Proteomic profiling of plasma membrane proteins from bovine rod photoreceptor outer segments
ABSTRACT: The outer segment (OS) organelle of vertebrate photoreceptors is a highly specialized cilium whose plasma membrane plays vital and diverse roles in supporting photoreceptor function and health. However, little is known about the identity of its protein constituents, as this membrane cannot be purified to homogeneity. In this study, we employed the technique of protein correlation profiling to identify unique OS plasma membrane proteins. To achieve this, we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to compare relative protein abundances in an enriched preparation of the OS plasma membrane to a preparation of total outer segment membranes. We have found that only five proteins were enriched at the same level as previously validated OS plasma membrane markers. Two of these proteins, TMEM67 and TMEM237, had not been previously assigned to this membrane and one, embigin, had not been identified in photoreceptors. We further showed that embigin associates with monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 in the OS plasma membrane, facilitating lactate transport through this cellular compartment.
Project description:Rods and cones are functionally and morphologically distinct. We previously identified N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1b (ndrg1b) in carp as a cone-specific gene. Here, we show that NDRG1b and its paralog, NDRG1a-1, contribute to photoreceptor outer segment (OS) formation in zebrafish. In adult zebrafish photoreceptors, NDRG1a-1 was localized in the entire cone plasma membranes, and also in rod plasma membranes except its OS. NDRG1b was expressed specifically in cones in the entire plasma membranes. In a developing retina, NDRG1a-1 was expressed in the photoreceptor layer, and NDRG1b in the photoreceptor layer plus inner nuclear layer. Based on our primary knockdown study suggesting that both proteins are involved in normal rod and cone OS development, NDRG1a-1 was overexpressed or NDRG1b was ectopically expressed in rods. These forced-expression studies in the transgenic fish confirmed the effect of these proteins on the OS morphology: rod OS morphology changed from cylindrical to tapered shape. These taper-shaped rod OSs were not stained with N,N'-didansyl cystine that effectively labels infolded membrane structure of cone OS. The result shows that rod OS membrane structure is preserved in these taper-shaped OSs and therefore, suggests that tapered OS morphology is not related to the infolded membrane structure in cone OS.
Project description:Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with 1 uM RALF peptide for 5 min to examine rapid protein phosphorylation changes. Phosphopeptides from the plasma membrane were identified and quantified using Orbitrap mass spectrometer.
Project description:We compared whole genome expression profiles of GSCs with normal human cortex, human neural stem cells (hNSC) from fetal cortex, glioblastoma (GBM) primary, and recurrent tumors to find GSC-specific plasma membrane transcripts. All of the expression profiles were batch normalized by a robust multichip average (RMA) algorithm using Geospiza GeneSifter (PerkinElmer) online microarray database and analysis software. The data was then exported into Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and organized for GSC transcripts with raw intensity values 10 fold or higher over normal brain, hNSCs, GBM primary and recurrent tumor samples. The reverse sorting algorithm was done to obtain downregulated GSC trascripts.
Project description:Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated 1 (HCN1) channels are widely expressed in the retina. In photoreceptors, the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) carried by HCN1 is important for shaping the light response. It has been shown in multiple systems that trafficking HCN1 channels to specific compartments is key to their function. The localization of HCN1 in photoreceptors is concentrated in the plasma membrane of the inner segment (IS). The mechanisms controlling this localization are not understood. We previously identified a di-arginine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif that negatively regulates the surface targeting of HCN1. In this study, we sought to identify a forward trafficking signal that could counter the function of the ER retention signal.We studied trafficking of HCN1 and several mutants by imaging their subcellular localization in transgenic X. laevis photoreceptors. Velocity sedimentation was used to assay the assembly state of HCN1 channels.We found the HCN1 N-terminus can redirect a membrane reporter from outer segments (OS) to the plasma membrane of the IS. The sequence necessary for this behavior was mapped to a 20 amino acid region containing a leucine-based ER export motif. The ER export signal is necessary for forward trafficking but not channel oligomerization. Moreover, this ER export signal alone counteracted the di-arginine ER retention signal.We identified an ER export signal in HCN1 that functions with the ER retention signal to maintain equilibrium of HCN1 between the endomembrane system and the plasma membrane.
Project description:The light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors have been studied electrophysiologically for decades, largely with ex vivo approaches that disrupt the photoreceptors' subretinal microenvironment. Here we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure light-driven signals of rod photoreceptors in vivo. Visible light stimulation over a 200-fold intensity range caused correlated rod outer segment (OS) elongation and increased light scattering in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking the rod G-protein alpha subunit, transducin (G?t), revealing these responses to be triggered by phototransduction. For stimuli that photoactivated one rhodopsin per G?t the rod OS swelling response reached a saturated elongation of 10.0 ± 2.1%, at a maximum rate of 0.11% s-1 Analyzing swelling as osmotically driven water influx, we find the H2O membrane permeability of the rod OS to be (2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-5 cm?s-1, comparable to that of other cells lacking aquaporin expression. Application of Van't Hoff's law reveals that complete activation of phototransduction generates a potentially harmful 20% increase in OS osmotic pressure. The increased backscattering from the base of the OS is explained by a model combining cytoplasmic swelling, translocation of dissociated G-protein subunits from the disc membranes into the cytoplasm, and a relatively higher H2O permeability of nascent discs in the basal rod OS. Translocation of phototransduction components out of the OS may protect rods from osmotic stress, which could be especially harmful in disease conditions that affect rod OS structural integrity.
Project description:BNip1, which functions as a t-SNARE component of the syntaxin18 complex, is localized on the ER membrane and regulates retrograde transport from Golgi to the ER. BNip1 also has a BH3 domain, which generally releases pro-apoptotic proteins from Bcl2-mediated inhibition. Previously we reported that retinal photoreceptors undergo BNip1-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish ?-snap1 mutants. Here, we investigated physiological roles of BNip1-dependent photoreceptor apoptosis. First, we examined the spatio-temporal profile of photoreceptor apoptosis in ?-snap1 mutants, and found that apoptosis occurs only during a small developmental window, 2-4 days-post-fertilization (dpf), in which an apical photoreceptive membrane structure, called the outer segment (OS), grows rapidly. Transient expression of ?-SNAP1 during this OS growing period prevents photoreceptor apoptosis in ?-snap1 mutants, enabling cone to survive until at least 21 dpf. These observations suggest that BNip1-mediated apoptosis is linked to excessive activation of vesicular transport associated with rapid growth of the OS. Consistently, knockdown of Ift88 and Kif3b, which inhibits protein transport to the OS, rescued photoreceptor apoptosis in ?-snap1 mutants. Treatment with rapamycin, which inhibits protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, also rescued photoreceptor apoptosis in ?-snap1 mutants. These data suggest that BNip1 performs risk assessment to detect excessive vesicular transport in photoreceptors.
Project description:Mutations in human prominin 1 (PROM1), encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein localized mainly to plasma membrane protrusions, have been reported to cause retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, and cone-rod dystrophy. Although the structural role of PROM1 in outer-segment (OS) morphogenesis has been demonstrated in Prom1-knockout mouse, the mechanisms underlying these complex disease phenotypes remain unclear. Here, we utilized a zebrafish model to further investigate PROM1's role in the retina. The Prom1 orthologs in zebrafish include prom1a and prom1b, and our results showed that prom1b, rather than prom1a, plays an important role in zebrafish photoreceptors. Loss of prom1b disrupted OS morphogenesis, with rods and cones exhibiting differences in impairment: cones degenerated at an early age, whereas rods remained viable but with an abnormal OS, even at 9 months postfertilization. Immunofluorescence experiments with WT zebrafish revealed that Prph2, an ortholog of the human transmembrane protein peripherin 2 and also associated with OS formation, is localized to the edge of OS and is more highly expressed in the cone OS than in the rod OS. Moreover, we found that Prom1b deletion causes mislocalization of Prph2 and disrupts its oligomerization. We conclude that the variation in Prph2 levels between cones and rods was one of the reasons for the different PROM1 mutation-induced phenotypes of these retinal structures. These findings expand our understanding of the phenotypes caused by PROM1 mutations and provide critical insights into its function.
Project description:Transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) into the retina represents a promising treatment for cell replacement in blinding diseases characterized by photoreceptor loss. In preclinical studies, we and others demonstrated that grafted PPCs integrate into the host outer nuclear layer (ONL) and develop into mature photoreceptors. However, a key feature of light detecting photoreceptors, the outer segment (OS) with natively aligned disc membrane staples, has not been studied in detail following transplantation. Therefore, we used as donor cells PPCs isolated from neonatal double transgenic reporter mice in which OSs are selectively labeled by green fluorescent protein while cell bodies are highlighted by red fluorescent protein. PPCs were enriched using CD73-based magnetic associated cell sorting and subsequently transplanted into either adult wild-type or a model of autosomal-dominant retinal degeneration mice. Three weeks post-transplantation, donor photoreceptors were identified based on fluorescent-reporter expression and OS formation was monitored at light and electron microscopy levels. Donor cells that properly integrated into the host wild-type retina developed OSs with the formation of a connecting cilium and well-aligned disc membrane staples similar to the surrounding native cells of the host. Surprisingly, the majority of not-integrated PPCs that remained in the sub-retinal space also generated native-like OSs in wild-type mice and those affected by retinal degeneration. Moreover, they showed an improved photoreceptor maturation and OS formation by comparison to donor cells located on the vitreous side suggesting that environmental cues influence the PPC differentiation and maturation. We conclude that transplanted PPCs, whether integrated or not into the host ONL, are able to generate the cellular structure for effective light detection, a phenomenon observed in wild-type as well as in degenerated retinas. Given that patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa lose almost all photoreceptors, our findings are of utmost importance for the development of cell-based therapies.
Project description:Multiple PIP2 dependent molecular processes including receptor activated phospholipase C activity occur at the neuronal plasma membranes, yet levels of this lipid at the plasma membrane are remarkably stable. Although the existence of unique pools of PIP2 supporting these events has been proposed, the mechanism by which they are generated is unclear. In Drosophila photoreceptors, the hydrolysis of PIP2 by G-protein coupled phospholipase C activity is essential for sensory transduction of photons. We identify dPIP5K as an enzyme essential for PIP2 re-synthesis in photoreceptors. Loss of dPIP5K causes profound defects in the electrical response to light and light-induced PIP2 dynamics at the photoreceptor membrane. Overexpression of dPIP5K was able to accelerate the rate of PIP2 synthesis following light induced PIP2 depletion. Other PIP2 dependent processes such as endocytosis and cytoskeletal function were unaffected in photoreceptors lacking dPIP5K function. These results provide evidence for the existence of a unique dPIP5K dependent pool of PIP2 required for normal Drosophila phototransduction. Our results define the existence of multiple pools of PIP2 in photoreceptors generated by distinct lipid kinases and supporting specific molecular processes at neuronal membranes.
Project description:Biotic stresses induced by herbivores result in diverse physiological changes in plants. In the interaction between the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, the earliest event induced by feeding on leaves is the depolarization of the plasma membrane potential (Vm), which is the results of both mechanical damage and insect oral secretions (OS). Although this herbivore-induced Vm depolarization depends on a calcium-dependent opening of potassium channels, the attacked leaf remains depolarized for an extended period, which cannot be explained by the sole action of potassium channels. Here we show that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of P. lunatus leaves is strongly inhibited by S. littoralis OS. Inhibition of the H+-ATPase was also found in plasma membranes purified from leaf sections located distally from the application zone of OS, thus suggesting a long-distance transport of a signaling molecule(s). S. littoralis' OS did not influence the amount of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, whereas the levels of membrane-bound 14-3-3 proteins were significantly decreased in membranes purified from treated leaves. Furthermore, OS strongly reduced the in vitro interaction between P. lunatus H+-ATPase and 14-3-3 proteins. The results of this work demonstrate that inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a key component of the S. littoralis OS mechanism leading to an enduring Vm depolarization in P. lunatus wounded leaves.