Metabolomic Analysis of plasma samples from Non-Allergic Subjects and Profilin-Allergic Patients overexposed to Grass Pollen
ABSTRACT: Prevalence and severity of allergic diseases have increased worldwide. To date, respiratory allergy phenotypes are not fully characterized and, along with inflammation progression, treatment is increasingly complex and expensive. Profilin sensitization constitutes a good model to study the progression of allergic inflammation. Our aim was to identify the underlying mechanisms and the associated biomarkers of this progression, focusing on severe phenotypes, using transcriptomics and metabolomics. Methods: 25 subjects were included in the study. Plasma samples were analyzed using Gas and Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively). Individuals were classified in 4 groups – “non-allergic”, “mild”, “moderate” and “severe” – based on their clinical history, their response to an oral challenge test with profilin, and after a refinement using a mathematical metabolomic model. PBMCs were used for microarray analysis.
Project description:Prevalence and severity of allergic diseases have increased worldwide. To date, respiratory allergy phenotypes are not fully characterized and, along with inflammation progression, treatment is increasingly complex and expensive. Profilin sensitization constitutes a good model to study the progression of allergic inflammation. We have used microarrays to understand the underlying mechanisms of severe profilin-mediated reactions using a model that includes patients with different levels of sensitization to profilin (non-allergic, mild, moderate and severe) Overall design: Our aim was to identify the underlying mechanisms and the associated biomarkers of allergic progression, focusing on severe phenotypes, using microarrays.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Pediatric asthma is heterogeneous with phenotypes that reflect differing underlying inflammation and pathophysiology. Little is known about the national prevalence of certain obesity- and allergy-related asthma phenotypes or associated characteristics. We therefore assessed the national prevalence, risk factors, and caregiver-reported severity of four asthma phenotypes: not-allergic-not-obese, allergic-not-obese, obese-not-allergic, and allergic-and-obese. METHODS:We analyzed data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) of 10-17 year-olds with caregiver-reported asthma. We described sociodemographic and health risk factors of each phenotype and then applied logistic and ordinal regression models to identify associated risk factors and level of severity of the phenotypes. RESULTS:Among 4427 children with asthma in this NSCH cohort, the association between race and phenotype was statistically significant (p < 0.0001); white children with asthma were most likely to have allergic-not-obese asthma while black and Hispanic children with asthma were most likely to have the obese-nonallergic phenotype (p < 0.001). Attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was more likely to be present in allergic-not-obese children (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.98, p = 0.004). The phenotype with the highest risk for more severe compared to mild asthma was the obese-and-allergic asthma phenotype (OR 3.34, CI 2.23-5.01, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Allergic-not-obese asthma comprised half of our studied asthma phenotypes, while obesity-related asthma (with or without allergic components) comprised one-fifth of asthma phenotypes in this cohort representative of the US population. Children with both obese and allergic asthma are most likely to have severe asthma. Future management of childhood asthma might consider more tailoring of treatment and management plans based upon different childhood asthma phenotypes.
Project description:The transition from mild to severe allergic phenotypes is still poorly understood and there is an urgent need of incorporating new therapies, accompanied by personalized diagnosis approaches. This work presents the development of a novel targeted metabolomic methodology for the analysis of 36 metabolites related to allergic inflammation, including mostly sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, amino acids, and those of energy metabolism previously identified in non-targeted studies. The methodology consisted of two complementary chromatography methods, HILIC and reversed-phase. These were developed using liquid chromatography, coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS) in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) acquisition mode and were validated using ICH guidelines. Serum samples from two clinical models of allergic asthma patients were used for method application, which were as follows: (1) corticosteroid-controlled (ICS, <i>n</i> = 6) versus uncontrolled (UC, <i>n</i> = 4) patients, and immunotherapy-controlled (IT, <i>n</i> = 23) versus biologicals-controlled (BIO, <i>n</i> = 12) patients. The results showed significant differences mainly in lysophospholipids using univariate analyses in both models. Multivariate analysis for model 1 was able to distinguish both groups, while for model 2, the results showed the correct classification of all BIO samples within their group. Thus, this methodology can be of great importance for further understanding the role of these metabolites in allergic diseases as potential biomarkers for disease severity and for predicting patient treatment response.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>TGF-? is an important mediator of pulmonary allergic inflammation, and it has been recently reported to be a potential inhibitor of lung tumor progression. The correlation between cancer and allergic inflammatory diseases remains controversial. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pulmonary allergic inflammation and in particular the role of TGF-? on cancer progression.<h4>Methods</h4>Cancer cells were implanted in a BALB/c mice model of allergic airway inflammation, and tumor growth was measured. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay, and TGF-? was measured by ELISA. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TGF-?, TGF-? receptors I and II, phospho-Smad2 and phospho-Smad4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantified using digital pathology. The effect of a TGF-? activity inhibitor and recombinant TGF-? on tumor growth was analyzed. The effect of exogenous TGF-? on cell proliferation and apoptosis was evaluated in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>Mice with allergic airway inflammation exhibited decreased tumor volumes due to cell proliferation inhibition and increased apoptosis. TGF-? was increased in the sera and tumor tissues of allergic mice. TGF-? activity inhibition increased tumor progression in allergic mice by enhancing proliferation and decreasing apoptosis of tumor cells. The administration of TGF-? resulted in reduced tumor growth.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study is the first to establish an inverse relationship between allergic airway inflammation and tumor progression. This effect appears to be mediated by TGF-?, which is overexpressed in tumor cells during pulmonary allergic inflammation. This study indicates that TGF-? is a potential target for antitumor therapy.
Project description:IgE-primed mast cells in peripheral tissues, including the skin, lung, and intestine, are key initiators of allergen-triggered edema and inflammation. Particularly in severe forms of allergy, this inflammation becomes strongly neutrophil dominated, and yet how mast cells coordinate this type of response is unknown. We and others have reported that activated mast cells--a hematopoietic cell type--can produce IL-33, a cytokine known to participate in allergic responses but generally considered as being of epithelial origin and driving Type 2 immune responses (e.g., ILC2 and eosinophil activation). Using models of skin anaphylaxis, our data reveal that mast cell-derived IL-33 also initiates neutrophilic inflammation. We demonstrate a cellular crosstalk mechanism whereby activated mast cells crosstalk to IL-33 receptor-bearing basophils, driving these basophils to adopt a unique response signature rich in neutrophil-associated molecules. We further establish that basophil expression of CXCL1 is necessary for IgE-driven neutrophilic inflammation. Our findings thus unearth a new mechanism by which mast cells initiate local inflammation after antigen triggering and might explain the complex inflammatory phenotypes observed in severe allergic diseases. Moreover, our findings (i) establish a functional link from IL-33 to neutrophilic inflammation that extends IL-33-mediated biology well beyond that of Type 2 immunity, and (ii) demonstrate the functional importance of hematopoietic cell-derived IL-33 in allergic pathogenesis.
Project description:Allergic inflammation triggered by exposure of an allergen frequently leads to the onset of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and bronchial asthma. The mechanisms underlying chronicity in allergic inflammation remain unresolved. Periostin, a recently characterized matricellular protein, interacts with several cell surface integrin molecules, providing signals for tissue development and remodeling. Here we show that periostin is a critical mediator for the amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation using a mouse model of skin inflammation. Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 stimulated fibroblasts to produce periostin, which interacted with ?v integrin, a functional periostin receptor on keratinocytes, inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines, which consequently accelerated Th2-type immune responses. Accordingly, inhibition of periostin or ?v integrin prevented the development or progression of allergen-induced skin inflammation. Thus, periostin sets up a vicious circle that links Th2-type immune responses to keratinocyte activation and plays a critical role in the amplification and chronicity of allergic skin inflammation.
Project description:Alternatively activated (M2 or YM1+) macrophages have been associated with the development of asthma but their contribution to disease initiation and progression remains unclear. To assess the therapeutic potential of modulating these M2 macrophages, we have studied inhibition of M2 polarisation during and after development of allergic lung inflammation by treating with cynaropicrin, a galectin-3 pathway inhibitor. Mice that were treated with this inhibitor of M2 polarisation during induction of allergic inflammation developed less severe eosinophilic lung inflammation and less collagen deposition around airways, while the airway ?-smooth muscle actin layer was unaffected. When we treated with cynaropicrin after induction of inflammation, eosinophilic lung inflammation and collagen deposition were also inhibited though to a lesser extent. Unexpectedly, both during and after induction of allergic inflammation, inhibition of M2 polarisation resulted in a shift towards neutrophilic inflammation. Moreover, airway hyperresponsiveness was worse in mice treated with cynaropicrin as compared to allergic mice without inhibitor. These results show that M2 macrophages are associated with remodeling and development of eosinophilic lung inflammation, but prevent development of neutrophilic lung inflammation and worsening of airway hyperresponsiveness. This study suggests that macrophages contribute to determining development of eosinophilic or neutrophilic lung inflammation in asthma.
Project description:Platelet activation is associated with multiple immune responses and the pathogenesis of various immune-related diseases. However, the exact role and the underlying mechanism of platelets in the progression of allergic asthma remain largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that during antigen sensitization, platelets can be activated by ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol via the upregulation of CD154 (CD40L) expression. Platelet transfer promoted allergic asthma progression by inducing more severe leukocyte infiltration and lung inflammation, elevated IgE production and strengthened T helper 2 (Th2) responses in asthma-induced mice. Accordingly, platelet depletion compromised allergic asthma progression. Cd154-deficient platelets failed to promote asthma development, indicating the requirement of CD154 for platelets to promote asthma progression. The mechanistic study showed that platelets inhibited the induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells both in vivo and in vitro at least partially through CD154, providing an explanation for the increase of Th2 responses by platelet transfer. Our study reveals the previously unknown role of platelet CD154 in the promotion of asthma progression by polarizing Th2 responses and inhibiting regulatory T-cell generation and thus provides a potential clue for allergic disease interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current biologic therapies target allergic, eosinophilic or type 2 inflammation phenotypic asthma. However, frequency and degree of overlap among these subtypes is unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>To characterize overlap among allergic, eosinophilic and type 2 asthma phenotypes.<h4>Methods</h4>Post hoc analyses of baseline data were performed in two adult populations: (a) not selected for any asthma subtype (N = 935) and (b) selected for allergic asthma (N = 1049). Degree of overlap was examined using commonly accepted phenotypic definitions to guide treatment for allergic asthma (skin prick-positive and/or positive serum-specific immunoglobulin E > 0.35 kU/L) and eosinophilic asthma (blood eosinophil high count ≥ 300 cells/µL; low cut-off ≥ 150 cells/µL). Consistent with previous studies, fractional exhaled nitric oxide high level of ≥ 35 ppb and low cut-off of ≥ 25 ppb were selected as local markers of type 2 inflammation and to prevent overlap with the systemic eosinophilic asthma definition.<h4>Results</h4>In the non-subtype-selected population, 78.0% had allergic asthma; of these, 39.5% had eosinophilic asthma and 29.5% had type 2 asthma. Within patients with eosinophilic asthma (40.6% of total), 75.8% had allergic asthma and 41.3% had type 2 asthma. Within patients with type 2 asthma (28.3% of total), 81.1% had allergic asthma and 59.2% had eosinophilic asthma. In the allergic asthma-selected population, 38.3% had eosinophilic asthma and 29.2% had type 2 asthma. Within patients with eosinophilic asthma, 46.3% had type 2 asthma. Within patients with type 2 asthma, 60.8% had eosinophilic asthma. Overlaps among subtypes increased at low cut-off values.<h4>Conclusions and clinical relevance</h4>In this post hoc analysis in adults with moderate-to-severe asthma, allergic asthma was the most prevalent phenotype, followed by eosinophilic and type 2 asthma. Despite observed overlaps, a considerable proportion of patients had only a predominantly allergic subtype. Understanding the degree of overlap across phenotypes will help patient management and guide treatment options.
Project description:Although keratinocyte-derived neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) mediates the proinflammatory effects of innate-type mast cell activation, no information is available on the physiological roles. Here, to investigate the effects of NMU on IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation, we determined whether IgE-mediated inflammation associated with severe scratching was induced in Nmu-/- mice administered repeated hapten applications to the ear or footpad. Dry skin was induced by targeted deletion of Nmu. Mice administered repeated hapten application developed IgE-mediated allergic inflammation characterized by severe scratching and increased serum IgE levels only when the ear, and not the footpad, was subjected to scratching, indicating that depletion of NMU from the epidermis alone does not drive such allergic inflammation. Thus, the susceptibility of Nmu-/- mice to allergic inflammation depends primarily on scratching dry skin. Further, allergic skin inflammation mediated by FcεRI cross-linking in Nmu-/-mice was inhibited by prior injection of NMU. These results indicate that NMU plays an important physiological role as a negative regulator during the late stage of IgE-mediated allergic skin inflammation.