De Novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of Atlantic salmon macrophage/dendritic-like TO cells following type I IFN treatment and Salmonid alphavirus subtype-3 infection
ABSTRACT: We used RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptomic changes induced by type I IFN treatment and salmon alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in TO-cells, a macrophage/dendritic like cell-line derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) head kidney leukocytes. Overall design: analysis of a transcriptome of DEGs induced by type I IFN and SAV-3 in TO cells generated by RNA-seq
Project description:Salmonid alphavirus is the aetological agent of pancreas disease (PD) in marine Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with most outbreaks in Norway caused by SAV subtype 3 (SAV3). This atypical alphavirus is transmitted horizontally causing a significant economic impact on the aquaculture industry. This histopathological and proteomic study, using an established cohabitational experimental model, investigated the correlation between tissue damage during PD and a number of serum proteins associated with these pathologies in Atlantic salmon. The proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digest and peptide MS/MS fingerprinting. A number of humoral components of immunity which may act as biomarkers of the disease were also identified. For example, creatine kinase, enolase and malate dehydrogenase serum concentrations were shown to correlate with pathology during PD. In contrast, hemopexin, transferrin, and apolipoprotein, amongst others, altered during later stages of the disease and did not correlate with tissue pathologies. This approach has given new insight into not only PD but also fish disease as a whole, by characterisation of the protein response to infection, through pathological processes to tissue recovery.Salmonid alphavirus causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and has a major economic impact on the aquaculture industry. A proteomic investigation of the change to the serum proteome during PD has been made with an established experimental model of the disease. Serum proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis, trypsin digest and peptide MS/MS fingerprinting with 72 protein spots being shown to alter significantly over the 12week period of the infection. The concentrations of certain proteins in serum such as creatine kinase, enolase and malate dehydrogenase were shown to correlate with tissue pathology while other proteins such as hemopexin, transferrin, and apolipoprotein, altered in concentration during later stages of the disease and did not correlate with tissue pathologies. The protein response to infection may be used to monitor disease progression and enhance understanding of the pathology of PD.
Project description:B cell responses are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response to viral infection. Infection by salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and is a serious concern to the aquaculture industry. In this study, we have used intraperitoneal (IP) infection with SAV3 as a model to characterize local B cell responses in the peritoneal cavity (PerC) and systemic immune tissues (head kidney/spleen). Intraperitoneal administration of vaccines is common in Atlantic salmon and understanding more about the local PerC B cell response is fundamental. Intraperitoneal SAV3 infection clearly induced PerC B cell responses as assessed by increased frequency of IgM+ B cells and total IgM secreting cells (ASC). These PerC responses were prolonged up to nine weeks post-infection and positively correlated to the anti-SAV3 E2 and to neutralizing antibody responses in serum. For the systemic immune sites, virus-induced changes in B cell responses were more modest or decreased compared to controls in the same period. Collectively, data reported herein indicated that PerC could serve as a peripheral immunological site by providing a niche for prolonged maintenance of the ASC response in Atlantic salmon.
Project description:Salmon pancreas disease, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV), is an economically important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Europe, with outbreaks reported in Scotland, Norway, and Ireland. A microarray-based study was performed to evaluate the host transcriptomic response during the early stages of an experimentally induced salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) Head kidney was sampled from five fish PD infected Atlantic salmon parr and uninfected controls on days 1, 3 and 5 post injection (d.p.i). RNA from tissue samples was amplified and interrogated using the 17k TRAITS / SGP cDNA microarray, with results validated by SYBR green real-time PCR. The greatest number of significantly differentially expressed genes was recorded on day 3 p.i. These were found to be mainly associated with immune and defence mechanisms including genes involved in interferon I & II pathways and major histocompatibility complex class I & II responses. The expression of genes associated with apoptosis (BcL2 and caspase 3/7) and cellular stress (heat shock protein) were also found to differ significantly between infected and uninfected individuals as were genes involved in inhibiting viral attachment and replication, such as ubiquitin, serum myeloid, and and viperin.
Project description:Interferons (IFN) are cytokines secreted by vertebrate cells involved in activation of signaling pathways that direct the synthesis of antiviral genes. To gain a global understanding of antiviral genes induced by type I IFNs in salmonids, we used RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptomic changes induced by type I IFN treatment and salmon alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in TO-cells, a macrophage/dendritic like cell-line derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) head kidney leukocytes.More than 23 million reads generated by RNA-seq were de novo assembled into 58098 unigenes used to generate a total of 3149 and 23289 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from TO-cells exposed to type I IFN treatment and SAV-3 infection, respectively. Although the DEGs were classified into genes associated with biological processes, cellular components and molecular function based on gene ontology classification, transcriptomic changes reported here show upregulation of genes belonging to the canonical type I IFN signaling pathways together with a broad spectrum of antiviral genes that block virus replication in host cells. In addition, the transcriptome shows a profile of genes associated with apoptosis as well as genes that activate adaptive immunity. Further, our findings show that the profile of genes expressed by TO-cells is comparable to orthologous genes expressed by mammalian macrophages and dendritic cells in response to type I IFNs. Twenty DEGs randomly selected for qRT-PCR confirmed the validity of the transcriptomic changes detected by RNA-seq by showing that the genes upregulated by RNA-seq were also upregulated by qRT-PCR and that genes downregulated by RNA-seq were also downregulated by qRT-PCR.The de novo assembled transcriptome presented here provides a global description of genes induced by type I IFNs in TO-cells that could serve as a repository for future studies in fish cells. Transcriptome analysis shows that a large proportion of IFN genes expressed in this study are comparable to IFNs genes expressed in mammalia. In addition, the study shows that SAV-3 is a potent inducer of type I IFNs and that the responses it induces in TO-cells could serve as a model for studying IFN responses in salmonids.
Project description:Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated. In the present experiment, the effect of a primary PRV infection on subsequent SAV infection was studied. Atlantic salmon were infected with PRV by cohabitation, followed by addition of SAV shedder fish 4 or 10 weeks after the initial PRV infection. Histopathological evaluation, monitoring of viral RNA levels and host gene expression analysis were used to assess disease development. Significant reduction of SAV RNA levels and of PD specific histopathological changes were observed in the co-infected groups compared to fish infected by SAV only. A strong correlation was found between histopathological development and expression of disease related genes in heart. In conclusion, experimentally PRV infected salmon are less susceptible to secondary SAV infection and development of PD.
Project description:Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water. Copy number analysis of SAV3 RNA in heart tissue showed that there was no difference in viral loads between the diploids and triploids. Prevalence reached 100% by the end of the 35-day experimental period in both infected groups. However, prevalence accumulated more slowly in the triploid group reaching 19% and 56% at 14 and 21 days post exposure (dpe) respectively. Whereas prevalence in the diploid group was 82% and 100% at the same time points indicating some differences between diploid and triploid fish. Both heart and pancreas from infected groups at 14 dpe showed typical histopathological changes associated with pancreas disease. Observation of this slower accumulation of prevalence following a natural infection route was possible due to the early sampling points and the exposure to a relatively low dose of virus. The triploid salmon in this study were not more susceptible to SAV3 than diploid salmon indicating that they could be used commercially to reduce the environmental impact of escaped farmed fish interbreeding with wild salmon. This is important information regarding the future use of triploid fish in large scale aquaculture where SAV3 is a financial threat to increased production.
Project description:Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV. Both infection treatment and time after infection were strong predictors of the skin microbial community composition. Skin samples from SAV3 infected fish showed an unbalanced microbiota characterized by a decreased abundance of Proteobacteria such as Oleispira sp. and increased abundances of opportunistic taxa including Flavobacteriaceae, Streptococcaceae and Tenacibaculum sp. These results demonstrate that viral infections can result in skin dysbiosis likely rendering the host more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections.
Project description:Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a reovirus that has predominantly been detected in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon, and recently erythrocytes were identified as major target cells. The study of PRV replication and pathogenesis of the infection has been impeded by the inability to propagate PRV in vitro. In this study we developed an ex vivo cultivation system for PRV in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. PRV was successfully passaged to naïve erythrocytes using lysates of blood cells from infected salmon. During cultivation a significant increase in viral load was observed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry, which coincided with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. The inclusions resembled viral factories and contained both PRV protein and dsRNA. In addition, the erythrocytes generated an antiviral immune gene activation after PRV infection, with significant up-regulation of IFN-?, RIG-I, Mx and PKR transcripts. Supernatants from the first passage successfully transmitted virus to naïve erythrocytes. This study demonstrates that PRV replicates in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes ex vivo. The ex vivo infection model closely reflects the situation in vivo and can be used to study the infection and replication mechanisms of PRV, as well as the antiviral immune responses of salmonid erythrocytes.
Project description:Heart and skeletal inflammation (HSMI) of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is a disease characterized by a chronic myocarditis involving the epicardium and the compact and spongious part of the heart ventricle. Chronic myositis of the red skeletal muscle is also a typical finding of HSMI. Piscine reovirus (PRV) has been detected by real-time PCR from farmed and wild salmon with and without typical changes of HSMI and thus the causal relationship between presence of virus and the disease has not been fully determined. In this study we show that the Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), identical to PRV, can be passaged in GF-1 cells and experimental challenge of naïve Atlantic salmon with cell culture passaged reovirus results in cardiac and skeletal muscle pathology typical of HSMI with onset of pathology from 6 weeks, peaking by 9 weeks post challenge. ASRV replicates in heart tissue and the peak level of virus replication coincides with peak of heart lesions. We further demonstrate mRNA transcript assessment and in situ characterization that challenged fish develop a CD8+ T cell myocarditis.
Project description:Population-specific assessment and management of anadromous fish at sea requires detailed information about the distribution at sea over ontogeny for each population. However, despite a long history of mixed-stock sea fisheries on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, migration studies showing that some salmon populations feed in different regions of the Baltic Sea and variation in dynamics occurs among populations feeding in the Baltic Sea, such information is often lacking. Also, current assessment of Baltic salmon assumes equal distribution at sea and therefore equal responses to changes in off-shore sea fisheries. Here, we test for differences in distribution at sea among and within ten Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations originating from ten river-specific hatcheries along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast, using individual data from >125,000 tagged salmon, recaptured over five decades. We show strong population and size-specific differences in distribution at sea, varying between year classes and between individuals within year classes. This suggests that Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea experience great variation in environmental conditions and exploitation rates over ontogeny depending on origin and that current assessment assumptions about equal exploitation rates in the offshore fisheries and a shared environment at sea are not valid. Thus, our results provide additional arguments and necessary information for implementing population-specific management of salmon, also when targeting life stages at sea.