ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Overall design: Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:In this study, we examined differential gene expression in naïve human CD4+ T cells, as well as in effector Th1, Th17-negative and Th17-enriched CD4- T cell subsets. We observed a marked enrichment for increased gene expression in effector CD4+ T cells compared to naive CD4+ among immune-mediated disease oci genes. Within effector T cells, expression of disease-associated genes was increased in Th17-enriched compared to Th17-negative cells. We used microarray to examine the gene expresssion profile and level of human naïve, Th1 and effector T cell subsets. Human PBMCs were isolated and sorted to naïve, CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells. Naïve T cells were differentiatied to Th1 cells, and CD161-CCR6- and CD161+CCR6+ memory T cells were in vitro expanded for Th17-negative and Th17-enriched effector T cells. The gene profile was compared among naive, Th1, Th17-negative, and Th17-enriched cell subsets.
Project description:In several murine models of autoimmune arthritis, Th17 cells are the dominant initiators of inflammation. In human arthritis the majority of IL-17-secreting cells within the joint express a cytokine phenotype intermediate between Th17 and Th1. Here we show that Th17/1 cells from the joints of children with inflammatory arthritis express high levels of both Th17 and Th1 lineage-specific transcription factors, RORC2 and T-bet. Modeling the generation of Th17/1 in vitro, we show that Th17 cells "convert" to Th17/1 under conditions that mimic the disease site, namely low TGFbeta and high IL-12 levels, whereas Th1 cells cannot convert to Th17. Th17/1 cells from the inflamed joint share T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality with Th17 cells, suggesting a shared clonal origin between Th17 and Th17/1 cells in arthritis. Using CD161, a lectin-like receptor that is a marker of human Th17, we show synovial Th17 and Th17/1 cells, and unexpectedly, a large proportion of Th1 cells express CD161. We provide evidence to support a Th17 origin for Th1 cells expressing CD161. In vitro, Th17 cells that convert to a Th1 phenotype maintain CD161 expression. In the joint CD161+ Th1 cells share features with Th17 cells, with shared TCR clonality, expression of RORC2 and CCR6 and response to IL-23, although they are IL-17 negative. We propose that the Th17 phenotype may be unstable and that Th17 cells may convert to Th17/1 and Th1 cells in human arthritis. Therefore therapies targeting the induction of Th17 cells could also attenuate Th17/1 and Th1 effector populations within the inflamed joint.
Project description:CD161 identifies a subset of circulating Th17 cells that are depleted in the blood and gut of HIV-infected individuals. In the female reproductive tract (FRT), the pattern of CD161 expression on CD4+ cells remains unknown. Here, we characterized CD161 expression in the FRT of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Compared to the blood, CD161+CD4+ T cells were enriched in the FRT of uninfected FSWs. These cells were depleted in FRT of HIV-infected FSWs. Cervical CD161+ cells harboured an activated phenotype (CD69, CD95, HLA-DR) with elevated expression of tissue-homing markers (CCR6, ?7 integrin) and HIV co-receptor (CCR5). Mitogen-stimulated production of IL-17 confirmed the Th17 commitment of CD161+CD4+ T cells in the FRT with a predominance of polyfunctional Th1/Th17 cells. Here, we showed that the expression of CD161 on CD4+T cells is modulated at the FRT, but still identified a highly activated cellular subset, which differentiates into pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells, expresses multiple HIV susceptibility markers and are depleted in HIV-infected individuals. The use of CD161 as a biomarker of HIV targets in the FRT reduces the need for functional assessment of cells and could have important implications in better understanding HIV pathogenesis and Th17 fate in the FRT of high-risk women.
Project description:Activated naive CD4(+) T cells are highly plastic cells that can differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell fates characterized by the expression of effector cytokines like IFN-? (Th1), IL-4 (Th2) or IL-17A (Th17). Although previous studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms including DNA demethylation can stabilize effector cytokine expression, a comprehensive analysis of the changes in the DNA methylation pattern during differentiation of naive T cells into Th cell subsets is lacking. Hence, we here performed a genome-wide methylome analysis of ex vivo isolated naive CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells. We could demonstrate that naive CD4(+) T cells share more demethylated regions with Th17 cells when compared to Th1 cells, and that overall Th17 cells display the highest number of demethylated regions, findings which are in line with the previously reported plasticity of Th17 cells. We could identify seven regions located in Il17a, Zfp362, Ccr6, Acsbg1, Dpp4, Rora and Dclk1 showing pronounced demethylation selectively in ex vivo isolated Th17 cells when compared to other ex vivo isolated Th cell subsets and in vitro generated Th17 cells, suggesting that this unique epigenetic signature allows identifying and functionally characterizing in vivo generated Th17 cells.
Project description:Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports the contribution of long-lived Th17 cells to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the identity of long-lived Th17 cells remains unknown.Here, we performed an in-depth transcriptional and functional characterization of four distinct Th17 subsets and investigated their contribution to HIV reservoir persistence during ART. In addition to the previously characterized CCR6(+)CCR4(+) (Th17) and CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) (Th1Th17) subsets, we reveal the existence of two novel CCR6(+) subsets, lacking (double negative, CCR6(+)DN) or co-expressing CXCR3 and CCR4 (double positive, CCR6(+)DP). The four subsets shared multiple Th17-polarization markers, a fraction of cells proliferated in response to C. albicans, and exhibited lineage commitment and plasticity when cultured under Th17 and Th1 conditions, respectively. Of note, fractions of CCR6(+)DN and Th17 demonstrated stable Th17-lineage commitment under Th1-polarization conditions. Among the four subsets, CCR6(+)DN expressed a unique transcriptional signature indicative of early Th17 development (IL-17F, STAT3), lymph-node homing (CCR7, CD62L), follicular help (CXCR5, BCL6, ASCL2), and self-renewal (LEFI, MYC, TERC). Cross sectional and longitudinal studies demonstrated that CCR6(+)DN cells were the most predominant CCR6(+) subset in the blood before and after ART initiation; high frequencies of these cells were similarly observed in inguinal lymph nodes of individuals receiving long-term ART. Importantly, replication competent HIV was isolated from CCR6(+)DN of ART-treated individuals.Together, these results provide new insights into the functional heterogeneity of Th17-polarized CCR6(+)CD4(+) T-cells and support the major contribution of CCR6(+)DN cells to HIV persistence during ART.
Project description:Dimethyl fumarate (DMF; trade name Tecfidera) is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid ester that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To better understand the therapeutic effects of Tecfidera and its rare side effect of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by immunophenotyping cells from peripheral blood (particularly T lymphocytes) derived from untreated and 4-6 and 18-26 mo Tecfidera-treated stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using multiparametric flow cytometry. The absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells were significantly decreased and the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased with DMF treatment. The proportions of both effector memory T cells and central memory T cells were reduced, whereas naive T cells increased in treated patients. T cell activation was reduced with DMF treatment, especially among effector memory T cells and effector memory RA T cells. Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3+), Th17 (CCR6+), and particularly those expressing both CXCR3 and CD161 were reduced most significantly, whereas the anti-inflammatory Th2 subset (CCR3+) was increased after DMF treatment. A corresponding increase in IL-4 and decrease in IFN-? and IL-17-expressing CD4+ T cells were observed in DMF-treated patients. DMF in vitro treatment also led to increased T cell apoptosis and decreased activation, proliferation, reactive oxygen species, and CCR7 expression. Our results suggest that DMF acts on specific memory and effector T cell subsets by limiting their survival, proliferation, activation, and cytokine production. Monitoring these subsets could help to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DMF treatment.
Project description:The differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into T helper (Th) subsets is key for a functional immune response and has to be tightly controlled by transcriptional and epigenetic processes. However, the function of cofactors that connect gene-specific transcription factors with repressive chromatin-modifying enzymes in Th cells is yet unknown. Here we demonstrate an essential role for nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR1) in regulating naïve CD4+ T cell and Th1/Th17 effector transcriptomes. Moreover, NCOR1 binds to a conserved cis-regulatory element within the Ifng locus and controls the extent of IFN? expression in Th1 cells. Further, NCOR1 controls the survival of activated CD4+ T cells and Th1 cells in vitro, while Th17 cell survival was not affected in the absence of NCOR1. In vivo, effector functions were compromised since adoptive transfer of NCOR1-deficient CD4+ T cells resulted in attenuated colitis due to lower frequencies of IFN?+ and IFN?+IL-17A+ Th cells and overall reduced CD4+ T cell numbers. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the coregulator NCOR1 shapes transcriptional landscapes in CD4+ T cells and controls Th1/Th17 effector functions.
Project description:Human T-cells that express CXCR5 and/or CCR6 provide help to naive B-cells for IgG production. To understand the molecular pathways that are shared or unique to individual B helper T-cell subsets in human peripheral blood, CD4+IL-7R+CD25-/lo helper T-cells were purified according to the expression of CXCR5, CCR6, CXCR3, CD161 and CCR5 as follows: 1) TFH17(CD161-): CXCR5+CXCR6+CXCR3-CD161- 2) Th17: CXCR5-CCR6+CXCR3-, CD161+ or CCR5+ 3) CCR6”SP”: CXCR5-CCR6+CXCR3-CD161-CCR5- RNA-seq was performed with FACS-purified T-cell subsets from 3 healthy individuals.
Project description:The HIV-1 infection is characterized by profound CD4(+) T cell destruction and a marked Th17 dysfunction at the mucosal level. Viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy restores Th1 but not Th17 cells. Although several key HIV dependency factors (HDF) were identified in the past years via genome-wide siRNA screens in cell lines, molecular determinants of HIV permissiveness in primary Th17 cells remain to be elucidated.In an effort to orient Th17-targeted reconstitution strategies, we investigated molecular mechanisms of HIV permissiveness in Th17 cells. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling in memory CD4(+) T-cell subsets enriched in cells exhibiting Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR6(+)), Th1 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(-)), Th2 (CCR4(+)CCR6(-)), and Th1Th17 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(+)) features revealed remarkable transcriptional differences between Th17 and Th1 subsets. The HIV-DNA integration was superior in Th17 versus Th1 upon exposure to both wild-type and VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV; this indicates that post-entry mechanisms contribute to viral replication in Th17. Transcripts significantly enriched in Th17 versus Th1 were previously associated with the regulation of TCR signaling (ZAP-70, Lck, and CD96) and Th17 polarization (ROR?t, ARNTL, PTPN13, and RUNX1). A meta-analysis using the NCBI HIV Interaction Database revealed a set of Th17-specific HIV dependency factors (HDFs): PARG, PAK2, KLF2, ITGB7, PTEN, ATG16L1, Alix/AIP1/PDCD6IP, LGALS3, JAK1, TRIM8, MALT1, FOXO3, ARNTL/BMAL1, ABCB1/MDR1, TNFSF13B/BAFF, and CDKN1B. Functional studies demonstrated an increased ability of Th17 versus Th1 cells to respond to TCR triggering in terms of NF-?B nuclear translocation/DNA-binding activity and proliferation. Finally, RNA interference studies identified MAP3K4 and PTPN13 as two novel Th17-specific HDFs.The transcriptional program of Th17 cells includes molecules regulating HIV replication at multiple post-entry steps that may represent potential targets for novel therapies aimed at protecting Th17 cells from infection and subsequent depletion in HIV-infected subjects.
Project description:Background:The nature and extent of inflammation seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) varies throughout the course of the disease. Changes seen in CD4+ T-helper cells in relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and secondary progressive (SP) MS might differ qualitatively and/or quantitatively. Objective:The objective of this paper is to study the frequencies of all major CD4+ T-helper subtypes - Th17, Th22 and Th1 lineage cells - in relapse, remission and secondary progression alongside CCR6 status, a chemokine receptor involved in migration of these cells into the central nervous system. Methods:We compared 100 patients (50 RRMS and 50 SPMS) and 50 healthy volunteers and performed flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes in blood samples. Results:We demonstrated raised frequencies of various cell types along the Th17 axis; Th17, Th17.1 (IL-17+ interferon gamma+) and dual IL-17+ IL-22+ cells in RRMS. Th22 and CCR6+ Th1 cells (nonclassical Th1) were also increased in RRMS. All these cells were CCR6+. Only Th17 frequencies were elevated in SPMS. Conclusions:Increased frequencies of Th17 cells are implicated both in RRMS and SPMS. The CCR6 pathway includes Th17, Th22 and Th1 nonclassical cells, of which Th22 and Th1 cells represent the greatest subsets in MS.