Project description:Autophagy is a cellular bulk degradation pathway implicated in various diseases. Inhibition of autophagy has been regarded as a new therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, especially in combination with chemotherapy. In our study, we identified two natural compounds, dauricine (DAC) and daurisoline (DAS), as two potent autophagy blockers through a high-content screening. DAC and DAS are alkaloids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Menispermi. We systematically examined the effects of DAC and DAS on autophagy function in HeLa cells and found that DAC and DAS induced massive formation of autophagic vacuoles and lipidation of LC3. The accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and LC3 lipidation are due to blockage of autophagosome maturation as evidenced by interrupted colocalization of autophagsosome and lysosome, increased GFP-LC3/RFP-LC3 ratio and accumulation of autophagic substrate p62. Moreover, DAC and DAS impaired lysosomal function, as indicated by reduced lysosomal protease activity and increased lysosomal pH values. Importantly, we showed that DAC and DAS strongly inhibited the lysosome V-type ATPase activity. For the therapeutic potential, we found that DAC and DAS blocked the campothecin (CPT)-induced protective autophagy in HeLa cells, and dramatically sensitized the multiple cancer cells to CPT-induced cell death. In conclusion, our result shows that DAC and DAS are autophagy inhibitors which inhibit the lysosomal degradation of auophagic vacuoles, and sensitize the CPT-induced cancer cell death. The study implies the therapeutic potential of DAC and DAS in the treatment of cancers in combination of chemotherapy by inhibiting autophagy.
Project description:Despite recent progress in the identification of genetic and molecular alternations in colorectal carcinoma, the precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. NALP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 1) is a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins that are key organization proteins in the inflammasome. It is reported that NALP1 plays a central role in cell apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases. DAC (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine) is an antitumor drug useful to lung cancer, myelodysplastic disorders, myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of NALP1 in human normal and cancerous colon tissues using tissue microarray, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR and we measured the expression of NALP1 in three kinds of colon cancer cell lines and animal models before and after treatment with DAC. Furthermore, we examined the treatment effects of DAC on colon cancer in our animal model. Our data indicate that NALP1 is expressed low in human colorectal tumoral tissues relative to paratumoral tissues and was associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients. The expression of NALP1 increased after treatment with DAC both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, DAC suppressed the growth of colon cancer and increased lifespan in mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that NALP1 is expressed low in colon cancer and associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients, and treatment with DAC can restore NALP1 levels to suppress the growth of colon cancer.
Project description:This paper proposes a new DAC BIST (digital-to-analog converter built-in self-test) structure using a resistor loop known as a DDEM ADC (deterministic dynamic element matching analog-to-digital converter). Methods for both switch reduction and switch effect reduction are proposed for solving problems related to area overhead and accuracy of the conventional DAC BIST. The proposed BIST modifies the length of each resistor in the resistor loop via a merging operation and reduces the number of switches and resistors. In addition, the effect of switches is mitigated using the proposed switch effect reduction method. The accuracy of the proposed BIST is demonstrated by the reduction in the switch effect. The experimental results show that the proposed BIST reduces resource usages and the mismatch error caused by the switches.
Project description:Background: Human organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is the most abundant and important uptake transporter involved in the renal excretion of cationic drugs. Abnormal hypermethylation- mediated silencing of OCT2 results in oxaliplatin resistance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The epigenetic activation of OCT2 by decitabine (DAC) reversed this resistance in normoxic conditions. Given the hypoxic characteristic of RCC, it is still unclear whether hypoxia promotes DAC resistance and is involved in the regulation of OCT2. Methods: The mRNA and protein expression of OCT2 was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MSRE-qPCR and BSP were used to examine methylation modifications at the OCT2 promoter. The ChIP-qPCR analysis was performed to detect the abundance of histone modification and HIF-1?. The accumulation of DAC and 5-mC were detected using LC-MS, and the amount of 5-hmC was determined by dot blot analysis. To understand the role of hypoxia in the regulation of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) expression, the HIF-1? KO cell model was constructed. The re-emulsion method was used for the construction of H-NPs, an oxygen nanocarrier based on hemoglobin, to alleviate the drug resistance of DAC under hypoxia. Results: DAC was unable to upregulate OCT2 expression in hypoxic conditions because of the hypermethylation and low H3K4me3 modification in its promoter region. Hypoxia-mediated repression of human ENT1, which was markedly suppressed in RCC, resulted in a decrease in the cellular accumulation of DAC. Besides, hypoxia-induced upregulation of histone deacetylase HDAC9, which impaired the enrichment of H3K27ac modification in the OCT2 promoter, led to the transcriptional repression of OCT2. H-NPs could attenuate the hypoxia-induced loss of DAC activity and sensitize RCC cells to the sequential combination therapy of DAC and oxaliplatin. Conclusions: Hypoxia-mediated repression of ENT1 led to the inability of DAC to upregulate the expression of OCT2 under hypoxia. H-NPs could alleviate resistance to oxaliplatin and DAC in RCC cells under hypoxia and may have potential clinical applications.
Project description:Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is the progressive loss of auditory function with aging. The DBA/2J (DBA) mice have been used as a model of AHL and undergoes progressive, age-related hearing loss by 12 weeks of age. Here we analyzed cochlear gene expression of 7-week-old and 36-week-old DBA mice using microarrays. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) analysis confrimed that severe age-related hearing loss occured in 36-week-old mice, whereas moderate hearing loss occured in 7-week-old mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis identified genes correlated with AHL and revealeed that 15 mitochondrial process categories, including “mitochondrial electron transport chain”, “oxidative phosphorylation”, “respiratory chain complex I”, “respiratory chain complex IV”, and “respiratory chain complex V”, were statistically associated with AHL-correlated genes in the cochlea of 36-week-old DBA mice, and that 25 genes encoding components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (respiratory chain complex I, IV, and V) were significantly down-regulated in the cochlea. These observations provide evidence that AHL is associated with down-regulation of genes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the cochlea of DBA mice, and suggest that mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction may be a key feature of AHL in mammalian cochlea. Experiment Overall Design: To determine the effects of age-related hearing loss, each 7-week-old sample (n = 3) was compared to each 36-week-old sample (n = 3), generating a total of nine pairwise comparisons. Using DAVIS and EASE, the identified genes were assign to “GO: Biological Process” categories of Gene Ontology Consortium. Furthermore, we used EASE to determine the total number of genes that were assigned to each biological process category, and to perform Fisher exact test. Quality control measures were not used. No replicates were done. Dye swap was not used.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is predominantly a disease of older patients with a poor long-term survival. Approval of decitabine (DAC) in the European Union (EU) in 2012 for the treatment of patients with AML ≥65 years marks the potential for hypomethylating agents in elderly AML. Nevertheless the situation is dissatisfactory and the quest for novel treatment approaches, including combination epigenetic therapy is actively ongoing. The given randomized trial should be helpful in investigating the question whether combinations of DAC with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) and/or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which in vitro show a very promising synergism, are superior to the DAC monotherapy. The accompanying translational research project will contribute to find surrogate molecular end points for drug efficacy and better tailor epigenetic therapy. An additional aim of the study is to investigate the prognostic value of geriatric assessments for elderly AML patients treated non-intensively.DECIDER is a prospective, randomized, observer blind, parallel group, multicenter, Phase II study with a 2x2 factorial design. The primary endpoint is objective best overall response (complete remission (CR) and partial remission (PR)). The target population is AML patients aged 60 years or older and unfit for standard induction chemotherapy. Patients are randomized to one of the four treatment groups: DAC alone or in combination with VPA or ATRA or with both add-on drugs. One interim safety analysis was planned and carried out with the objective to stop early one or more of the treatment arms in case of an unacceptable death rate. This analysis showed that in all treatment arms the critical stopping rule was not reached. No important safety issues were observed. The Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) recommended continuing the study as planned. The first patient was included in December 2011. A total of 189 out of 200 planned patients were randomized since then (status 31.12.2014).ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00867672 (registration date 23.03.2009); German clinical trials registry number: DRKS00000733 (registration date 19.04.2011).
Project description:Hearing aids are the primary tool in non-medical rehabilitation for individuals with hearing loss. While the costs of the electronic components have reduced substantially, the cost of a hearing aid has risen steadily to the point that it has become unaffordable for the majority of the population with Age-Related Hearing Loss (ARHL) especially for those residing in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we present an ultra-low-cost, affordable and accessible hearing aid device ('LoCHAid'), specifically targeted towards treating ARHL in elderly patients. The LoCHAid components cost 98 cents (< $1) when purchased in bulk for 10,000 units and can be personalized for each user through a 3D-printable case. It is designed to be an over-the-counter (OTC) self-serviceable solution for elderly individuals with ARHL. Electroacoustic measurements show that the device meets most of the targets set out by the WHO Preferred Product Profile and Consumer Technology Association for hearing aids. The frequency response of the hearing aid shows selectable gain in the range of 4-8 kHz, and mild to moderate gain between 200-1000 Hz, and shows very limited total distortion (1%). Simulated gain measurements show that the LoCHAid is well fitted to a range of ARHL profiles for males and females between the ages of 60-79 years. Overall, the measurements show that the device offers the potential to benefit individuals with ARHL. Thus, our proposed design has the potential to address the challenge of affordable and accessible hearing technology for hearing impaired elderly individuals especially in low- and middle-income countries.
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 2 participates in the TCA cycle and catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate and NADP+ to NADPH. In the mitochondria, IDH2 also plays a key role in protecting mitochondrial components from oxidative stress by supplying NADPH to both glutathione reductase (GSR) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2). Here, we report that loss of Idh2 accelerates age-related hearing loss, the most common form of hearing impairment, in male mice. This was accompanied by increased oxidative DNA damage, increased apoptotic cell death, and profound loss of spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells in the cochlea of 24-month-old Idh2-/- mice. In young male mice, loss of Idh2 resulted in decreased NADPH redox state and decreased activity of TXNRD2 in the mitochondria of the inner ear. In HEI-OC1 mouse inner ear cell lines, knockdown of Idh2 resulted in a decline in cell viability and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. This was accompanied by decreased NADPH redox state and decreased activity of TXNRD2 in the mitochondria of the HEI-OC1 cells. Therefore, IDH2 functions as the principal source of NADPH for the mitochondrial thioredoxin antioxidant defense and plays an essential role in protecting hair cells and neurons against oxidative stress in the cochlea of male mice.
Project description:Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25-8 kHz and pure-tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K X-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss.