Spliceosome specifically associates with CTD phospho-serine 5 isoform of RNA polymerase II to promote co-transcriptional splicing
ABSTRACT: Co-transcriptional splicing of introns is a defining feature of eukaryotic gene expression. We show that the mammalian spliceosome specifically associates with the S5P CTD isoform of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as it elongates across spliced exons of protein coding genes, both in human Hela and murine lymphoid cell lines. Immuno-precipitation of MNase digested chromatin with phospho CTD specific antibodies reveals that components of the active spliceosome (both snRNA and proteins) form a specific complex with S5P CTD Pol II. Furthermore a dominant splicing intermediate formed by cleavage at intron 5’ss results in the tethering of upstream exons to this complex at all spliced exons. These are invariably connected to upstream spliced constitutive and less frequently to alternative exons. Finally S5P CTD Pol II accumulates over spliced exons but not adjacent introns. We propose that mammalian splicing employs a rapid, co-transcriptional splicing mechanism based on CTD phosphorylation transitions.
Project description:Co-transcriptional splicing of introns is a defining feature of eukaryotic gene expression. We show that the mammalian spliceosome specifically associates with the S5P CTD isoform of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as it elongates across spliced exons of protein coding genes, both in human Hela and murine lymphoid cell lines. Immuno-precipitation of MNase digested chromatin with phospho CTD specific antibodies reveals that components of the active spliceosome (both snRNA and proteins) form a specific complex with S5P CTD Pol II. Furthermore a dominant splicing intermediate formed by cleavage at intron 5’ss results in the tethering of upstream exons to this complex at all spliced exons. These are invariably connected to upstream spliced constitutive and less frequently to alternative exons. Finally S5P CTD Pol II accumulates over spliced exons but not adjacent introns. We propose that mammalian splicing employs a rapid, co-transcriptional splicing mechanism based on CTD phosphorylation transitions. Overall design: Examination of co-transcritional splicing kinetics using nascent RNA-sequence, mNET-seq
Project description:The highly intronic nature of protein coding genes in mammals necessitates a co-transcriptional splicing mechanism as revealed by mNET-seq analysis. Immunoprecipitation of MNase-digested chromatin with antibodies against RNA polymerase II (Pol II) shows that active spliceosomes (both snRNA and proteins) are complexed to Pol II S5P CTD during elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. Notably, elongating Pol II-spliceosome complexes form strong interactions with nascent transcripts, resulting in footprints of approximately 60 nucleotides. Also, splicing intermediates formed by cleavage at the 5' splice site are associated with nearly all spliced exons. These spliceosome-bound intermediates are frequently ligated to upstream exons, implying a sequential, constitutive, and U12-dependent splicing process. Finally, lack of detectable spliced products connected to the Pol II active site in human HeLa or murine lymphoid cells suggests that splicing does not occur immediately following 3' splice site synthesis. Our results imply that most mammalian splicing requires exon definition for completion.
Project description:The transcription cycle of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) correlates with changes to the phosphorylation state of its large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We recently developed Native Elongation Transcript sequencing using mammalian cells (mNET-seq), which generates single-nucleotide-resolution genome-wide profiles of nascent RNA and co-transcriptional RNA processing that are associated with different CTD phosphorylation states. Here we provide a detailed protocol for mNET-seq. First, Pol II elongation complexes are isolated with specific phospho-CTD antibodies from chromatin solubilized by micrococcal nuclease digestion. Next, RNA derived from within the Pol II complex is size fractionated and Illumina sequenced. Using mNET-seq, we have previously shown that Pol II pauses at both ends of protein-coding genes but with different CTD phosphorylation patterns, and we have also detected phosphorylation at serine 5 (Ser5-P) CTD-specific splicing intermediates and Pol II accumulation over co-transcriptionally spliced exons. With moderate biochemical and bioinformatic skills, mNET-seq can be completed in ?6 d, not including sequencing and data analysis.
Project description:In the preceding study we found that Sm snRNPs and SerArg (SR) family proteins co-immunoprecipitate with Pol II molecules containing a hyperphosphorylated CTD (Kim et al., 1997). The association between Pol IIo and splicing factors is maintained in the absence of pre-mRNA, and the polymerase need not be transcriptionally engaged (Kim et al., 1997). The latter findings led us to hypothesize that a phosphorylated form of the CTD interacts with pre-mRNA splicing components in vivo. To test this idea, a nested set of CTD-derived proteins was assayed for the ability to alter the nuclear distribution of splicing factors, and to interfere with splicing in vivo. Proteins containing heptapeptides 1-52 (CTD52), 1-32 (CTD32), 1-26 (CTD26), 1-13 (CTD13), 1-6 (CTD6), 1-3 (CTD3), or 1 (CTD1) were expressed in mammalian cells. The CTD-derived proteins become phosphorylated in vivo, and accumulate in the nucleus even though they lack a conventional nuclear localization signal. CTD52 induces a selective reorganization of splicing factors from discrete nuclear domains to the diffuse nucleoplasm, and significantly, it blocks the accumulation of spliced, but not unspliced, human beta-globin transcripts. The extent of splicing factor disruption, and the degree of inhibition of splicing, are proportional to the number of heptapeptides added to the protein. The above results indicate a functional interaction between Pol II's CTD and pre-mRNA splicing.
Project description:We investigated the role of RNA polymerase II (pol II) carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation in pre-mRNA processing coupled and uncoupled from transcription in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition of CTD phosphorylation by the kinase inhibitors 5,6-dichloro-1beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole and H8 blocked transcription-coupled splicing and poly(A) site cleavage. These experiments suggest that pol II CTD phosphorylation is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing and 3'-end formation in vivo. In contrast, processing of injected pre-mRNA was unaffected by either kinase inhibitors or alpha-amanitin-induced depletion of pol II. pol II therefore does not appear to participate directly in posttranscriptional processing, at least in frog oocytes. Together these experiments show that the influence of the phosphorylated CTD on pre-mRNA splicing and 3'-end processing is mediated by transcriptional coupling.
Project description:The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (pol II) is essential for several co-transcriptional pre-messenger RNA processing events, including capping, 3'-end processing and splicing. We investigated the role of the CTD of RNA pol II in the coordination of A to I editing and splicing of the ADAR2 (ADAR: adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) pre-mRNA. The auto-editing of Adar2 intron 4 by the ADAR2 adenosine deaminase is tightly coupled to splicing, as the modification of the dinucleotide AA to AI creates a new 3' splice site. Unlike other introns, the CTD is not required for efficient splicing of intron 4 at either the normal 3' splice site or the alternative site created by editing. However, the CTD is required for efficient co-transcriptional auto-editing of ADAR2 intron 4. Our results implicate the CTD in site-selective RNA editing by ADAR2 and in coordination of editing with alternative splicing.
Project description:In a recent study, we provided evidence that strong promoter-bound transcriptional activators result in higher levels of splicing and 3'-end cleavage of nascent pre-mRNA than do weak promoter-bound activators and that this effect of strong activators requires the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (pol II). In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of activator- and CTD-mediated stimulation of pre-mRNA processing. Affinity chromatography experiments reveal that two factors previously implicated in the coupling of transcription and pre-mRNA processing, PSF and p54(nrb)/NonO, preferentially bind a strong rather than a weak activation domain. Elevated expression in human 293 cells of PSF bypasses the requirement for a strong activator to promote efficient splicing and 3'-end cleavage. Truncation of the pol II CTD, which consists of 52 repeats of the consensus heptapeptide sequence YSPTSPS, to 15 heptapeptide repeats prevents PSF-dependent stimulation of splicing and 3'-end cleavage. Moreover, PSF and p54(nrb)/NonO bind in vitro to the wild-type CTD but not to the truncated 15-repeat CTD, and domains in PSF that are required for binding to activators and to the CTD are also important for the stimulation of pre-mRNA processing. Interestingly, activator- and CTD-dependent stimulation of splicing mediated by PSF appears to primarily affect the removal of first introns. Collectively, these results suggest that the recruitment of PSF to activated promoters and the pol II CTD provides a mechanism by which transcription and pre-mRNA processing are coordinated within the cell.
Project description:Transcription controls splicing and other gene regulatory processes, yet mechanisms remain obscure due to our fragmented knowledge of the molecular connections between the dynamically phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) and regulatory factors. By systematically isolating phosphorylation states of the CTD heptapeptide repeat (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7), we identify hundreds of protein factors that are differentially enriched, revealing unappreciated connections between the Pol II CTD and co-transcriptional processes. These data uncover a role for threonine-4 in 3' end processing through control of the transition between cleavage and termination. Furthermore, serine-5 phosphorylation seeds spliceosomal assembly immediately downstream of 3' splice sites through a direct interaction with spliceosomal subcomplex U1. Strikingly, threonine-4 phosphorylation also impacts splicing by serving as a mark of co-transcriptional spliceosome release and ensuring efficient post-transcriptional splicing genome-wide. Thus, comprehensive Pol II interactomes identify the complex and functional connections between transcription machinery and other gene regulatory complexes.
Project description:We have generated single-nucleotide resolution, nascent transcription profiles from HeLa cells by developing Native Elongation Transcript sequencing technology for mammalian chromatin (mNET-seq). Our extensive data sets provide a substantial resource to study mammalian nascent transcript profiles. We reveal unanticipated phosphorylation states for RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (Pol II CTD) at both gene ends. We also observe that following 5’ splice site cleavage by the spliceosome, upstream exon transcripts are tethered to Pol II CTD phosphorylated on the serine 5 position (S5P) which is accumulated over downstream exons. We further show that depletion of termination factors substantially reduces Pol II pausing at gene ends leading to termination defects. Remarkably termination factors play an additional promoter role by restricting non-productive RNA synthesis and redistributing Pol II CTD S2P to promoters. These data demonstrate that CTD phosphorylation is more dynamic and variably distributed across mammalian transcription units than previously envisaged. To monitor nascent RNA within the mammalian Pol II complex, and its association with different CTD phosphorylation states, we employed mNET-seq methodology on HeLa cells, complemented with direct sequencing of chromatin-bound RNA (ChrRNA-seq). mNET-seq was preformed using the antibodies 8WG16, CMA602, CMA603 and CMA601, which are specific for unphosphorylated CTD, Ser2 phosphorylation, Ser5 phosphorylation and all CTD isoforms, respectively. In another experiment, to evaluate the effect of transcription termination factors in nascent RNA production by Pol II, mNET-seq and complemented with ChrRNA-seq was preformed on HeLa cells transfected with siRNA against PTBP1, CPSF73, CstF64+CstF64tau or Xrn2, and the gene profiles were compared with profiles from HeLa transfected with siRNA for Luciferase generated by the same protocol.
Project description:Conserved from yeast to mammals, phosphorylation of the heptad repeat sequence Tyr(1)-Ser(2)-Pro(3)-Thr(4)-Ser(5)-Pro(6)-Ser(7) in the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) subunit, RPB1, mediates the enzyme's promoter escape and binding of RNA-processing factors, such as the m(7)G capping enzymes. The first critical step, Ser(5) phosphorylation, is carried out by cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), a subunit of the basal transcription factor TFIIH. Many early-diverged protists, such as the lethal human parasite Trypanosoma brucei, however, lack the heptad repeats and, apparently, a CDK7 ortholog. Accordingly, characterization of trypanosome TFIIH did not identify a kinase component. The T. brucei CTD, however, is phosphorylated and essential for transcription. Here we show that silencing the expression of T. brucei cdc2-related kinase 9 (CRK9) leads to a loss of RPB1 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, this event did not impair RNA Pol II transcription or cotranscriptional m(7)G capping. Instead, we observed that CRK9 silencing led to a block of spliced leader (SL) trans splicing, an essential step in trypanosome mRNA maturation, that was caused by hypomethylation of the SL RNA's unique cap4.