Project description:Improvement of prediction accuracy of estimated breeding values (EBVs) can lead to increased profitability for swine breeding companies. This study was performed to compare the accuracy of different popular genomic prediction methods and traditional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for future performance of back-fat thickness (BFT), average daily gain (ADG), and loin muscle depth (LMD) in Canadian Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire swine breeds. In this study, 17,019 pigs were genotyped using Illumina 60K and Affymetrix 50K panels. After quality control and imputation steps, a total of 41,304, 48,580, and 49,102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms remained for Duroc (<i>n</i> = 6,649), Landrace (<i>n</i> = 5,362), and Yorkshire (<i>n</i> = 5,008) breeds, respectively. The breeding values of animals in the validation groups (<i>n</i> = 392-774) were predicted before performance test using BLUP, BayesC, BayesCπ, genomic BLUP (GBLUP), and single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP) methods. The prediction accuracies were obtained using the correlation between the predicted breeding values and their deregressed EBVs (dEBVs) after performance test. The genomic prediction methods showed higher prediction accuracies than traditional BLUP for all scenarios. Although the accuracies of genomic prediction methods were not significantly (<i>P</i> > 0.05) different, ssGBLUP was the most accurate method for Duroc-ADG, Duroc-LMD, Landrace-BFT, Landrace-ADG, and Yorkshire-BFT scenarios, and BayesCπ was the most accurate method for Duroc-BFT, Landrace-LMD, and Yorkshire-ADG scenarios. Furthermore, BayesCπ method was the least biased method for Duroc-LMD, Landrace-BFT, Landrace-ADG, Yorkshire-BFT, and Yorkshire-ADG scenarios. Our findings can be beneficial for accelerating the genetic progress of BFT, ADG, and LMD in Canadian swine populations by selecting more accurate and unbiased genomic prediction methods.
Project description:We firstly compared the expression file of circRNAs in longissimus muscle (LM) between the Chinese indigenous Huainan (HN, the fat type line ) and the Western commercial Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) (DLY, the thin type line) to identify the key circRNAs involved in the genetic basis of pork quality traits. Overall design: The longissimus muscle from three Huainan pigs and three Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) pigs (reference group)
Project description:Selective sweep can cause genetic differentiation across populations, which allows for the identification of possible causative regions/genes underlying important traits. The pig has experienced a long history of allele frequency changes through artificial selection in the domestication process. We obtained an average of 329,482,871 sequence reads for 24 pigs from three pig breeds: Yorkshire (n = 5), Landrace (n = 13), and Duroc (n = 6). An average read depth of 11.7 was obtained using whole-genome resequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. In this study, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity and cross-population composite likelihood ratio tests were implemented to detect genes experiencing positive selection for the genome-wide resequencing data generated from three commercial pig breeds. In our results, 26, 7, and 14 genes from Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively were detected by two kinds of statistical tests. Significant evidence for positive selection was identified on genes ST6GALNAC2 and EPHX1 in Yorkshire, PARK2 in Landrace, and BMP6, SLA-DQA1, and PRKG1 in Duroc.These genes are reportedly relevant to lactation, reproduction, meat quality, and growth traits. To understand how these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related positive selection affect protein function, we analyzed the effect of non-synonymous SNPs. Three SNPs (rs324509622, rs80931851, and rs80937718) in the SLA-DQA1 gene were significant in the enrichment tests, indicating strong evidence for positive selection in Duroc. Our analyses identified genes under positive selection for lactation, reproduction, and meat-quality and growth traits in Yorkshire, Landrace, and Duroc, respectively.
Project description:Intestinal microorganisms have been shown to be important factors affecting the growth performance of pigs. Therefore, to investigate the effect of the intestinal microflora structure on the growth performance of pigs, samples from Duroc (n?=?10), Landrace (n?=?9) and Yorkshire (n?=?21) pigs under the same diet and feeding conditions were collected. The fecal microbial composition was profiled via 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. We also analyzed their growth performance. We found that Duroc and Landrace pigs had significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency ratio (FER), growth index (GI), and number of days taken to reach 100 kg (P?<?0.05). Moreover, through analysis of the intestinal flora, we also identified 18 species of intestinal flora with significant differences between Duroc and Landrace pigs (P?<?0.05). To eliminate the influence of genetic background, the differential intestinal flora of 21 Yorkshire pigs with differences in growth performance was analyzed. The results showed that there were significant correlations between Barnesiella, Dorea, Clostridium and Lactobacillus and pig growth performance. To explore the effect of the intestinal flora on the growth performance of pigs at the molecular level, Lactobacillus, which is the most abundant in the intestine, was selected for isolation and purification and cocultured with intestinal epithelial cells. qPCR was used to determine the effect of Lactobacillus on MC4R gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that Lactobacillus inhibited MC4R gene expression in these cells. The results provide a useful reference for further study of the relationship between the intestinal flora and pig growth performance.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on the growth performance, creatine and energy metabolism, and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (n = 180, 33.61 ± 3.91 kg average BW) were blocked by weight and sex, and allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates (3 gilts and 3 barrows per replicate pen). Diets were corn-soybean meal-basal diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg/kg of GAA and fed to the pigs for 98 d. From days 1 to 98, G:F increased (linear, P < 0.05) with increasing addition of dietary GAA. Using a broken-line model, the optimum level of dietary GAA was 300 mg/kg during the overall experimental period (days 1 to 98) to maximize G:F. Hot carcass weight, carcass length, and lean percentage showed a tendency to increase (quadratic, 0.05 < P < 0.10) with increasing addition of dietary GAA. On day 98, serum GAA and liver creatine tended to increase (linear, P = 0.10, 0.07) as dietary GAA increased. In addition, serum ATP on day 98 increased linearly (linear, P < 0.01), and muscle ATP and adenosine monophosphate increased quadratically (quadratic, P = 0.05) with incremental GAA supplementation. In Exp. 2, Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (n = 180, 53.19 ± 5.63 kg average BW) were blocked by weight and sex, and allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates (3 gilts and 3 barrows per replicate pen). Diets were corn-soybean meal-basal diets supplemented with 0, 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg of GAA for 35 d. As dietary GAA increased, final BW, ADG, and G:F increased quadratically (quadratic, P < 0.01), and 300 mg/kg of GAA maximized ADG and final BW (P < 0.05).The results indicate that dietary GAA could increase the creatine and ATP load in the tissues of pigs and accordingly improve growth performance. Dietary supplementation with 300 mg/kg of GAA was suitable to maximize the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs.
Project description:The study aimed to investigate the genetic parameters of the production and reproduction traits of Korean Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs. Three production traits, namely average daily gain (ADG), age at 105 kg body weight (DAYS105) and backfat thickness (BFT), and three reproduction traits, namely age at first farrowing (AFF), total number of piglets born (TNB) and number of piglets born alive (NBA), were analyzed. The reproduction dataset was based on first-parity gilts only. However, the production dataset comprised pigs of both sexes. Genetic parameters were estimated from individual datasets using a multiple-trait animal model in AIREMLF90 software. The heritability values of ADG, DAYS105 and BFT were 0.34-0.36, 0.41-0.44 and 0.38-0.48, respectively, across breeds. Heritability values for AFF, TNB and NBA were 0.07-0.14, 0.09-0.11 and 0.09-0.10, respectively. Strong genetic correlations existed between ADG and DAYS105 (-0.97) and between TNB and NBA (0.90 to 0.96). In line with breeding goals, all productive traits in Duroc pigs, and all reproduction traits except AFF in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs, also showed noticeable improvements in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that our findings on economic traits would greatly assist future pig breeding decisions in Korea.
Project description:Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P?<?0.05; fold regulation ?-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within?+?2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions.
Project description:To investigate effects of long-term intake of RPS on gene expression in the colon and liver of pigs,thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows were randomly allocated to corn starch (CS) and RPS groups. Each group consisted of six replicates (pens), with three pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn/soybean-based diet, while pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 g/kg (growing period) or 280 g/kg (finishing period) purified corn starch was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-day trial. Liver transcriptomic results showed that the expression of CD36, CPT1B and ACADM was down-regulated, while AGPAT4, GPAT, FABP1 and FABP3 were up-regulated by the RPS diet, indicating a decrease in fatty acid intake and synthesis, and an increase in fatty acid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis.Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that the RPS diet changed the colonic expression profile of the host genes mainly involved in immune response pathways. RPS significantly increased proinflammartory cytokine IL-1? gene expression and suppressed genes involved in lysosome. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 days of age, 23.78 ± 1.87 kg) were randomly allocated to two groups, each group consisting of three pigs per pen, and six replicates. Pigs in the control group were offered a corn/soybean-based diet, while 230 g/kg purified corn starch (CS) was replaced with purified RPS in the RPS diet group. Diets were formulated according to the nutrient requirements of the National Research Council (1998). When animals reached the age of 120 days, diets were adapted to the nutrient requirements of the animals (finishing diet) and the amount of purified starch increased to 280 g of CS or RPS per kilogram of feed. Pigs had unlimited access to feed and water throughout the experimental period, which consisted of two 50-day trials in which the pigs consumed the growing diet (days 0-50) and finishing diet (days 51-100), respectively. On day 100, one pig from each replicate that met the target slaughter weight (105 to 110 kg) was slaughtered. The liver and colonic mucosa tissues were collected and preserved in liquid nitrogen for gene expression analysis.
Project description:The gut microbiota affects the metabolism, health and growth rate of pigs. Understanding the characteristics of gut microbiota of different pig breeds at each growth stage will enable the design of individualized feeding strategies. The present study aimed to compare the growth curves and development patterns of pigs of three different breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) using the mathematical models Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy and Richards. For Duroc pigs, the Gompertz model showed the highest prediction accuracy (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9974). In contrast, the best models for Landrace and Yorkshire pigs were Richards (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9986) and Von Bertalanffy (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9977), respectively. Path analysis showed that body length (path coefficient = 0.507) and chest circumference (path coefficient = 0.532) contributed more significantly to the body weight of pigs at the early growth stage, while hip circumference (path coefficient = 0.312) had a greater influence on pig body weight in the late growth stage. Moreover, the composition of the gut microbiota of pigs at two growth stages (60 kg of body weight in the early growth stage and 120 kg in the finishing stage) was studied using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Variations in gut microbiota composition of pigs at different growth stages were observed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of annotated metagenomes revealed that protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched in pigs at the early growth stage, which may be related to nutritional requirements of pigs during this stage. This study confirmed longitudinal variation in the gut microbiota of pigs pertaining to age as well as lateral variation related to pig breed. The present findings expand the current understanding of the variations in swine gut microbiota during production stages.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire.<h4>Methods</h4>The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman's rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.