ITRAQ-based proteomic analysis of dentate gyrus in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent type of focal epilepsy in adults, typically resistant to pharmacological treatment and mostly present with cognitive impairment and psychiatric comorbidities. The most common neuropathological hallmark in TLE patients is hippocampal sclerosis(HS). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly characterized. Dentate gyrus(DG), one specific hippocampal subarea, structural and functional changes imply a key involvement of the DG in the development of TLE. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) -based quantitative proteomic technique was performed to analysis of hippocampal DG obtained from patients with TLE-HS compared to control samples obtained from the autopsy. Our proteomic data identified 5583 proteins, of which 82 proteins were up-regulated and 90 proteins were down-regulated. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that differential expressed proteins enriched in “synaptic vesicle”, “mitochondrion”, “cell-cell adhesion”, “regulation of synaptic plasticity”, “ATP binding” and “Oxidative phosphorylation”. Protein-protein interaction network analysis found a pivotal module of 10 proteins that relate to “Oxidative phosphorylation”. This study is the first to investigate proteomic alterations in DG region of TLE-HS patients, and pave the way to better understanding of epileptogenesis mechanisms and future therapeutic intervention.
Project description:In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. The T2-weighted images from 14 formalin-fixed age-matched control hippocampi were obtained with 4.7T MRI to evaluate the volume of each subfield at the anatomical level of the hippocampal head, body, and tail. Formalin-fixed coronal sections at the level of the body of 14 control cases, as well as tissue samples from 24 TLE patients, were imaged with a similar high-resolution sequence at 3T. Presurgical three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted images from TLE went through a FreeSurfer 6.0 hippocampal subfield automatic assessment. The manual delineation with the 4.7T MRI was identified using Luxol Fast Blue stained 10-?m-thin microscopy slides, collected at every millimeter. An additional section at the level of the body from controls and TLE cases was submitted to NeuN immunohistochemistry for neuronal density estimation. All TLE cases were classified according to the International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE's) HS classification. Manual volumetry in controls revealed that the dentate gyrus (DG)+CA4 region, CA1, and subiculum accounted for almost 90% of the hippocampal volume. The manual 3T volumetry showed that all TLE patients with type 1 HS (TLE-HS1) had lower volumes for DG+CA4, CA2, and CA1, whereas those TLE patients with HS type 2 (TLE-HS2) had lower volumes only in CA1 (p ? 0.038). Neuronal cell densities always decreased in CA4, CA3, CA2, and CA1 of TLE-HS1 but only in CA1 of TLE-HS2 (p ? 0.003). In addition, TLE-HS2 had a higher volume (p = 0.016) and higher neuronal density (p < 0.001) than the TLE-HS1 in DG + CA4. Automatic segmentation failed to match the manual or histological findings and was unable to differentiate TLE-HS1 from TLE-HS2. Total hippocampal volume correlated with DG+CA4 and CA1 volumes and neuronal density. For the first time, we also identified subfield-specific pathology patterns in the manual evaluation of volumetric MRI scans, showing the importance of manual segmentation to assess subfield-specific pathology patterns.
Project description:Neuropathological subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in temporal lobe epilepsy (The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy classification) are based on the qualitative assessment of patterns of neuronal loss with NeuN. In practice, some cases appear indeterminate between type 1 (CA1 and CA4 loss) and type 2 HS (CA1 loss) and we predicted that MAP2 would enable a more stringent classification. HS subtypes, as well as the accompanying alteration of axonal networks, regenerative capacity and neurodegeneration have been previously correlated with outcome and memory deficits and may provide prognostic clinical information. We selected 92 cases: 52 type 1 HS, 15 type 2 HS, 18 indeterminate-HS and 7 no-HS. Quantitative analysis was carried out on NeuN and MAP2 stained sections and a labeling index (LI) calculated for six hippocampal subfields. We also evaluated hippocampal regenerative activity (MCM2, nestin, olig2, calbindin), degeneration (AT8/phosphorylated tau) and mossy-fiber pathway re-organization (ZnT3). Pathology measures were correlated with clinical epilepsy history, memory and naming test scores and postoperative outcomes, at 1 year following surgery. MAP2 LI in indeterminate-HS was statistically similar to type 2 HS but this clustering was not shown with NeuN. Moderate verbal and visual memory deficits were noted in all HS types, including 54% and 69% of type 2 HS. Memory deficits correlated with several pathology factors including lower NeuN or MAP2 LI in CA4, CA1, dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum and poor preservation of the mossy fiber pathway. Decline in memory at 1 year associated with AT8 labeling in the subiculum and DG but not HS type. We conclude that MAP2 is a helpful addition in the classification of HS in some cases. Classification of HS subtype, however, did not significantly correlate with outcome or pre- or postoperative memory dysfunction, which was associated with multiple pathology factors including hippocampal axonal pathways, regenerative capacity and degenerative changes.
Project description:A particularly popular automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hippocampal subfield mapping technique is the one described by Van Leemput et al. (2009: Hippocampus 19:549-557) that is currently distributed with FreeSurfer software. This method assesses the probabilistic locations of subfields based on a priori knowledge of subfield topology determined from high-field MRI. Many studies have applied this technique to conventionally acquired T1-weighted MRI data. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between this technique applied to conventional T1-weighted MRI data acquired at 3 T and postsurgical hippocampal histology in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Patients with mTLE (n?=?82) exhibited significant volume loss of ipsilateral CA1, CA2-3, CA4-dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum, and fimbria relative to controls (n?=?81). Histopathological analysis indicated that the most significant neuronal loss was observed in CA1, then CA4 and CA3, and more subtle neuronal loss in CA2, consistent with classical HS. Neuronal density of CA1 significantly correlated with MRI-determined volume of CA1, and increasingly so with CA2-3 and CA4-DG. Patients with increased HS based on histopathology had greater volume loss of the ipsilateral hippocampal regions on MRI. We conclude by suggesting that whilst time efficient and fully reproducible when applied to conventional single acquisition sequences, the use of the automated subfield technique described here may necessitate the application to multiacquisition high-resolution MR sequences for accurate delineation of hippocampal subfields.
Project description:Genome wide gene expression was compared between nonHS, HS temporal lobe epilepsy patients (TLE) and autopsy control hippocampi in a 3-way analysis. In many TLE patients the hippocampus is subject to massive neuronal damage, gliosis and hippocampal sclerosis (HS), while in others there is no apparent hippocampal damage (nonHS). This three way analysis enabled us to differentiate between pathology and epilepsy related processes.
Project description:Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a chronic neurological disorder affecting almost 40% of adult patients with epilepsy. Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a common histopathological abnormality found in patients with MTLE. HS is characterised by extensive neuronal loss in different hippocampus sub-regions. In this study, we used laser microdissection-based microproteomics to determine the protein abundances in different regions and layers of the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG) in an electric stimulation rodent model which displays classical HS damage similar to that found in patients with MTLE. Our results indicate that there are differences in the proteomic profiles of different layers (granule cell and molecular), as well as different regions, of the DG (ventral and dorsal). We have identified new signalling pathways and proteins present in specific layers and regions of the DG, such as PARK7, RACK1, and connexin 31/gap junction. We also found two major signalling pathways that are common to all layers and regions: inflammation and energy metabolism. Finally, our results highlight the utility of high-throughput microproteomics and spatial-limited isolation of tissues in the study of complex disorders to fully appreciate the large biological heterogeneity present in different cell populations within the central nervous system.
Project description:1 The aim of this study was to investigate the binding of a novel GABA(B) receptor radioligand, [(3)H]-CGP62349, to human post-mortem control and epileptic hippocampal sections using quantitative receptor autoradiography. Utilizing human control hippocampal sections it was shown that [(3)H]-CGP62349 bound with high affinity (K(D) 0.5 nM) to this tissue. 2 Hippocampal slices from surgical specimens obtained from patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were compared with neurologically normal post-mortem control subjects for neuropathology and GABA(B) receptor density and affinity. Neuronal loss was observed in most of the hippocampal subregions, but in the subiculum no significant difference was detected. 3 The localization of GABA(B) receptors with the antagonist [(3)H]-CGP62349 in human control hippocampal sections supported and extended earlier studies using the agonist ligand [(3)H]-GABA. 4 The kinetics of binding to the GABA(B) receptor in human hippocampus using this novel compound was comparable to previous data obtained in rat hippocampal membranes. 5 GABA(B) receptor density (B(max)) was significantly reduced in CA3, hilus, and dentate gyrus (DG); the affinity was increased exclusively in DG. The trend is identical in all the hippocampal subregions with the agonist and the antagonist, although significant differences with the antagonist where recorded in CA3 and hilus, whereas with the agonist a significant reduction was reported in all of the hippocampal subfields. 6 GABA(B) receptor expression per remaining neuron appeared significantly increased in CA3 and hilus. These results suggest altered GABA(B) receptor function may occur in human TLE, possibly as a result of synaptic reorganization, and may contribute to epileptogenesis.
Project description:Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to get a global view of the gene profile in human hippocampus. A library were generated from control hippocampus, obtained by rapid autopsy. Keywords: hippocampus human inventory genes Control hippocampus (used to construct the SAGE control library) was obtained from a 48 years old man without history of seizures or other neurological diseases and no brain abnormalities at autopsy and histologically normal hippocampus. Autopsy was performed within 4 hours after death. Tissue was snap-frozen and stored at –80 0C until use. Total RNA was isolated from control hippocampus and hippocampal surgical specimens, using the Trizol method according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen - Life Technologies, The Netherlands). Part of the anterior hippocampus of control (including sectors CA1- CA4 and dentate gyrus, DG) was used. Poly(A)+ RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and all subsequent steps of the SAGE procedure were essentially performed as described (Velculescu et al., 1995) with minor modifications given previously (Michiels et al., 1999).
Project description:The glucocorticoid receptor overexpression in early life is sufficient to alter gene expression patterns for the rest of the animal's life. Hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) are more responsive than the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) following the glucocorticoid receptor overexpression in the forebrain. Laser capture microdissection was performed. Microdissected areas from the dentate gyrus or nucleus accumbens were collected from serial sections for each animal.
Project description:The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is an area of active proliferation and neurogenesis within the adult brain. The molecular events controlling adult cell genesis in the hippocampus essentially remain unknown. It has been reported previously that adult male and female rats from the strains Sprague Dawley (SD) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) have a marked difference in proliferation rates of cells in the hippocampal DG. To exploit this natural variability and identify potential regulators of cell genesis in the hippocampus, hippocampal gene expression from male SHR as well as male and female SD rats was analyzed using a cDNA array strategy. Hippocampal expression of the gene-encoding glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) varied strongly in parallel with cell-proliferation rates in the adult rat DG. Moreover, robust GIP immunoreactivity could be detected in the DG. The GIP receptor is expressed by cultured adult hippocampal progenitors and throughout the granule cell layer of the DG, including progenitor cells. Thus, these cells have the ability to respond to GIP. Indeed, exogenously delivered GIP induced proliferation of adult-derived hippocampal progenitors in vivo as well as in vitro, and adult GIP receptor knock-out mice exhibit a significantly lower number of newborn cells in the hippocampal DG compared with wild-type mice. This investigation demonstrates the presence of GIP in the brain for the first time and provides evidence for a regulatory function for GIP in progenitor cell proliferation.
Project description:We report here the first complete transcriptome analysis of the dorsal (dDG) and ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) of a rat epilepsy model presenting a hippocampal lesion with a strict resemblance to classical hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We collected the dDG and vDG by laser microdissection 15 days after electrical stimulation and performed high-throughput RNA-sequencing. There were many differentially regulated genes, some of which were specific to either of the two sub-regions in stimulated animals. Gene ontology analysis indicated an enrichment of inflammation-related processes in both sub-regions and of axonal guidance and calcium signaling processes exclusively in the vDG. There was also a differential regulation of genes encoding molecules involved in synaptic function, neural electrical activity and neuropeptides in stimulated rats. The data presented here suggests, in the time point analyzed, a remarkable interaction among several molecular components which takes place in the damaged hippocampi. Furthermore, even though similar mechanisms may function in different regions of the DG, the molecular components involved seem to be region specific.