Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To analyse the current situation of caesarean section in Palestine using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS).<h4>Design</h4>A population-based birth cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Obstetrical departments in three governmental hospitals in Gaza.<h4>Participants</h4>All women (18 908) who gave birth between 1 January 2016 and 30 April 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>The contributions of each group to the study population and to the overall rate of caesarean section were calculated, as well as the rate of caesarean section in each TGCS group. Differences in proportions between study hospitals were assessed by ?<sup>2</sup> test.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>The main outcome was the contributions of each group to the overall caesarean section rate.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rate of caesarean section was 22.9% (4337 of 18 908), ranging from 20.6% in hospital 1 to 24.6% in hospital 3. The largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were multiparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy who had undergone at least one caesarean section (group 5, 42.6%), women with multiple pregnancies (group 8, 11.6%) and those with single cephalic preterm labour (group 10, 8.1%). Statistically significant differences in caesarean section rates between the study hospitals were observed in group 1 (nulliparous women with single cephalic full-term pregnancy and spontaneous labour), group 4 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with induced labour or prelabour caesarean section), group 5 (multiparous with single cephalic full-term pregnancy with previous caesarean section) and in group 7 (multiparous with breech presentation).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Women in groups 5, 8 and 10 were the largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate in the study hospitals. Efforts to reduce the differences in obstetrical care between hospitals need to be directed towards increasing the proportion of vaginal births after caesarean section and by reducing primary caesarean section in multiple pregnancies and preterm labour.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates.<h4>Results</h4>The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical and effective actions targeting specific groups of women to improve maternal and perinatal care.
Project description:Several studies have reported a positive association between caesarean section for expeditious pregnancy termination and perinatal outcomes in acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP); however, the risks remain unclear and independent studies have reported conflicting findings. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to confirm the relationship between caesarean section and perinatal outcomes in AFLP. The PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched (until July 17, 2015) for observational clinical studies focusing on the association between caesarean section and perinatal outcomes in AFLP. Data were extracted and processed independently by 2 authors. We also compared caesarean section with vaginal delivery to further investigate this relationship. We observed that 2 of the 3 primary outcomes in caesarean section exhibited positive effects-the maternal mortality rate was 44% lower (relative risk [RR], 0.56 [0.41-0.76]) and perinatal mortality rate was also reduced (RR, 0.52 [0.38-0.71]), compared to those for vaginal delivery. We did not find any associations between caesarean section and perinatal outcomes in AFLP in terms of neonatal mortality type and maternal multiple organ complications. These findings emphasise the significant prognostic value and clinical implications of caesarean section in AFLP, and suggest that the adverse outcomes should be reduced.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Caesarean section was initially performed to save the lives of the mother and/or her baby. Caesarean section rates have risen substantially worldwide over the past decades. In this study, we set out to compile all available caesarean section rates worldwide at the country level, and to identify the appropriate caesarean section rate at the population level associated with the minimal maternal and neonatal mortality. DESIGN:Ecological study using longitudinal data. SETTING:Worldwide country-level data. POPULATION:A total of 159 countries were included in the analyses, representing 98.0% of global live births (2005). METHODS:Nationally representative caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2012 were compiled. We assessed the relationship between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes, adjusting for socio-economic development by means of human development index (HDI) using fractional polynomial regression models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate. RESULTS:Most countries have experienced increases in caesarean section rate during the study period. In the unadjusted analysis, there was a negative association between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes for low caesarean section rates, especially among the least developed countries. After adjusting for HDI, this effect was much smaller and was only observed below a caesarean section rate of 5-10%. No important association between the caesarean section rate and maternal and neonatal mortality was observed when the caesarean section rate exceeded 10%. CONCLUSIONS:Although caesarean section is an effective intervention to save maternal and infant lives, based on the available ecological evidence, caesarean section rates higher than around 10% at the population level are not associated with decreases in maternal and neonatal mortality rates, and thus may not be necessary to achieve the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT:The caesarean section rate of around 10% may be the optimal rate to achieve the lowest mortality.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether discontinuing oxytocin stimulation in the active phase of induced labour is associated with lower caesarean section rates.<h4>Design</h4>International multicentre, double blind, randomised controlled trial.<h4>Setting</h4>Nine hospitals in Denmark and one in the Netherlands between 8 April 2016 and 30 June 2020.<h4>Participants</h4>1200 women stimulated with intravenous oxytocin infusion during the latent phase of induced labour.<h4>Intervention</h4>Women were randomly assigned to have their oxytocin stimulation discontinued or continued in the active phase of labour.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Delivery by caesarean section.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 607 women were assigned to discontinuation and 593 to continuation of the oxytocin infusion. The rates of caesarean section were 16.6% (n=101) in the discontinued group and 14.2% (n=84) in the continued group (relative risk 1.17, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.53). In 94 parous women with no previous caesarean section, the caesarean section rate was 7.5% (11/147) in the discontinued group and 0.6% (1/155)in the continued group (relative risk 11.6, 1.15 to 88.7). Discontinuation was associated with longer duration of labour (median from randomisation to delivery 282 <i>v</i> 201 min; P<0.001), a reduced risk of hyperstimulation (20/546 (3.7%) <i>v</i> 70/541 (12.9%); P<0.001), and a reduced risk of fetal heart rate abnormalities (153/548 (27.9%) <i>v</i> 219/537 (40.8%); P<0.001) but rates of other adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar between groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a setting where monitoring of the fetal condition and the uterine contractions can be guaranteed, routine discontinuation of oxytocin stimulation may lead to a small increase in caesarean section rate but a significantly reduced risk of uterine hyperstimulation and abnormal fetal heart rate patterns.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02553226.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether the variation in unadjusted rates of caesarean section derived from routine data in NHS trusts in England can be explained by maternal characteristics and clinical risk factors.<h4>Design</h4>A cross sectional analysis using routinely collected hospital episode statistics was performed. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the likelihood of women having a caesarean section given their maternal characteristics (age, ethnicity, parity, and socioeconomic deprivation) and clinical risk factors (previous caesarean section, breech presentation, and fetal distress). Adjusted rates of caesarean section for each NHS trust were produced from this model.<h4>Setting</h4>146 English NHS trusts. Population Women aged between 15 and 44 years with a singleton birth between 1 January and 31 December 2008.<h4>Main outcome measure</h4>Rate of caesarean sections per 100 births (live or stillborn).<h4>Results</h4>Among 620 604 singleton births, 147 726 (23.8%) were delivered by caesarean section. Women were more likely to have a caesarean section if they had had one previously (70.8%) or had a baby with breech presentation (89.8%). Unadjusted rates of caesarean section among the NHS trusts ranged from 13.6% to 31.9%. Trusts differed in their patient populations, but adjusted rates still ranged from 14.9% to 32.1%. Rates of emergency caesarean section varied between trusts more than rates of elective caesarean section.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Characteristics of women delivering at NHS trusts differ, and comparing unadjusted rates of caesarean section should be avoided. Adjusted rates of caesarean section still vary considerably and attempts to reduce this variation should examine issues linked to emergency caesarean section.
Project description:Background:Caesarean section rates have increased worldwide in recent decades. Caesarean section is an essential maternal healthcare service. However, it has both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Therefore this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence, indication, and outcomes of caesarean section in Ethiopia. Methods:Twenty three cross-sectional studies with a total population of 36,705 were included. Online databases (PubMed/Medline, Hinari, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and online university repository was used. All the included papers were extracted and appraised using the standard extraction sheet format and Joanna Briggs Institute respectively. The pooled prevalence of the caesarean section, indications, and outcomes was calculated using the random-effect model. Result:The overall pooled prevalence of Caesarean section was 29.55% (95% CI: 25.46-33.65). Caesarean section is associated with both maternal and neonatal complications. Cephalopelvic disproportion [18.13%(95%CI: 12.72-23.53] was the most common indication of Caesarean section followed by non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern [19.57% (95%CI: 16.06-23.08]. The common neonatal complications following Caesarean section included low APGAR score, perinatal asphyxia, neonatal sepsis, meconium aspiration syndrome, early neonatal death, stillbirth, and prematurity whereas febrile morbidity, surgical site infection, maternal mortality, severe anemia, and postpartum hemorrhage were the most common maternal complications following Caesarean section. Conclusion:In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the rate of Cesarean section was high. Cephalopelvic disproportion, low Apgar score, and febrile morbidity were the most common indication of Caesarean section, neonatal outcome and maternal morbidity following Caesarean section respectively. Increasing unjustified Caesarean section deliveries as a way to increase different neonatal and maternal complications, then several interventions needed to target both the education of professionals and the public.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Caesarean section rates have significantly increased worldwide. China has a caesarean rate of 46%, with a moderate contribution of caesarean section on maternal request. In this study, we investigated the association between maternal characteristics, attendance at a prenatal education course and caesarean section on maternal request.<h4>Design</h4>Questionnaire study.<h4>Setting</h4>Tertiary hospital in China.<h4>Sample</h4>564 questionnaires.<h4>Methods</h4>On postpartum day 42, questionnaire data were collected. Data including age, parity, gravida, delivery mode, educational level, residence status, living condition and attendance of prenatal education course were analysed.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Factors associated with caesarean section on maternal request.<h4>Results</h4>46% of women were delivered by caesarean section on maternal request. Maternal age and residence status were all significantly associated with having a caesarean section on maternal request. The OR of an increase in caesarean section on maternal request in women over 30 years was 2.42 (95%confidence limits 1.597 to 3.666), compared with women under 30 years. 75% more women who resided in Shanghai had caesarean section on maternal request, compared with women who resided outside of Shanghai. However, there was a significant reduction (35%) in the number of caesarean sections on maternal request in women who attended a prenatal education course (p=0.029). There was no significant association between attendance of a prenatal education course and the other maternal characteristics studied.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Maternal age is associated with an increased risk of caesarean section on maternal request. For women of all age, attendance of a prenatal education course significantly reduced the rate of caesarean section on maternal request. Our data suggest that promotion of a prenatal education course is an important tool in China to reduce the rate of caesarean section.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Severe anaemia after caesarean section adversely affects the woman and the new-born. While prenatal anaemia is extensively studied, the literature on post-caesarean section anaemia is limited and characteristics of women at the highest risk of developing severe anaemia after caesarean section are unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with severe anaemia on day three post caesarean section.<h4>Methods</h4>On the third day after caesarean section, women were consecutively enrolled in a cross-sectional study at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). Women who got transfused peripartum were excluded. For every woman, we measured haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and collected data on sociodemographic, obstetric, and medical characteristics. The primary outcome was severe anaemia after caesarean section, defined as Hb < 7 g/dl. We used logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with severe anaemia after caesarean section. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>From December 2019 to March 2020, 427 of 431 screened women were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 26.05 (SD ± 5.84) years. Three hundred thirteen (73.3%) had attended at least four antenatal care visits. The prevalence of severe anaemia post-caesarean section was 6.79%. Foetus with macrosomia (aOR 7.9 95%CI: 2.18-28.85, p < 0.01) and having mild or moderate anaemia pre-caesarean section (aOR:9.6, 95%CI: 3.91-23.77, p < 0.01) were the factors associated with severe anaemia after caesarean section.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Severe anaemia in women post-caesarean section is relatively uncommon at our institution. It is associated with preoperative anaemia and macrosomic birth. Women with a low preoperative Hb concentration and those whose foetus have macrosomia could be targeted for haemoglobin optimisation before and during caesarean section.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Even though the caesarean section is an essential component of comprehensive obstetric and newborn care for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, there is a lack of data regarding caesarean section rates, its determinants and health outcomes among tribal communities in India.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study is to estimate and compare rates, determinants, indications and outcomes of caesarean section. The article provides an assessment on how the inequitable utilization can be addressed in a community-based hospital in tribal areas of Gujarat, India.<h4>Method</h4>Prospectively collected data of deliveries (N = 19923) from April 2010 to March 2016 in Kasturba Maternity Hospital was used. The odds ratio of caesarean section was estimated for tribal and non-tribal women. Decomposition analysis was done to decompose the differences in the caesarean section rates between tribal and non-tribal women.<h4>Results</h4>The caesarean section rate was significantly lower among tribal compared to the non-tribal women (9.4% vs 15.6%, p-value < 0.01) respectively. The 60% of the differences in the rates of caesarean section between tribal and non-tribal women were unexplained. Within the explained variation, the previous caesarean accounted for 96% (p-value < 0.01) of the variation. Age of the mother, parity, previous caesarean and distance from the hospital were some of the important determinants of caesarean section rates. The most common indications of caesarean section were foetal distress (31.2%), previous caesarean section (23.9%), breech (16%) and prolonged labour (11.2%). There was no difference in case fatality rate (1.3% vs 1.4%, p-value = 0.90) and incidence of birth asphyxia (0.3% vs 0.6%, p-value = 0.26) comparing the tribal and non-tribal women.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Similar to the prior evidences, we found higher caesarean rates among non-tribal compare to tribal women. However, the adverse outcomes were similar between tribal and non-tribal women for caesarean section deliveries.