ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cause a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent patients while human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop a life threatening bacteremia. We used a rhesus macaque ileal loop model to study how simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection triggers defects in mucosal barrier function that enhance S. Typhimurium dissemination. SIV infection resulted in significant depletion of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa. Gene expression profiling revealed a defective TH17 response (with suppression of IL-17 and IL-22 expression) and impaired homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium in SIV-infected animals during NTS infection. These findings correlated with an impaired ability of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from SIV-infected macaques to produce IL-17 upon ex vivo stimulation, while production of IFN-gamma was not affected. This cytokine imbalance in SIV-infected animals was associated with reduced expression of genes required for intestinal epithelial maintenance and repair, increased fluid secretion during NTS infection, epithelial damage and translocation of a non-invasive S. Typhimurium mutant. Although no defects in neutrophil recruitment were noted, the ileum of SIV-infected animals contained lower levels of the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which may indicate defects in neutrophil killing capacity. S. Typhimurium was recovered in markedly increased numbers from the mesenteric lymph nodes of SIV-infected macaques, illustrating the increased potential for systemic dissemination during co-infection. Our data suggest that SIV-infection causes a multi-factorial defect in mucosal barrier function that promotes bacterial dissemination. Keywords: Disease state analysis Overall design: Comparison of ileal gene expression profiles in SIV infected rhesus macaques in response to Salmonella challange.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cause a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent patients while human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop a life threatening bacteremia. We used a rhesus macaque ileal loop model to study how simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection triggers defects in mucosal barrier function that enhance S. Typhimurium dissemination. SIV infection resulted in significant depletion of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa. Gene expression profiling revealed a defective TH17 response (with suppression of IL-17 and IL-22 expression) and impaired homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium in SIV-infected animals during NTS infection. These findings correlated with an impaired ability of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from SIV-infected macaques to produce IL-17 upon ex vivo stimulation, while production of IFN was not affected. This cytokine imbalance in SIV-infected animals was associated with reduced expression of genes required for intestinal epithelial maintenance and repair, increased fluid secretion during NTS infection, epithelial damage and translocation of a non-invasive S. Typhimurium mutant. Although no defects in neutrophil recruitment were noted, the ileum of SIV-infected animals contained lower levels of the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which may indicate defects in neutrophil killing capacity. S. Typhimurium was recovered in markedly increased numbers from the mesenteric lymph nodes of SIV-infected macaques, illustrating the increased potential for systemic dissemination during co-infection. Our data suggest that SIV-infection causes a multi-factorial defect in mucosal barrier function that promotes bacterial dissemination. Keywords: Disease state analysis Comparison of ileal gene expression profiles in SIV infected rhesus macaques in response to Salmonella challange.
Project description:Salmonella typhimurium causes a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent individuals, whereas HIV-infected individuals develop a life-threatening bacteremia. Here we show that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection results in depletion of T helper type 17 (TH17) cells in the ileal mucosa of rhesus macaques, thereby impairing mucosal barrier functions to S. typhimurium dissemination. In SIV-negative macaques, the gene expression profile induced by S. typhimurium in ligated ileal loops was dominated by TH17 responses, including the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22. TH17 cells were markedly depleted in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, resulting in blunted TH17 responses to S. typhimurium infection and increased bacterial dissemination. IL-17 receptor-deficient mice showed increased systemic dissemination of S. typhimurium from the gut, suggesting that IL-17 deficiency causes defects in mucosal barrier function. We conclude that SIV infection impairs the IL-17 axis, an arm of the mucosal immune response preventing systemic microbial dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:Coinfection can markedly alter the response to a pathogen, thereby changing its clinical presentation. For example, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes are associated with gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, individuals with severe pediatric malaria can develop bacteremic infections with NTS, during which symptoms of gastroenteritis are commonly absent. Here we report that, in both a ligated ileal loop model and a mouse colitis model, malaria parasites caused a global suppression of gut inflammatory responses and blunted the neutrophil influx that is characteristic of NTS infection. Further, malaria parasite infection led to increased recovery of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from the draining mesenteric lymph node (MLN) of mice. In the mouse colitis model, blunted intestinal inflammation during NTS infection was independent of anemia but instead required parasite-induced synthesis of interleukin (IL)-10. Blocking of IL-10 in coinfected mice reduced dissemination of S. Typhimurium to the MLN, suggesting that induction of IL-10 contributes to development of disseminated infection. Thus IL-10 produced during the immune response to malaria in this model contributes to suppression of mucosal inflammatory responses to invasive NTS, which may contribute to differences in the clinical presentation of NTS infection in the setting of malaria.
Project description:We used the ileal loop model to assess the effects of enteric bacteria organisms on host gene expression in intestinal tissue independent of and following early SIV infection. SIV infection in the gut causes rapid and severe immune dysfunction and damage to the intestinal structure, this may alter the intimate interaction with lumenal organisms. This study was performed to determine whether early SIV infection, prior to the depletion of CD4+ T cells, can alter interaction of the host with pathogenic Salmonella serovar Typhimurium (ST) or commensal Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), and to further understand the earliest changes to the intestinal mucosa following SIV infection. We used microarray analysis to detail the global program of gene expression underlying changes in the ileum following early SIV infection, and if these changes in any way alter the host interaction/ response to pathogenic and commensal enteric bacteria. A subset of animals were infected with SIVmac251 for 2.5 days, following which they underwent a loop surgery where the ileum was sectioned off with surgical ties and bacteria (ST or LP) or their respective media controls (LB or MRS) were injected intralumenally. Following 5 hours of incubation the loops were excised and frozen. Tissue sections were cut and RNA extracted for gene expression analysis. Rhesus Macaques infected with SIVmac251 for 2.5 days compared to uninfected controls. Comparisons are of ileum loop sections injected with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Lactobacillus Plantarum or respective media controls LB or MRS.
Project description:The intestinal barrier, one of the first targets of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is subjected to major physiological changes during acute infection. Having previously shown that pharmaceutical injection of interleukin-7 (IL-7) triggers chemokine expression in many organs leading to massive T-cell homing, in particular to the intestine, we here explored mucosal IL-7 expression as part of the cytokine storm occurring during the acute phase of SIV infection in rhesus macaques. Quantifying both mRNA and protein in tissues, we demonstrated a transient increase of IL-7 expression in the small intestine of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, starting with local detection of the virus by day 3 of infection. We also observed increased transcription levels of several chemokines in the small intestine. In infected macaques, ileal IL-7 expression correlated with the transcription of four of these chemokines. Among these chemokines, the macrophage and/or T-cell attractant chemokines CCL4, CCL25, and CCL28 also demonstrated increased transcription in uninfected IL-7-treated monkeys. Through immunohistofluorescence staining and image analysis, we observed increased CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cell numbers and stable CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell counts in the infected lamina propria (LP) during hyperacute infection. Concomitantly, circulating CCR9<sup>+</sup>beta7<sup>+</sup> CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cells dropped during acute infection, suggesting augmented intestinal homing of gut-imprinted T-cells. Finally, CD4<sup>+</sup> macrophages transiently decreased in the submucosa and concentrated in the LP during the first days of infection. Overall, our study identifies IL-7 as a danger signal in the small intestine of Chinese rhesus macaques in response to acute SIV infection. Through stimulation of local chemokine expressions, this overexpression of IL-7 triggers immune cell recruitment to the gut. These findings suggest a role for IL-7 in the initiation of early mucosal immune responses to SIV and HIV infections. However, IL-7 triggered CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cells and macrophages localization at viral replication sites could also participate to viral spread and establishment of viral reservoirs.
Project description:Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n=3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n=4) or THC (THC/SIV; n=4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether similar miRNA modulation occurs in other tissues requires further investigation.Gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease/inflammation is a hallmark of HIV/SIV infection. Previously, we showed that chronic treatment of SIV-infected macaques with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) increased survival and decreased viral replication and infection-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. Here, we show that chronic THC administration to SIV-infected macaques induced an anti-inflammatory microRNA expression profile in the intestine at 60 days p.i. These included several miRNAs bioinformatically predicted to directly target CXCL12, a chemokine known to regulate lymphocyte and macrophage trafficking into the intestine. Specifically, miR-99b was significantly upregulated in THC-treated SIV-infected macaques and confirmed to directly target NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), a reactive oxygen species generator known to damage intestinal epithelial cells. Elevated miR-99b expression was associated with a significantly decreased number of NOX4+ epithelial cells in the intestines of THC-treated SIV-infected macaques. Overall, our results show that selective upregulation of anti-inflammatory miRNA expression contributes to THC-mediated suppression of gastrointestinal inflammation and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.
Project description:Abstract Despite the fact that approximately half of all HIV patients acquire infection through penile exposure, there have been no recent studies of penile SIV transmission in rhesus macaques and the nature of the virus variants transmitted, target cells, and pathways of virus dissemination to systemic lymphoid tissues are not known. Single genome amplification (SGA) and sequencing of HIV-1 RNA in plasma of acutely infected humans allows the identification and enumeration of transmitted/founder viruses responsible for productive systemic infection. Studies using the SGA strategy have shown that intrarectal and intravaginal SIV transmission to macaques recapitulates key features of human HIV transmission. To date, no studies have used the SGA assay to identify transmitted/founder virus(es) in macaques infected after penile SIV exposure. Here we report that SIV can be transmitted by penile SIV exposure. However, similar exposure to a high-dose inoculum infects only about half the animals, which is about 50% less efficient transmission than occurs after vaginal SIV challenge. In addition, only a single SIV env variant established the systemic infection in all five animals that became infected after penile exposure, a result that is consistent with low incidence and few transmitted HIV variants in heterosexually infected men. Our results suggest that the penile transmission of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques recapitulates the key features of penile HIV-1 transmission and may provide insight into host or viral factors that permit penile transmission and dissemination. Furthermore, this SIV challenge exposure route will be useful in testing vaccines and other prophylactic approaches.
Project description:Rapid progression to AIDS is a significant problem, especially in developing countries, where the majority of HIV-infected individuals reside. As rapid disease progression is also frequently observed in SIV-infected macaques, they represent a valuable tool to investigate the pathogenesis of this condition in humans. Here, we have shown that pathogenic SIV infection in rhesus macaques resulted in a rapid depletion (as early as week 2) of activated memory B (CD21-CD27+; mBAct) cells that was strongly associated with rapid disease progression. This depletion was progressive and sustained in rapid progressors, but less severe and transient in typical progressors. Because of the rapid and sustained depletion of mBAct cells, rapid progressors failed to develop SIV-specific Ab responses, showed a decline in non-SIV-specific Ab titers, and succumbed faster to intestinal bacterial infections. Depletion of mBAct cells was strongly associated with preferential depletion of mBAct cells expressing programmed death-1 (PD-1), and in vitro blockade of PD-1 improved their survival. Furthermore, in vivo PD-1 blockade in SIV-infected macaques enhanced Ab responses to non-SIV as well as SIV Ags. Our results identify depletion of mBAct cells as a very early predictor of rapid disease progression in pathogenic SIV infection and suggest an important role for the PD-1 pathway in depletion of mBAct cells and impaired humoral immune responses in SIV-infected macaques.
Project description:Cannabis use is frequent in HIV-infected individuals for its appetite stimulation and anti-inflammatory effects. To identify the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these effects, we simultaneously profiled micro-RNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression in the colon of chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 9) or ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC; THC/SIV; n = 8). Pro-inflammatory miR-130a, miR-222, and miR-29b, lipopolysaccharide-responsive miR-146b-5p and SIV-induced miR-190b were significantly upregulated in VEH/SIV rhesus macaques. Compared to VEH/SIV rhesus macaques, 10 miRNAs were significantly upregulated in THC/SIV rhesus macaques, among which miR-204 was confirmed to directly target MMP8, an extracellular matrix-degrading collagenase that was significantly downregulated in THC/SIV rhesus macaques. Moreover, THC/SIV rhesus macaques failed to upregulate pro-inflammatory miR-21, miR-141 and miR-222, and alpha/beta-defensins, suggesting attenuated intestinal inflammation. Further, THC/SIV rhesus macaques showed higher expression of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-3), anti-inflammatory MUC13, keratin-8 (stress protection), PROM1 (epithelial proliferation), and anti-HIV CCL5. Gomori one-step trichrome staining detected significant collagen deposition (fibrosis) in the paracortex and B cell follicular zones of axillary lymph nodes from all VEH/SIV but not in THC/SIV rhesus macaques, thus demonstrating the ability of ?9-THC to prevent lymph node fibrosis, a serious irreversible consequence of HIV induced chronic inflammation. Furthermore, using flow cytometry, we showed that ?9-THC suppressed intestinal T cell proliferation/activation (Ki67/HLA-DR) and PD-1 expression and increased the percentages of anti-inflammatory CD163+ macrophages. Finally, while ?9-THC did not affect the levels of CD4+ T cells, it significantly reduced absolute CD8+ T cell numbers in peripheral blood at 14 and 150 days post-SIV infection. These translational findings strongly support a role for differential miRNA/gene induction and T cell activation in ?9-THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation in HIV/SIV and potentially other chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine.
Project description:HIV causes rapid CD4+ T cell depletion in the gut mucosa, resulting in immune deficiency and defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Breakdown in gut barrier integrity is linked to chronic inflammation and disease progression. However, the early effects of HIV on the gut epithelium, prior to the CD4+ T cell depletion, are not known. Further, the impact of early viral infection on mucosal responses to pathogenic and commensal microbes has not been investigated. We utilized the SIV model of AIDS to assess the earliest host-virus interactions and mechanisms of inflammation and dysfunction in the gut, prior to CD4+ T cell depletion. An intestinal loop model was used to interrogate the effects of SIV infection on gut mucosal immune sensing and response to pathogens and commensal bacteria in vivo. At 2.5 days post-SIV infection, low viral loads were detected in peripheral blood and gut mucosa without CD4+ T cell loss. However, immunohistological analysis revealed the disruption of the gut epithelium manifested by decreased expression and mislocalization of tight junction proteins. Correlating with epithelial disruption was a significant induction of IL-1? expression by Paneth cells, which were in close proximity to SIV-infected cells in the intestinal crypts. The IL-1? response preceded the induction of the antiviral interferon response. Despite the disruption of the gut epithelium, no aberrant responses to pathogenic or commensal bacteria were observed. In fact, inoculation of commensal Lactobacillus plantarum in intestinal loops led to rapid anti-inflammatory response and epithelial tight junction repair in SIV infected macaques. Thus, intestinal Paneth cells are the earliest responders to viral infection and induce gut inflammation through IL-1? signaling. Reversal of the IL-1? induced gut epithelial damage by Lactobacillus plantarum suggests synergistic host-commensal interactions during early viral infection and identify these mechanisms as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.