACIs) are a new class of anticancer agents that relax chromatin structure by increasing the levels of histone acetylation. The effect of HDACIs on normal and cancer cells sensitivity to ionizing radiation differs. Reports have indicated that HDACIs can protect normal cells while simultaneously sensitize cancer cells to ionizing radiation. This difference may stem from the individual characteristic of the normal and cancer cells chromatin structure. This review discusses this possibility and addresses the role of HDACIs in radiation therapy.
Project description:Acute exposure to ionizing radiation leads to Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS). To understand the inter-strain cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity, adult males of two strains of minipig, one with higher radiosensitivity, the Gottingen minipig (GMP), and another strain with comparatively lower radiosensitivity, the Sinclair minipig (SMP), were exposed to total body irradiation (TBI). Since Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with radiation sensitivity and regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, we investigated the link between dysregulation of cardiac IGF-1 signaling and radiosensitivity. The adult male GMP; n = 48, and SMP; n = 24, were irradiated using gamma photons at 1.7-2.3 Gy doses. The animals that survived to day 45 after irradiation were euthanized and termed the survivors. Those animals that were euthanized prior to day 45 post-irradiation due to severe illness or health deterioration were termed the decedents. Cardiac tissue analysis of unirradiated and irradiated animals showed that inter-strain radiosensitivity and survival outcomes in H-ARS are associated with activation status of the cardiac IGF-1 signaling and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidant gene expression. Our data link H-ARS with dysregulation of cardiac IGF-1 signaling, and highlight the role of oxidative stress and cardiac antioxidant response in radiation sensitivity.
Project description:Ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy are standard-of-care treatments for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and both result in DNA damage, however, the clinical efficacy is limited due to therapeutic resistance. We identified a mechanism of such resistance mediated by phosphorylation of PTEN on tyrosine 240 (pY240-PTEN) by FGFR2. pY240-PTEN is rapidly elevated and bound to chromatin through interaction with Ki-67 in response to IR treatment and facilitates the recruitment of RAD51 to promote DNA repair. Blocking Y240 phosphorylation confers radiation sensitivity to tumors and extends survival in GBM preclinical models. Y240F-Pten knockin mice showed radiation sensitivity. These results suggest that FGFR-mediated pY240-PTEN is a key mechanism of radiation resistance and is an actionable target for improving radiotherapy efficacy.