Heterozygous p53-R280T mutation promotes proliferation of NPC cells through activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
ABSTRACT: Heterozygous p53-R280T mutations frequently occur in many nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. However, the role of this mutation in the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we successfully generated the tp53 knockout nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and found that knockout of heterozygous tp53-R280T inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells significantly in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic analyses indicated that heterozygous p53-R280T can activate the PI3K/Akt Signaling pathway in NPC cells. In conclusion, our findings provide a mechanistic insight into the role of heterozygous p53-R280T in NPC progression. Overall design: mRNA profiles of CNE2 (control) and KO CNE2 cells.
Project description:A heterozygous point mutation of p53 gene at codon 280 from AGA to ACA (R280T) frequently occurs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines, and about 10% NPC tissues. However, the role of this mutation in the pathogenesis of NPC remains unclear. In this study, we generated p53 knockout (KO) NPC cell lines from CNE2 cells carrying heterozygous p53 R280T (p53-R280T) mutation and C666-1 cells carrying wild-type p53 by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system, and found that KO of heterozygous p53-R280T significantly decreased NPC cell proliferation and increased NPC cell apoptosis, whereas KO of wild-type p53 had opposite effects on NPC cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, KO of heterozygous p53-R280T inhibited the anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenicity of NPC cells. mRNA sequencing of heterozygous p53-R280T KO and control CNE2 cells revealed that heterozygous p53-R280T mutation activated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, blocking of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway abolished heterozygous p53-R280T mutation-promoting NPC cell proliferation and survival. Our data indicate that p53 with heterozygous R280T mutation functions as an oncogene, and promotes the oncogenicity of NPC cells by activating PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, offering a promising target for cancer therapy. HDACs inhibitor MGCD0103 (MGCD) exhibits effective anti-tumor activity by blocking proliferation and inducing cell death in malignant cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of HDACs inhibition induces cell death have not been well elucidated. In this study, we showed that MGCD effectively restored histone acetylation, suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultured CNE1 and CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Importantly, MGCD arrested cell cycle at mitosis (M) phase with formation of multipolar spindles, which was associated with activated p53-mediated postmitotic checkpoint pathway to induce apoptotic cell death. Moreover, MGCD-induced apoptosis was decreased by inhibition of p53 using short interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that p53 was required for MGCD-induced cell apoptosis. Consistently, MGCD in combination with Nutlin-3, a MDM2 inhibitor showed synergistic effect on inducing apoptosis in 2D and 3D cultured CNE2 cells. Collectively, our data revealed that MGCD induced p53-dependent cell apoptosis following formation of multipolar spindles in NPC cells, suggesting the therapeutic potential of combinations of HDACs and MDM2 inhibitors for NPC treatment.
Project description:The management of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains a challenge. The ubiquitous nature of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in nonkeratinizing NPC has forced us to investigate novel drugs for NPC in the presence of EBV. In this study, we performed a small-scale screening of a library of compounds that target epigenetic regulators in paired EBV-positive and EBV-negative NPC cell lines. We found that bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 preferentially inhibits the growth of EBV-positive NPC cells. JQ1 induces apoptosis, decreases cell proliferation and enhances the radiosensitivity in NPC cells, especially EBV-positive cells. Significantly, JQ1-induced cell death is c-Myc-dependent. Notably, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that JQ1 represses TP63, TP53 and their targets. JQ1 also lessens the expression of PD-L1 in NPC. Moreover, the high potency of JQ1 in NPC cells was further confirmed in vivo in CNE2-EBV+ tumor-bearing mice. These findings indicate that JQ1 is a promising therapeutic candidate for advanced NPC.
Project description:Most of the NPC patients suffer from local recurrences and distant metastases within 1.5 years after radiotherapy due to radioresistance. Distinct patterns of gene expression and signatures were found in NPC, and have been used to associate them with cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, but few gene expression profiling studies have been focused on the tumor radioresistance.We used gene expression microarray analyses to identify the difference of mRNA in radioresistant NPC CNE2-IR cells and radiosensitive CNE2 cells. Radioresistant subclone of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2-IR cell line was cultured and produced according to the experienment schedule to undergo five rounds of sublethal dose of irradiation (11 Gy), and the parent cell line CNE2 cell line sensitive to radiotherapy as the control
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) frequently occurs in Southern China. The main treatments of NPC are chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, chemo-resistance arises as a big obstacle in treating NPC. Therefore, there is a great need to develop new compounds that could reverse tumor drug resistance. In this study, eight matrine derivatives containing thiophene group were designed and synthesized. Structures of these 8 compounds were characterized by <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, <sup>13</sup>C-NMR, and high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). The cytotoxicity and preliminary synergistic effects of these 8 compounds were detected against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells and cisplatin-resistant NPC cells (CNE2/CDDP), respectively. Furthermore, the in vivo and in vitro tumor resistance reversal effects of compound <b>3f</b> were evaluated. Moreover, docking studies were performed in Bclw (2Y6W). The results displayed that compound <b>3f</b> showed synergistic inhibitory effects with cisplatin against CNE2/CDDP cells proliferation via apoptosis induction. Docking results revealed that compound <b>3f</b> may exert its effects via inhibiting anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-w.
Project description:Radiotherapy plays a major role in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the radioresistant cells limit its efficiency and drive recurrence inside the irradiated tumor volume leading to poor outcome for patients. To illuminate the signal pathway involved in the radioresistance and evaluate the potential for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy, we established the radioresistant NPC cell line (CNE2-RR) derived from NPC cell line CNE2 by gradually increased the radiation dose (total 60 Gy), and the radioresistance of CNE2-RR cells was evaluated by the colony formation, FCM and comet assays. Furthermore, comparison of established CNE2-RR cell line to parental cell line found the homologous recombination repair (HRR) proteins differences involved in NPC radioresistance. In addition, the differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blotting, immunofluorescence and IHC in tumor xenografs and radioresistant NPC tissues. Furthermore, the correlation of HRR proteins expression levels with NPC radioresistance were evaluated. The results showed that the upregulation of HRR proteins were significantly correlated with NPC radioresistance. In addition, using the Youden Index cutoff value, a panel of the HRR proteins analyses revealed a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 72%. Furthermore, silencing NFBD1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of CNE2-RR cells by impairing IR-inducing ?-H2AX and HR proteins foci formation. These results suggest that controlling the HRR signaling pathway may hold promise to overcome NPC radioresistance.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) play critical roles in carcinogenesis. This study assessed the impact of IGFBP6 on the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found that IGFBP6 was differentially expressed in primary malignant NPC tissues. Clinical samples were divided into two groups: IGFBP6(+) and IGFBP6(-). Five years of follow-up revealed that overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates were significantly higher in the IGFBP6(+) than IGFBP6(-) group. We also used real-time PCR, ELISA and western blot assays to measure IGFBP6 levels in five NPC cell lines (CNE1, CNE2, HONE1, HK1 and SUNE1). All the cell lines expressed IGFBP6, but at different levels, reflecting disease heterogeneity. In addition, exogenous expression of IGFBP6 inhibited CNE2 cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. IGFBP6 knockdown activated the GSK3β/β-catenin/cyclin D1 pathway and enhanced CNE2 tumor cell growth and metastasis in a mouse model. These results suggest that IGFBP6 may be an independent prognostic biomarker for NPC.
Project description:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck. The STGC3 gene is related to development of nasopharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the promoter region of the STGC3 gene.The bioinformatic technique was applied to predict its promoter region and construct the gene promoter region luciferase for the gene vector and transfection of the human embryonic kidney epithelial 293T cell line, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell line and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69 cell line. The recombinant plasmid pGL3-en283, pGL3-en281, pGL3-en571, empty plasmid pGL3-control, negative control pGL3-enhance and internal control of marine intestine luciferase expression vector pRL-SV40 were transfected into NP69 cells, 293T cells and CNE2 cells. Dual luciferase activity detection showed luciferase luminescence values and marine intestine luciferase luminescence values. Relative luciferase activity (RLA) in each cell was calculated.We observed strong promoter activity of plasmid pGL3-en283, pGL3-en281 and pGL3-en571 in NP69, 293T and CNE2 cells compared with the negative control pGL3-enhance plasmid. Among them, pGL3-en281 showed the strongest promoter activity, and these three kinds of recombinant plasmids showed stronger promoter activity in 293T cells than in CNE2 cells.The pGL3-en281 plasmid showed stronger promoter activity than pGL3-en571 in the three cells, indicating that -11048 bp to -653 bp might be the core promoter region.
Project description:Recent studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in all steps of cancer initiation and progression by regulating protein coding genes at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are in turn regulated by other genes, forming a complex regulatory network. The regulation networks between the p53 tumor suppressor and miRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory roles of the TP53 gene in regulating miRNA expression profiles in NPC cell line HNE2. Overall design: p53 induced miRNAs expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HNE2 was measured at 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours after transfected by pCMV-p53 plasmid.
Project description:Background:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial carcinoma with high occurrence and metastatic rates in Southern China. To date, the molecular mechanisms of metastasis for NPC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to discover the underlying mechanism of NPC and to elucidate novel genes that may play important roles in NPC progression and metastasis. Methods:We carry out mRNA expression profiling, Arraystar Human mRNA Expression Profiling Service Report based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using four pairs of tumor tissues and their corresponding benign adjacent tissues from NPC patients. Results:We found that 1,787 genes were differentially expressed, among them, 8 genes were identified as highly upregulated in NPC patients. Within these 8 genes, only TSPAN8 was consistently over-expressed in poorly differentiated CNE2 cell line and highly-metastatic subclone S18 cell line. TSPAN8 mRNA and protein levels were increased in primary carcinoma tissues compared to their corresponding adjacent benign tissues. Knockdown of TSPAN8 by siRNA resulted in inhibition of NPC cell migration and invasion, while overexpression of TSPAN8 promoted NPC cell migration, invasion and proliferation. To explore the potential metastasis pathway mechanism for NPC, TSPAN8 were silenced in CNE2 cell. From the Tumor Metastasis Pathway Finder PCR array, knockdown of TSPAN8 led to the down-regulation of IL-1?, which showed the most down-regulation among identified genes. IL-1? is a regulating factor of the Akt/MAPK pathway, which is involved in the cancer cell migration regulation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of TSPAN8 in CNE2 cell was associated with inhibition of the Akt/MAPK pathway. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated that TSPAN8 level was increased in NPC tumors, which was associated with shorter overall survival and metastasis free survival (MFS). Conclusions:The data indicated that TSPAN8 acting as a tumor migration marker and may be a prognostic factor or therapeutic target for NPC.