Proteomic analysis reveals a role for PAX8 in high grade serous ovarian cancer metastasis that can be targeted with micelle encapsulated thiostrepton
ABSTRACT: We used proteomic and transcriptomic analysis to examine the role of PAX8 leading to increased migratory capabilities in a human ovarian cancer model as well as in tumor models derived from the OSE and FTE.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women yet effective targeted therapies against this disease are limited. The heterogeneity of HGSOC, including few shared oncogenic drivers and origination from both the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), has hampered development of targeted drug therapies. PAX8 is a lineage-specific transcription factor expressed in the FTE that is also ubiquitously expressed in HGSOC where it is an important driver of proliferation, migration, and cell survival. PAX8 is not normally expressed in the OSE, but it is turned on after malignant transformation. In this study, we use proteomic and transcriptomic analysis to examine the role of PAX8 leading to increased migratory capabilities in a human ovarian cancer model, as well as in tumor models derived from the OSE and FTE. We find that PAX8 is a master regulator of migration with unique downstream transcriptional targets that are dependent on the cell's site of origin. Importantly, we show that targeting PAX8, either through CRISPR genomic alteration or through drug treatment with micelle encapsulated thiostrepton, leads to a reduction in tumor burden. These findings suggest PAX8 is a unifying protein driving metastasis in ovarian tumors that could be developed as an effective drug target to treat HGSOC derived from both the OSE and FTE.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of morbidity/mortality from gynecologic malignancy. Early detection of disease is difficult due to the propensity for ovarian cancer to disseminate throughout the peritoneum. Currently, there is no single accurate test to detect primary or recurrent ovarian cancer. We report a novel clinical strategy using PPF: a multimodal, PET and optical, folate receptor (FR)-targeted agent for ovarian cancer imaging. The capabilities of PPF were evaluated in primary human ovarian cancer cells, in vivo xenografts derived from primary cells and ex vivo patient omemtum, as the heterogeneity and phenotype displayed by patients is retained. Primary cells uptake PPF in a FR-dependent manner demonstrating approximately a 5- to 25-fold increase in fluorescence. By both PET and fluorescence imaging, PPF specifically delineated FR-positive, ovarian cancer xenografts, with similar tumor-to-background ratios of 8.91±0.91 and 7.94±3.94, and micro-metastatic studding (<1mm), which demonstrated a 3.5-fold increase in PPF uptake over adjacent normal tissue. Ex vivo patient omentum demonstrated selective uptake of PFF by tumor deposits. The ability of PPF to identify metastatic deposits <1mm could facilitate more complete debulking (currently, optimal debulking is <10mm residual tumor), by providing a more sensitive imaging strategy improving treatment planning, response assessment and residual/recurrent disease detection. Therefore, PPF is a novel clinical imaging strategy that could substantially improve the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer by allowing pre-, post- and intra-operative tumor monitoring, detection and possibly treatment throughout all stages of therapy and tumor progression.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian cancer is one of the deadliest gynecological malignancies and remains a clinical challenge. There is a critical need to effectively define patient stratification in a clinical setting. In this study, we address this question and determine the optimal number of molecular subgroups for ovarian cancer patients. By studying several independent patient cohorts, we observed that classifying high-grade serous ovarian tumors into four molecular subgroups using a transcriptomic-based approach did not reproducibly predict patient survival. In contrast, classifying these tumors into only two molecular subgroups, fibrosis and non-fibrosis, could reliably inform on patient survival. In addition, we found complementarity between transcriptomic data and the genomic signature for homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) that helped in defining prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. We also established that the transcriptomic and genomic signatures underlined independent biological processes and defined four different risk populations. Thus, combining genomic and transcriptomic information appears as the most appropriate stratification method to reliably subgroup high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. This method can easily be transferred into the clinical setting.
Project description:Among female-specific cancers worldwide, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the western world. Despite radical surgery and initial high response rates to first-line chemotherapy, up to 70% of patients experience relapses with a median progression-free survival of 12-18 months. There remains an urgent need for novel targeted therapies to improve clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer. This review aims to assess current understanding of targeted therapy in ovarian cancer and evaluate the evidence for targeting growth-dependent mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Of the many targeted therapies currently under evaluation, the most promising strategies developed thus far are antiangiogenic agents and PARP inhibitors.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is a type of gynecological cancer with the highest mortality rate worldwide. Due to a lack of effective screening methods, most cases are diagnosed at later stages where the survival rates are poor. Thus, it is termed a 'silent killer' and is the most lethal of all the malignancies in women. IQ motif containing GTPase Activating Protein 3 (IQGAP3) is a member of the Rho family of GTPases, and plays a crucial role in the development and progression of several types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the oncogenic functions and mechanisms of IQGAP3 on the proliferation and metastasis of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Therefore, the expression levels of IQGAP3 in HGSOC and normal tissue samples were compared, and IQGAP3 knockdown was performed to examine its functional role using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. It was demonstrated that the expression of IQGAP3 was upregulated in HGSOC tissues compared with the healthy tissues; this differential expression was also observed in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Functional experimental results suggested that IQGAP3 silencing significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, in vivo experimental findings validated the in vitro results, where the tumorigenic and metastatic capacities of IQGAP3-silenced cells were significantly lower in the nude mice compared with the mice implanted with the control cells. Furthermore, knockdown of IQGAP3 resulted in increased apoptosis, and the effects of IQGAP3 expression on various epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers were identified, suggesting a possible mechanism associated with the role of IQGAP3 in metastasis. The effect of IQGAP3 silencing on chemosensitivity towards olaparib was also assessed. Collectively, the present results indicated that IQGAP3 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker, and a putative therapeutic target of HGSOC.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer. The high rate of mortality is due to the large tumor burden with extensive metastatic lesion of the abdominal cavity. Despite initial chemosensitivity and improved surgical procedures, abdominal recurrence remains an issue and results in patients' poor prognosis. Transcriptomic and genetic studies have revealed significant genome pathologies in the primary tumors and yielded important information regarding carcinogenesis. There are, however, few studies on genetic alterations and their consequences in peritoneal metastatic tumors when compared to their matched ovarian primary tumors. We used high-density SNP arrays to investigate copy number variations in matched primary and metastatic ovarian cancer from 9 patients. Here we show that copy number variations acquired by ovarian tumors are significantly different between matched primary and metastatic tumors and these are likely due to different functional requirements. We show that these copy number variations clearly differentially affect specific pathways including the JAK/STAT and cytokine signaling pathways. While many have shown complex involvement of cytokines in the ovarian cancer environment we provide evidence that ovarian tumors have specific copy number variation differences in many of these genes.
Project description:Cancer cells require glucose to support their rapid growth through a process known as aerobic glycolysis, or the Warburg effect. As in ovarian cancer cells, increased metabolic activity and glucose concentration has been linked to aggressiveness of cancer. However, it is unclear as to whether targeting the glycolytic pathway may kill the malignant cells and likely have broad therapeutic implications against ovarian cancer metastasis. In the present research, we found that EF24, a HIF-1? inhibitor, could significantly block glucose uptake, the rate of glycolysis, and lactate production compared with vehicle treatment in SKOV-3, A2780 and OVCAR-3 cells. These results might possibly contribute to the further observation that EF24 could inhibit ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion from wound healing and Transwell assays. Furthermore, as an important mediator of glucose metabolism, glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) was found to contribute to the function of EF24 in both energy metabolism and metastasis. To examine the effect of EF24 and the mediated role of Glut1 in vivo in a xenograph subcutaneous tumor model, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis model were introduced. Our results indicated that EF24 treatment could inhibit tumor growth, intraperitoneal metastasis and lung metastasis of SKOV-3 cells, and Glut1 is a possible mediator for the role of EF24. In conclusion, our results highlight that an anti-cancer reagent with an inhibiting effect on energy metabolism could inhibit metastasis, and EF24 is a possible candidate for anti-metastasis therapeutic applications for ovarian cancer.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most lethal type of gynecologic malignancy. Chemoresistance is the main reason for the poor prognosis of HGSOC. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) promotes the malignant progression of various carcinomas. However, the roles and clinical significance of PBK in HGSOC remain unclear. Here, we reported that PBK was overexpressed in HGSOC tissues and cell lines. High PBK expression was associated with a poor prognosis, metastasis, and cisplatin resistance of HGSOC. Overexpression of PBK promoted autophagy and enhanced cisplatin resistance via the ERK/mTOR signaling pathway. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 reversed PBK-induced cisplatin resistance. Overexpression of PBK decreased ovarian cancer responsiveness to cisplatin treatment through inducing autophagy in vivo. We also demonstrated that the PBK inhibitor OTS514 augmented the growth inhibition effect of cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI1) could regulate PBK expression through directly targeting the PBK promoter region. In conclusion, high PBK expression was correlated with a poor prognosis, metastasis, and cisplatin resistance through promoting autophagy in HGSOC. PBK might be a promising target for the early diagnosis and individual treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer due to late diagnosis at advanced stage with major peritoneal involvement. To date most research has focused on primary tumor. However the prognosis is directly related to residual disease at the end of the treatment. Therefore it is mandatory to focus and study the biology of metastatic disease that is most frequently localized to the peritoneal cavity in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We used high-density gene expression arrays to investigate gene expression changes between matched primary and metastatic (peritoneal) lesions. RESULTS: Here we show that gene expression profiles in peritoneal metastasis are significantly different than their matched primary tumor and these changes are affected by underlying copy number variation differences among other causes. We show that differentially expressed genes are enriched in specific pathways including JAK/STAT pathway, cytokine signaling and other immune related pathways. We show that underlying copy number variations significantly affect gene expression. Indeed patients with important differences in copy number variation displayed greater gene expression differences between their primary and matched metastatic lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows a very specific targeting at both the genomic and transcriptomic level to upregulate certain pathways in the peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Moreover, while primary tumors use certain pathways we identify distinct differences with metastatic lesions. The variation between primary and metastatic lesions should be considered in personalized treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Ovarian and uterine serous cancers are extremely lethal diseases that often present at an advanced stage. The late-stage diagnosis of these patients results in the metastasis of their cancers throughout the peritoneal cavity leading to death. Improving survival for these patients will require identifying therapeutic targets, strategies to target them, and means to deliver therapies to the tumors. One therapeutic target is the protein AXL, which has been shown to be involved in metastasis in both ovarian and uterine cancer. An effective way to target AXL is to silence its expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). We investigate the ability of the novel siRNA delivery platform, p5RHH, to deliver anti-AXL siRNA (siAXL) to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo as well as examine the phenotypic effects of this siRNA interference. First, we present in vitro assays showing p5RHH-siAXL treatment reduces invasion and migration ability of ovarian and uterine cancer cells. Second, we show p5RHH nanoparticles target to tumor cells in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate p5RHH-siAXL treatment reduces metastasis in a uterine cancer mouse xenograft model, without causing an obvious toxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that this novel therapy shows promise in the treatment of ovarian and uterine cancer patients.