Generation and purification of Th1 and Th2 effector and memory CD4+ T cells
ABSTRACT: Naïve CD4+ T cells were isolated from spleen of AND TcR transgenic/green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice (Kaye et al., Nature 1989;341:746, Wright et al, Blood 2001;97:2278) that recognize a peptide of pigeon cytochrome C in the context of I-Ek and express CD44lo, CD62Lhi, CD45RBhi, and CD25-. After 4 days in vitro stimulation with antigen presenting cells (APC) under either Th1 or Th2 condition, naïve cells become Th1 or Th2 effector cells expressing CD44hi, CD62L lo, CD45RBhi, and CD25+. Additional 3 days culture in the absence of APC, those effector cells become rested expressing a phenotype similar to memory cells (CD44 hi, CD62L lo, CD45RB lo and CD25-). These rested effector cells were adaptively transferred into thymectomized, lethally irradiated, and T cell depleted bone marrow reconstituted mice and memory cells were isolated after 4-12 weeks by flow sort. Keywords: Microarray analysis of Th1 and Th2 effector and memory CD4+ T cells Overall design: Generation and purification of Th1 and Th2 effector and memory CD4+ T cells of 42 samples.
Project description:Naïve CD4+ T cells were isolated from spleen of AND TcR transgenic/green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice (Kaye et al., Nature 1989;341:746, Wright et al, Blood 2001;97:2278) that recognize a peptide of pigeon cytochrome C in the context of I-Ek and express CD44lo, CD62Lhi, CD45RBhi, and CD25-. After 4 days in vitro stimulation with antigen presenting cells (APC) under either Th1 or Th2 condition, naïve cells become Th1 or Th2 effector cells expressing CD44hi, CD62L lo, CD45RBhi, and CD25+. Additional 3 days culture in the absence of APC, those effector cells become rested expressing a phenotype similar to memory cells (CD44 hi, CD62L lo, CD45RB lo and CD25-). These rested effector cells were adaptively transferred into thymectomized, lethally irradiated, and T cell depleted bone marrow reconstituted mice and memory cells were isolated after 4-12 weeks by flow sort. Generation and purification of Th1 and Th2 effector and memory CD4+ T cells of 42 samples.
Project description:Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) offers realistic prospects for the treatment of allergic diseases, including allergic asthma. Much is understood of the behavior of naive T cells in response to PIT. However, treatment of patients with ongoing allergic disease requires detailed understanding of the responses of allergen-experienced T cells. CD62L expression by allergen-experienced T cells corresponds to effector/effector memory (CD62L(lo)) and central memory (CD62L(hi)) subsets, which vary with allergen exposure (e.g., during, or out with, pollen season). The efficacy of PIT on different T helper 2 (Th2) cell memory populations is unknown. We developed a murine model of PIT in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) driven by adoptively transferred, traceable ovalbumin-experienced Th2 cells. PIT effectively suppressed AAI driven by unfractionated Th2 cells. Selective transfer of CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) Th2 cells revealed that these two populations behaved differently from one another and from previously characterized (early deletional) responses of naive CD4(+) T cells to PIT. Most notably, allergen-reactive CD62L(lo) Th2 cells were long-lived within the lung after PIT, before allergen challenge, in contrast to CD62L(hi) Th2 cells. Despite this, PIT was most potent against CD62L(lo) Th2 cells in protecting from AAI, impairing their ability to produce Th2 cytokines, whereas this capacity was heightened in PIT-treated CD62L(hi) Th2 cells. We conclude that Th2 cells do not undergo an early deletional form of tolerance after PIT. Moreover, memory Th2 subsets respond differently to PIT. These findings have implications for the clinical translation of PIT in different allergic scenarios.
Project description:The majority of highly activated CD4 T cell effectors die after antigen clearance, but a small number revert to a resting state, becoming memory cells with unique functional attributes. It is currently unclear when after antigen clearance effectors return to rest and acquire important memory properties. We follow well-defined cohorts of CD4 T cells through the effector-to-memory transition by analyzing phenotype, important functional properties, and gene expression profiles. We find that the transition from effector to memory is rapid in that effectors rested for only 3 d closely resemble canonical memory cells rested for 60 d or longer in the absence of antigen. This is true for both Th1 and Th2 lineages, and occurs whether CD4 T cell effectors rest in vivo or in vitro, suggesting a default pathway. We find that the effector-memory transition at the level of gene expression occurs in two stages: a rapid loss of expression of a myriad of effector-associated genes, and a more gradual gain of expression of a cohort of genes uniquely associated with memory cells rested for extended periods.
Project description:The pathways for differentiation of human CD4(+) T cells into functionally distinct subsets of memory cells in vivo are unknown. The identification of these subsets and pathways has clear implications for the design of vaccines and immune-targeted therapies. Here, we show that populations of apparently naive CD4(+) T cells express the chemokine receptors CXCR3 or CCR4 and demonstrate patterns of gene expression and functional responses characteristic of memory cells. The proliferation history and T cell receptor repertoire of these chemokine-receptor(+) cells suggest that they are very early memory CD4(+) T cells that have "rested down" before acquiring the phenotypes described for "central" or "effector" memory T cells. In addition, the chemokine-receptor(+) "naive" populations contain Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, demonstrating that Th1/Th2 differentiation can occur very early in vivo in the absence of markers conventionally associated with memory cells. We localized ligands for CXCR3 and CCR4 to separate foci in T cell zones of tonsil, suggesting that the chemokine-receptor(+) subsets may be recruited and contribute to segregated, polarized microenvironments within lymphoid organs. Importantly, our data suggest that CD4(+) T cells do not differentiate according to a simple schema from naive --> CD45RO(+) noneffector/central memory --> effector/effector memory cells. Rather, developmental pathways branch early on to yield effector/memory populations that are highly heterogeneous and multifunctional and have the potential to become stable resting cells.
Project description:Trascriptional analysis of CD2 hi and CD25 lo CD4+ effector T cells during acute viral infection. SMARTA cells were transferred into B6 mice, followed by infection with LCMV. At day 5 post-infection, CD25 hi and CD25 lo SMARTA cells were isolated from the spleen by FACS. Consistent with our prior studies showing that CD25 lo early effector cells give rise to both Tfh effector cells and memory T cells, we observed gene expression in the CD25 lo population consistent with Tfh differentiation. Conversely, CD25 hi effector cells expressed markers consistent with Th1 differentiation and short-term survival. Overall design: mRNA profiles of monoclonal transgenic CD4+ T cells with divergent CD25 surface expression 5 days post LCMV infection in mice
Project description:The rapid recall of influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function is protective, although our understanding of T cell memory remains incomplete. Recent debate has focused particularly on the CD62L lymph node homing receptor. The present analysis shows that although functional memory can be established from both CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) CD8(+) T cell subsets soon after initial encounter between naïve precursors and antigen, the optimal precursors are CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD25(lo) immune lymphocytes isolated from draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 after influenza virus infection. Analysis of primed T cells at different times after challenge indicates that the capacity to transfer memory is diminished at the peak of the primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, challenging speculations that the transition to memory first requires full differentiation to effector status. It seems that location rather than CD62Lhi/lo phenotype may be the more profitable focus for further dissection of the early establishment of T cell memory.
Project description:Protection against malaria often decays in the absence of infection, suggesting that protective immunological memory depends on stimulation. Here we have used CD4(+) T cells from a transgenic mouse carrying a T cell receptor specific for a malaria protein, Merozoite Surface Protein-1, to investigate memory in a Plasmodium chabaudi infection. CD4(+) memory T cells (CD44(hi)IL-7R?(+)) developed during the chronic infection, and were readily distinguishable from effector (CD62L(lo)IL-7R?(-)) cells in acute infection. On the basis of cell surface phenotype, we classified memory CD4(+) T cells into three subsets: central memory, and early and late effector memory cells, and found that early effector memory cells (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) dominated the chronic infection. We demonstrate a linear pathway of differentiation from central memory to early and then late effector memory cells. In adoptive transfer, CD44(hi) memory cells from chronically infected mice were more effective at delaying and reducing parasitemia and pathology than memory cells from drug-treated mice without chronic infection, and contained a greater proportion of effector cells producing IFN-? and TNF?, which may have contributed to the enhanced protection. These findings may explain the observation that in humans with chronic malaria, activated effector memory cells are best maintained in conditions of repeated exposure.
Project description:CD4 T cells orchestrate immunity against blood-stage malaria. However, a major challenge in designing vaccines to the disease is poor understanding of the requirements for the generation of protective memory T cells (Tmem) from responding effector T cells (Teff) in chronic parasite infection. In this study, we use a transgenic mouse model with T cells specific for the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 of Plasmodium chabaudi to show that activated T cells generate three distinct Teff subsets with progressive activation phenotypes. The earliest observed Teff subsets (CD127(-)CD62L(hi)CD27(+)) are less divided than CD62L(lo) Teff and express memory genes. Intermediate (CD62L(lo)CD27(+)) effector subsets include the most multicytokine-producing T cells, whereas fully activated (CD62L(lo)CD27(-)) late effector cells have a terminal Teff phenotype (PD-1(+), Fas(hi), AnnexinV(+)). We show that although IL-2 promotes expansion, it actually slows terminal effector differentiation. Using adoptive transfer, we show that only early Teff survive the contraction phase and generate the terminal late Teff subsets, whereas in uninfected recipients, they become both central and effector Tmem. Furthermore, we show that progression toward full Teff activation is promoted by increased duration of infection, which in the long-term promotes Tem differentiation. Therefore, we have defined markers of progressive activation of CD4 Teff at the peak of malaria infection, including a subset that survives the contraction phase to make Tmem, and show that Ag and cytokine levels during CD4 T cell expansion influence the proportion of activated cells that can survive contraction and generate memory in malaria infection.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4(+) T cells, dramatically accumulate with age in humans and mice and contribute to age-related immune suppression. Recently, we showed that a majority of accumulating Tregs in aged mice expressed low levels of CD25, and their accrual is associated with declining levels of IL-2 in aged mice. In this study, we further investigated the origin of CD25(lo) Tregs in aged mice. First, aged Tregs had high expression of neuropilin-1 and Helios, and had a broad Vβ repertoire. Next, we analyzed the gene expression profile of Tregs, naive T cells, and memory T cells in aged mice. We found that the gene expression profile of aged CD25(lo) Tregs were more related to young CD25(lo) Tregs than to either naive or memory T cells. Further, the gene expression profile of aged Tregs was consistent with recently described "effector" Tregs (eTregs). Additional analysis revealed that nearly all Tregs in aged mice were of an effector phenotype (CD44(hi)CD62L(lo)) and could be further characterized by high levels of ICOS and CD69. ICOS contributed to Treg maintenance in aged mice, because in vivo Ab blockade of ICOSL led to a loss of eTregs, and this loss was rescued in Bim-deficient mice. Further, serum levels of IL-6 increased with age and contributed to elevated expression of ICOS on aged Tregs. Finally, Treg accrual was significantly blunted in aged IL-6-deficient mice. Together, our data show a role for IL-6 in promoting eTreg accrual with age likely through maintenance of ICOS expression.
Project description:Primary and secondary (boosted) memory CD8 T cells exhibit differences in gene expression, phenotype and function. The impact of repeated antigen stimulations on memory CD4 T cells is largely unknown. To address this issue, we utilized LCMV and Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice to characterize primary and secondary antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 CD4 T cell responses. Ag-specific primary memory CD4 T cells display a CD62L(lo)CCR7(hi) CD27(hi) CD127(hi) phenotype and are polyfunctional (most produce IFN?, TNF? and IL-2). Following homologous prime-boost immunization we observed pathogen-specific differences in the rate of CD62L and CCR7 upregulation on memory CD4 T cells as well as in IL-2+IFN?co-production by secondary effectors. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of memory Th1 cells was observed following heterologous prime-boost immunization, wherein secondary memory CD4 T cells acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics dictated by the boosting agent rather than the primary immunizing agent. Our data also demonstrate that secondary memory Th1 cells accelerated neutralizing Ab formation in response to LCMV infection, suggesting enhanced capacity of this population to provide quality help for antibody production. Collectively these data have important implications for prime-boost vaccination strategies that seek to enhance protective immune responses mediated by Th1 CD4 T cell responses.