Project description:We recently developed high-throughput sequencing approaches, eXcision Repair sequencing (XR-seq) and Damage-seq, to generate genome-wide mapping of DNA damage formation and excision repair, respectively, with single-nucleotide resolution. Here, we adopted time-course XR-seq data to profile UV-induced excision repair dynamics, paired with Damage-seq data to quantify the overall induced DNA damage. We identified genome-wide repair hotspots that are subject to exemplified amount of repair very soon after UV irradiation. We show that such repair hotspots do not result from hypersensitivity to DNA damage and are thus not damage hotspots. We find that the earliest repair occur preferentially in promoters and enhancers from open-chromatin regions. The repair hotspots are also significantly enriched for frequently interacting regions and super-enhancers, both of which are hotspots for local chromatin interactions. We further extend the interrogation of chromatin organization to DNA replication timing and conclude that early-repair hotspots are enriched for early-replication domains. Collectively, we report genome-wide early-repair hotspots of UV-induced damage, in association with chromatin states and epigenetic compartmentalization of the human genome. Overall design: Determination of repair hotspots and coldspots of UV-induced DNA damage in the human genome.
Project description:UV-DDB, a key protein in human global nucleotide excision repair (NER), binds avidly to abasic sites and 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG), suggesting a noncanonical role in base excision repair (BER). We investigated whether UV-DDB can stimulate BER for these two common forms of DNA damage, 8-oxoG and abasic sites, which are repaired by 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), respectively. UV-DDB increased both OGG1 and APE1 strand cleavage and stimulated subsequent DNA polymerase ?-gap filling activity by 30-fold. Single-molecule real-time imaging revealed that UV-DDB forms transient complexes with OGG1 or APE1, facilitating their dissociation from DNA. Furthermore, UV-DDB moves to sites of 8-oxoG repair in cells, and UV-DDB depletion sensitizes cells to oxidative DNA damage. We propose that UV-DDB is a general sensor of DNA damage in both NER and BER pathways, facilitating damage recognition in the context of chromatin.
Project description:How tightly packed chromatin is thoroughly inspected for DNA damage is one of the fundamental unanswered questions in biology. In particular, the effective excision of carcinogenic lesions caused by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of sunlight depends on UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB), but the mechanism by which this DDB1-DDB2 heterodimer stimulates DNA repair remained enigmatic. We hypothesized that a distinctive function of this unique sensor is to coordinate damage recognition in the nucleosome repeat landscape of chromatin. Therefore, the nucleosomes of human cells have been dissected by micrococcal nuclease, thus revealing, to our knowledge for the first time, that UV-DDB associates preferentially with lesions in hypersensitive, hence, highly accessible internucleosomal sites joining the core particles. Surprisingly, the accompanying CUL4A ubiquitin ligase activity is necessary to retain the xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) partner at such internucleosomal repair hotspots that undergo very fast excision kinetics. This CUL4A complex thereby counteracts an unexpected affinity of XPC for core particles that are less permissive than hypersensitive sites to downstream repair subunits. That UV-DDB also adopts a ubiquitin-independent function is evidenced by domain mapping and in situ protein dynamics studies, revealing direct but transient interactions that promote a thermodynamically unfavorable ?-hairpin insertion of XPC into substrate DNA. We conclude that the evolutionary advent of UV-DDB correlates with the need for a spatiotemporal organizer of XPC positioning in higher eukaryotic chromatin.
Project description:The E2F1 transcription factor is a well known regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in the DNA damage response is less clear. Using a local UV irradiation technique and immunofluorescence staining, E2F1 is shown to accumulate at sites of DNA damage. Localization of E2F1 to UV-damaged DNA requires the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase and serine 31 of E2F1 but not an intact DNA binding domain. E2F1 deficiency does not appear to affect the expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, such as XPC and XPA. However, E2F1 depletion does impair the recruitment of NER factors to sites of damage and reduces the efficiency of DNA repair. E2F1 mutants unable to bind DNA or activate transcription retain the ability to stimulate NER. These findings demonstrate that E2F1 has a direct, non-transcriptional role in DNA repair involving increased recruitment of NER factors to sites of damage.
Project description:We developed a method for genome-wide mapping of DNA excision repair named XR-seq (eXcision Repair-seq). Human nucleotide excision repair generates two incisions surrounding the site of damage, creating a ~30-mer. In XR-seq, this fragment is isolated and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. We used XR-seq to produce stranded, nucleotide-resolution maps of repair of two UV-induced DNA damages in human cells, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts ((6-4)PPs). In wild-type cells, CPD repair was highly associated with transcription, specifically with the template strand. Experiments in cells defective in either transcription-coupled excision repair or general excision repair isolated the contribution of each pathway to the overall repair pattern, and showed that transcription-coupled repair of both photoproducts occurs exclusively on the template strand. XR-seq maps capture transcription-coupled repair at sites of divergent gene promoters and bi-directional eRNA production at enhancers. XR-seq data also uncovered the repair characteristics and novel sequence preferences of CPDs and (6-4)PPs. XR-seq and the resulting repair maps will facilitate studies of the effects of genomic location, chromatin context, transcription, and replication on DNA repair in human cells. We have performed XR-seq for two types of UV-induced damages (CPD and (6-4)PP) in three different cell lines: NHF1, XP-C (XP4PA-SV-EB, GM15983)), and CS-B (CS1ANps3g2, GM16095). Two biological replicates were performed for each experiment, in which independent cell populations were UV treated and subjected to XR-seq.
Project description:To survive and avoid accumulation of mutations caused by DNA damage, the genomes of prokaryotes encode a variety of DNA repair pathways most well characterized in Escherichia coli. Some of these are required for the infectivity of various pathogens. In this study, the importance of 25 DNA repair/recombination genes for Borrelia burgdorferi survival to UV-induced DNA damage was assessed. In contrast to E. coli, where 15 of these genes have an effect on survival of UV irradiation, disruption of recombinational repair, transcription-coupled repair, methyl-directed mismatch correction, and repair of arrested replication fork pathways did not decrease survival of B. burgdorferi exposed to UV light. However, the disruption of the B. burgdorferi nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway (uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and uvrD) resulted in a 10- to 1,000-fold increase in sensitivity to UV light. A functional NER pathway was also shown to be required for B. burgdorferi resistance to nitrosative damage. Finally, disruption of uvrA, uvrC, and uvrD had only a minor effect upon murine infection by increasing the time required for dissemination.
Project description:We developed a method for genome-wide mapping of DNA excision repair named XR-seq (excision repair sequencing). Human nucleotide excision repair generates two incisions surrounding the site of damage, creating an ∼30-mer. In XR-seq, this fragment is isolated and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. We used XR-seq to produce stranded, nucleotide-resolution maps of repair of two UV-induced DNA damages in human cells: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts [(6-4)PPs]. In wild-type cells, CPD repair was highly associated with transcription, specifically with the template strand. Experiments in cells defective in either transcription-coupled excision repair or general excision repair isolated the contribution of each pathway to the overall repair pattern and showed that transcription-coupled repair of both photoproducts occurs exclusively on the template strand. XR-seq maps capture transcription-coupled repair at sites of divergent gene promoters and bidirectional enhancer RNA (eRNA) production at enhancers. XR-seq data also uncovered the repair characteristics and novel sequence preferences of CPDs and (6-4)PPs. XR-seq and the resulting repair maps will facilitate studies of the effects of genomic location, chromatin context, transcription, and replication on DNA repair in human cells.
Project description:We used the recently developed Excision Repair-sequencing (XR-seq) method to study genome-wide repair of UV-induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis. We found that the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers for a large fraction of the genome is controlled by the joint actions of the circadian clock and transcription by RNA polymerase II. Arabidopsis has a relatively compact genome, and a large fraction of the genes are controlled by the circadian clock. Our data on the interface of these two global regulatory systems reveal very strong repair preference of the transcribed strands of Arabidopsis genes, 10 to 30% of which are circadian time-dependent. Thus, throughout the day, Arabidopsis exhibits enormous dynamic range in repair to cope with exposure to sunlight. Overall design: Examination of excision repair throughout the circadian cycle with 2 experiments each of which having 8 samples collected at ZT2, ZT5, ZT8, ZT11, ZT14, ZT17, ZT20, ZT23
Project description:Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a cellular catabolic process that is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating various normal and pathologic processes in human diseases including cancer. One cancer-driving process is accumulation of genetic mutations due to impaired DNA damage repair, including nucleotide excision repair. Here we show that autophagy positively regulates nucleotide excision repair through enhancing DNA damage recognition by the DNA damage sensor proteins XPC and DDB2 via 2 pathways. First, autophagy deficiency downregulates the transcription of XPC through TWIST1-dependent activation of the transcription repressor complex E2F4-RBL2. Second, autophagy deficiency impairs the recruitment of DDB2 to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage sites through TWIST1-mediated inhibition of EP300. In mice, the pharmacological autophagy inhibitor Spautin-1 promotes UVB-induced tumorigenesis, whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin reduces UVB-induced tumorigenesis. These findings demonstrate the crucial role of autophagy in maintaining proper nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells and suggest a previously unrecognized tumor-suppressive mechanism of autophagy in cancer.
Project description:Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS-Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from UV-irradiated cellular and naked DNA revealed that the effect of transcription factor binding on bulky adducts formation varies, depending on the specific transcription factor, damage type, and strand. We also generated time-resolved UV damage maps of both CPDs and (6-4)PPs by HS-Damage-seq and compared them to the complementary repair maps of the human genome obtained by excision repair sequencing to gain insight into factors that affect UV-induced DNA damage and repair and ultimately UV carcinogenesis. The combination of the two methods revealed that, whereas UV-induced damage is virtually uniform throughout the genome, repair is affected by chromatin states, transcription, and transcription factor binding, in a manner that depends on the type of DNA damage.