Regulatory Mechanisms between Pattern- and Effector-Triggered Immunity in Tomato Leaves Revealed by Integrative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analyses
ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved a two-layered immune system that mainly includes pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against pathogen attack. PTI and ETI signaling are functionally linked, but also distinct due to specific perceived ligands and activation modes. Unraveling how PTI and ETI coordinate the immune responses against pathogens is crucial for understanding the regulatory mechanisms in plant immunity. To better understand the protein profiling and phosphorylation events during PTI and ETI, we employed integrated whole proteome and phosphoproteome analyses in the tomato-Pst pathosystem with different Pst DC3000 mutants that allow dissection of different layers of immune responses. A total of 225 proteins and 79 phosphopeptides were differentially regulated in tomato leaves during immune responses. Our proteomics results indicate that some overlapping immune responses are triggered by both PTI and ETI-inducing treatment, and ETI response is more robust than PTI response for most proteins. The change patterns of protein abundance and phosphorylation revealed some key regulators involved in Ca2+ signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and reversible protein phosphorylation, ROS and redox homeostasis, direct defense, transcription machinery and protein turnover, cell wall remodeling, hormone biosynthesis, as well as immune molecule accumulation, are modulated during PTI and/or ETI, suggesting their common or specific roles in plant immune responses. However, NAC domain protein and lipid particle serine esterase, two PTI-specific genes from previous transcriptomic work, have not been detected as differentially regulated in our proteomic analysis, and they were proved to be not PTI-specific inducible and therefore cannot be used as PTI-reporters through “overlapping circle” pattern assay. These results provide insights into the fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms between PTI and ETI in-Pst pathosystem, which will springboard further investigations into the sophisticated mechanisms in plant immunity.
Project description:Plants have evolved a two-layered immune system consisting of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI and ETI are functionally linked, but also have distinct characteristics. Unraveling how these immune systems coordinate plant responses against pathogens is crucial for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant defense. Here we report integrative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of the tomato-<i>Pseudomonas syringae (Pst)</i> pathosystem with different <i>Pst</i> mutants that allow the dissection of PTI and ETI. A total of 225 proteins and 79 phosphopeptides differentially accumulated in tomato leaves during <i>Pst</i> infection. The abundances of many proteins and phosphoproteins changed during PTI or ETI, and some responses were triggered by both PTI and ETI. For most proteins, the ETI response was more robust than the PTI response. The patterns of protein abundance and phosphorylation changes revealed key regulators involved in Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reversible protein phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, transcription and protein turnover, transport and trafficking, cell wall remodeling, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting their common or specific roles in PTI and/or ETI. A NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC family) domain protein and lipid particle serine esterase, two PTI-specific genes identified from previous transcriptomic work, were not detected as differentially regulated at the protein level and were not induced by PTI. Based on integrative transcriptomics and proteomics data, as well as qRT-PCR analysis, several potential PTI and ETI-specific markers are proposed. These results provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTI and ETI in the tomato-<i>Pst</i> pathosystem, and will promote future validation and application of the disease biomarkers in plant defense.
Project description:Plants rely on (in)direct detection of bacterial pathogens through plasma membrane-localized and intracellular receptor proteins. Surface pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) participate in the detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and are required for the activation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) deploys ~ 30 effector proteins into the plant cell that contribute to pathogenicity. Resistant plants are capable of detecting the presence or activity of effectors and mount another response termed effector-triggered immunity (ETI). In order to investigate the involvement of tomato's long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the immune response against Pst, we used RNA-seq data to predict and characterize those that are transcriptionally active in leaves challenged with a large set of treatments. Our prediction strategy was validated by sequence comparison with tomato lncRNAs described in previous works and by an alternative approach (RT-qPCR). Early PTI (30 min), late PTI (6 h) and ETI (6 h) differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were identified and used to perform a co-expression analysis including neighboring (± 100 kb) DE protein-coding genes. Some of the described networks could represent key regulatory mechanisms of photosynthesis, PRR abundance at the cell surface and mitigation of oxidative stress, associated to tomato-Pst pathosystem.
Project description:Innate immunity in plants can be triggered by microbe- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is often suppressed by pathogen effectors delivered into the host cell. Plants can overcome pathogen suppression of PTI and reestablish pathogen resistance through effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An unanswered question is how plants might overcome pathogen-suppression of PTI during ETI. Findings described in this paper suggest a possible mechanism. During Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection of Arabidopsis, a host ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor, AtMIN7, is destabilized by the pathogen effector HopM1 through the host 26S proteasome. In this study, we discovered that AtMIN7 is required for not only PTI, consistent with the notion that Pst DC3000 degrades AtMIN7 to suppress PTI, but also ETI. The AtMIN7 level in healthy plants is low, but increases posttranscriptionally in response to activation of PTI. Whereas DC3000 infection led to degradation of AtMIN7, activation of ETI by three different effectors, AvrRpt2, AvrPphB, and HopA1, in Col-0 plants blocks the ability of Pst DC3000 to destabilize AtMIN7. Further analyses of bacterial translocation of HopM1 and AtMIN7 stability in HopM1 transgenic plants show that ETI prevents HopM1-mediated degradation of AtMIN7 inside the plant cell. Both AtMIN7 and HopM1 are localized to the trans-Golgi network/early endosome, a subcellular compartment that is not previously known to be associated with bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Thus, blocking pathogen degradation of trans-Golgi network/early endosome-associated AtMIN7 is a critical part of the ETI mechanism to counter bacterial suppression of PTI.
Project description:Unlike mammals with adaptive immunity, plants rely on their innate immunity based on pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) for pathogen defense. Reactive oxygen species, known to play crucial roles in PTI and ETI, can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to changes of redox-sensitive proteins through modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, little is known about redox proteins and how they function in PTI and ETI. In this study, cysTMT proteomics technology was used to identify similarities and differences of protein redox modifications in tomato resistant (PtoR) and susceptible (prf3) genotypes in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) infection. In addition, the results of the redox changes were compared and corrected with the protein level changes. A total of 90 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cysteine, sucrose and brassinosteroid, cell wall biogenesis, polysaccharide/starch biosynthesis, cuticle development, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein targeting to vacuole, and oxidation-reduction. This inventory of previously unknown protein redox switches in tomato pathogen defense lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the biological significance of protein redox modifications in plant defense responses.
Project description:Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI-Mediating and PTI-Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses.
Project description:<i>Pseudomonas syringae</i>-secreted HopA1 effectors are important determinants in host range expansion and increased pathogenicity. Their recent acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer in several non-pathogenic Pseudomonas strains worldwide have caused alarming increase in their virulence capabilities. In <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>, <i>RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 6</i> (<i>RPS6</i>) gene confers effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HopA1<sub>pss</sub> derived from <i>P. syringae</i> pv. <i>syringae</i> strain 61. Surprisingly, a closely related HopA1<sub>pst</sub> from the tomato pathovar evades immune detection. These responsive differences <i>in planta</i> between the two HopA1s represents a unique system to study pathogen adaptation skills and host-jumps. However, molecular understanding of HopA1's contribution to overall virulence remain undeciphered. Here, we show that immune-suppressive functions of HopA1<sub>pst</sub> are more potent than HopA1<sub>pss</sub>. In the resistance-compromised <i>ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1</i> (<i>EDS1</i>) null-mutant, transcriptomic changes associated with HopA1<sub>pss</sub>-elicited ETI are still induced and carry resemblance to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signatures. Enrichment of HopA1<sub>pss</sub> interactome identifies proteins with regulatory roles in post-transcriptional and translational processes. With our demonstration here that both HopA1 suppress reporter-gene translations in vitro imply that the above effector-associations with plant target carry inhibitory consequences. Overall, with our results here we unravel possible virulence role(s) of HopA1 in suppressing PTI and provide newer insights into its detection in resistant plants.
Project description:Tomato stress-associated proteins (SAPs) belong to A20/AN1 zinc finger protein family, some of which have been shown to play important roles in plant stress responses. However, little is known about the functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of SAPs in plant immune responses. In the present study, we reported the function of tomato SlSAP3 in immunity to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Silencing of SlSAP3 attenuated while overexpression of SlSAP3 in transgenic tomato increased immunity to Pst DC3000, accompanied with reduced and increased Pst DC3000-induced expression of SA signalling and defence genes, respectively. Flg22-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and expression of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) marker genes SlPTI5 and SlLRR22 were strengthened in SlSAP3-OE plants but were weakened in SlSAP3-silenced plants. SlSAP3 interacted with two SlBOBs and the A20 domain in SlSAP3 is critical for the SlSAP3-SlBOB1 interaction. Silencing of SlBOB1 and co-silencing of all three SlBOB genes conferred increased resistance to Pst DC3000, accompanied with increased Pst DC3000-induced expression of SA signalling and defence genes. These data demonstrate that SlSAP3 acts as a positive regulator of immunity against Pst DC3000 in tomato through the SA signalling and that SlSAP3 may exert its function in immunity by interacting with other proteins such as SlBOBs, which act as negative regulators of immunity against Pst DC3000 in tomato.
Project description:The plant immune system is fundamental for plant survival in natural ecosystems and for productivity in crop fields. Substantial evidence supports the prevailing notion that plants possess a two-tiered innate immune system, called pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI is triggered by microbial patterns via cell surface-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), whereas ETI is activated by pathogen effector proteins via predominantly intracellularly localized receptors called nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs)<sup>1-4</sup>. PTI and ETI are initiated by distinct activation mechanisms and involve different early signalling cascades<sup>5,6</sup>. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRR and PRR co-receptor mutants-fls2 efr cerk1 and bak1 bkk1 cerk1 triple mutants-are markedly impaired in ETI responses when challenged with incompatible Pseudomonas syrinage bacteria. We further show that the production of reactive oxygen species by the NADPH oxidase RBOHD is a critical early signalling event connecting PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity, and that the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is necessary for full activation of RBOHD, gene expression and bacterial resistance during ETI. Moreover, NLR signalling rapidly augments the transcript and/or protein levels of key PTI components. Our study supports a revised model in which potentiation of PTI is an indispensable component of ETI during bacterial infection. This revised model conceptually unites two major immune signalling cascades in plants and mechanistically explains some of the long-observed similarities in downstream defence outputs between PTI and ETI.
Project description:Temperature fluctuation is a key determinant for microbial invasion and host evasion. In contrast to mammals that maintain constant body temperature, plant temperature oscillates on a daily basis. It remains elusive how plants operate inducible defenses in response to temperature fluctuation. Here we report that ambient temperature changes lead to pronounced shifts of the following two distinct plant immune responses: pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Plants preferentially activate ETI signaling at relatively low temperatures (10-23?°C), whereas they switch to PTI signaling at moderately elevated temperatures (23-32?°C). The Arabidopsis arp6 and hta9hta11 mutants, phenocopying plants grown at elevated temperatures, exhibit enhanced PTI and yet reduced ETI responses. As the secretion of bacterial effectors favours low temperatures, whereas bacteria multiply vigorously at elevated temperatures accompanied with increased microbe-associated molecular pattern production, our findings suggest that temperature oscillation might have driven dynamic co-evolution of distinct plant immune signaling responding to pathogen physiological changes.
Project description:Network robustness is a crucial property of the plant immune signaling network because pathogens are under a strong selection pressure to perturb plant network components to dampen plant immune responses. Nevertheless, modulation of network robustness is an area of network biology that has rarely been explored. While two modes of plant immunity, Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), extensively share signaling machinery, the network output is much more robust against perturbations during ETI than PTI, suggesting modulation of network robustness. Here, we report a molecular mechanism underlying the modulation of the network robustness in Arabidopsis thaliana. The salicylic acid (SA) signaling sector regulates a major portion of the plant immune response and is important in immunity against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA signaling was required for the proper regulation of the vast majority of SA-responsive genes during PTI. However, during ETI, regulation of most SA-responsive genes, including the canonical SA marker gene PR1, could be controlled by SA-independent mechanisms as well as by SA. The activation of the two immune-related MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, persisted for several hours during ETI but less than one hour during PTI. Sustained MAPK activation was sufficient to confer SA-independent regulation of most SA-responsive genes. Furthermore, the MPK3 and SA signaling sectors were compensatory to each other for inhibition of bacterial growth as well as for PR1 expression during ETI. These results indicate that the duration of the MAPK activation is a critical determinant for modulation of robustness of the immune signaling network. Our findings with the plant immune signaling network imply that the robustness level of a biological network can be modulated by the activities of network components.